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1.
Curr Biol ; 30(19): R1124-R1130, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022254

RESUMO

Since the first recognition that infectious microbes serve as the causes of many human diseases, physicians and scientists have sought to understand and control their spread. For the past 150+ years, these 'microbe hunters' have learned to combine epidemiological information with knowledge of the infectious agent(s). In this essay, I reflect on the evolution of microbe hunting, beginning with the history of pre-germ theory epidemiological studies, through the microbiological and molecular eras. Now in the genomic age, modern-day microbe hunters are combining pathogen whole-genome sequencing with epidemiological data to enhance epidemiological investigations, advance our understanding of the natural history of pathogens and drivers of disease, and ultimately reshape our plans and priorities for global disease control and eradication. Indeed, as we have seen during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the role of microbe hunters is now more important than ever. Despite the advances already made by microbial genomic epidemiology, the field is still maturing, with many more exciting developments on the horizon.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 359-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959802

RESUMO

Current literature shows that secondary bacterial infections, although less frequent than in previous influenza pandemics, affect COVID-19 patients. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and Klebsiella spp. are the main species isolated. Of note, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-COVID-19 coinfections are also reported. However, bacterial coinfection rates increase in patients admitted in the intensive care units, and those diseases can be due to super-infections by nosocomial antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This highlights the urgency to revise frequent and empiric prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in COVID-19 patients, with more attention to evidence-based studies and respect for the antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7777-7785, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780290

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, is the main pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects much more people, especially the elder population, around the world than other coronavirus, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is challenging current global public health system. Beyond the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, microbial coinfection plays an important role in the occurrence and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the difficulties of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of COVID-19, and even increasing the disease symptom and mortality. We summarize the coinfection of virus, bacteria and fungi with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on COVID-19, the reasons of coinfection, and the diagnosis to emphasize the importance of microbial coinfection in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Microbial coinfection is a nonnegligible factor in COVID-19. • Microbial coinfection exacerbates the processes of the occurrence, development and prognosis of COVID-19, and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis and treatment. • Different virus, bacteria, and fungi contributed to the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/microbiologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/microbiologia , Viroses/virologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008381, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804954

RESUMO

The world's most consequential pathogens occur in regions with the fewest diagnostic resources, leaving the true burden of these diseases largely under-represented. During a prospective observational study of sepsis in Takeo Province Cambodia, we enrolled 200 patients over an 18-month period. By coupling traditional diagnostic methods such as culture, serology, and PCR to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and advanced statistical analyses, we successfully identified a pathogenic cause in 46.5% of our cohort. In all, we detected 25 infectious agents in 93 patients, including severe threat pathogens such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and viral pathogens such as Dengue virus. Approximately half of our cohort remained undiagnosed; however, an independent panel of clinical adjudicators determined that 81% of those patients had infectious causes of their hospitalization, further underscoring the difficulty of diagnosing severe infections in resource-limited settings. We garnered greater insight as to the clinical features of severe infection in Cambodia through analysis of a robust set of clinical data.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Testes Sorológicos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal infections are a common cause of death in India, but many families cannot access appropriate hospitals for its treatment due to various reasons. We implemented the World Health Organization PSBI management guideline when referral is not feasible within the public health system in Pune, India to evaluate feasibility, barriers and facilitators for its implementation. METHODS: A national-level consultative meeting between government officials and study partners resulted in a consensus on adaptation and implementation in four demonstration sites in selected states in India. At the state and district levels, similar meetings to plan the implementation strategy and roles were held between KEM Hospital Research Centre (KEMHRC) Pune and the public health system Pune, Maharashtra. The public health system was responsible for implementation of the intervention at eight tribal primary health centres (PHC) in Pune district, India, including delivering the intervention and ensuring supplies of all commodities while KEMHRC was responsible for technical support including training of health workers, assistance in PSBI identification and management, data collection and documentation of the implementation strategy. RESULTS: A total of 175 young infants with PSBI were identified and managed. Of these, 34 had critical illness (CI), 46 had clinical severe infection (CSI) and 10 were infants aged 0-6 days with fast breathing (FB) while 85 infants aged 7-59 days had fast breathing. Assuming a 10% incidence of PSBI among all live births, with 3071 live births recorded, the actual incidence of PSBI found in the study was 5.7%, resulting in an actual coverage was of 57%. Among the 90 infants with CI, CSI and FB in 0-6 days, who were advised referral to government tertiary care centre as per the PSBI guideline algorithm, 81 (90%) accepted referral while 9 (10%) refused and were offered treatment at primary health centres (PHC) with a seven-day course of injectable gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. All infants with FB in 7-59 days were offered treatment at PHCs as per the PSBI guideline algorithm with a seven-day course of oral amoxicillin. All except six infants who died and one with FB in 7-59 days, who was lost to follow-up, were successfully cured. Of the six who died, five had CSI and one had CI. Among the 81 infants with CI, CSI and FB in 0-6 days who accepted referral; 48(53%) were successfully referred to government tertiary facility while 33 (36.6%) preferred to visit a private tertiary health facility. The implementation strategy demonstrated a relatively high fidelity, acceptance and intervention penetration. Lack of training and confidence of the public health staff were major challenges faced, which were resolved to a large extent through supportive supervision and re-trainings. CONCLUSION: Management of PSBI is feasible to implement in out-patient facilities in the public health system, but technical support to the health system is required to jump-start the process. Fast breathing in 7-59 days old infants can be managed with oral amoxicillin without referral. A sustainable adoption of this intervention by the health system can lead to decrease in neonatal mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Infantil , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003208, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prescription rate of antibiotics is high for febrile children visiting the emergency department (ED), contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Large studies at European EDs covering diversity in antibiotic and broad-spectrum prescriptions in all febrile children are lacking. A better understanding of variability in antibiotic prescriptions in EDs and its relation with viral or bacterial disease is essential for the development and implementation of interventions to optimise antibiotic use. As part of the PERFORM (Personalised Risk assessment in Febrile illness to Optimise Real-life Management across the European Union) project, the MOFICHE (Management and Outcome of Fever in Children in Europe) study aims to investigate variation and appropriateness of antibiotic prescription in febrile children visiting EDs in Europe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 2017 and April 2018, data were prospectively collected on febrile children aged 0-18 years presenting to 12 EDs in 8 European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, Latvia, the Netherlands [n = 3], Spain, Slovenia, United Kingdom [n = 3]). These EDs were based in university hospitals (n = 9) or large teaching hospitals (n = 3). Main outcomes were (1) antibiotic prescription rate; (2) the proportion of antibiotics that were broad-spectrum antibiotics; (3) the proportion of antibiotics of appropriate indication (presumed bacterial), inappropriate indication (presumed viral), or inconclusive indication (unknown bacterial/viral or other); (4) the proportion of oral antibiotics of inappropriate duration; and (5) the proportion of antibiotics that were guideline-concordant in uncomplicated urinary and upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We determined variation of antibiotic prescription and broad-spectrum prescription by calculating standardised prescription rates using multilevel logistic regression and adjusted for general characteristics (e.g., age, sex, comorbidity, referral), disease severity (e.g., triage level, fever duration, presence of alarming signs), use and result of diagnostics, and focus and cause of infection. In this analysis of 35,650 children (median age 2.8 years, 55% male), overall antibiotic prescription rate was 31.9% (range across EDs: 22.4%-41.6%), and among those prescriptions, the broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription rate was 52.1% (range across EDs: 33.0%-90.3%). After standardisation, differences in antibiotic prescriptions ranged from 0.8 to 1.4, and the ratio between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum prescriptions ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 across EDs. Standardised antibiotic prescription rates varied for presumed bacterial infections (0.9 to 1.1), presumed viral infections (0.1 to 3.3), and infections of unknown cause (0.1 to 1.8). In all febrile children, antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate in 65.0% of prescriptions, inappropriate in 12.5% (range across EDs: 0.6%-29.3%), and inconclusive in 22.5% (range across EDs: 0.4%-60.8%). Prescriptions were of inappropriate duration in 20% of oral prescriptions (range across EDs: 4.4%-59.0%). Oral prescriptions were not concordant with the local guideline in 22.3% (range across EDs: 11.8%-47.3%) of prescriptions in uncomplicated RTIs and in 45.1% (range across EDs: 11.1%-100%) of prescriptions in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A limitation of our study is that the included EDs are not representative of all febrile children attending EDs in that country. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed wide variation between European EDs in prescriptions of antibiotics and broad-spectrum antibiotics in febrile children. Overall, one-third of prescriptions were inappropriate or inconclusive, with marked variation between EDs. Until better diagnostics are available to accurately differentiate between bacterial and viral aetiologies, implementation of antimicrobial stewardship guidelines across Europe is necessary to limit antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1395-1399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of bacterial and fungal coinfection of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in this retrospective observational study across two London hospitals during the first UK wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective case series of hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed across two acute NHS hospitals (20 February-20 April 2020; each isolate reviewed independently in parallel). This was contrasted to a control group of influenza-positive patients admitted during the 2019-2020 flu season. Patient demographics, microbiology and clinical outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 836 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included; 27 (3.2%) of 836 had early confirmed bacterial isolates identified (0-5 days after admission), rising to 51 (6.1%) of 836 throughout admission. Blood cultures, respiratory samples, pneumococcal or Legionella urinary antigens and respiratory viral PCR panels were obtained from 643 (77%), 110 (13%), 249 (30%), 246 (29%) and 250 (30%) COVID-19 patients, respectively. A positive blood culture was identified in 60 patients (7.1%), of which 39 were classified as contaminants. Bacteraemia resulting from respiratory infection was confirmed in two cases (one each community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae and ventilator-associated Enterobacter cloacae). Line-related bacteraemia was identified in six patients (three Candida, two Enterococcus spp. and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All other community-acquired bacteraemias (n = 16) were attributed to nonrespiratory infection. Zero concomitant pneumococcal, Legionella or influenza infection was detected. A low yield of positive respiratory cultures was identified; Staphylococcus aureus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated in community-acquired coinfection (4/24; 16.7%), with pseudomonas and yeast identified in late-onset infection. Invasive fungal infections (n = 3) were attributed to line-related infections. Comparable rates of positive coinfection were identified in the control group of confirmed influenza infection; clinically relevant bacteraemias (2/141; 1.4%), respiratory cultures (10/38; 26.3%) and pneumococcal-positive antigens (1/19; 5.3%) were low. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low frequency of bacterial coinfection in early COVID-19 hospital presentation, and no evidence of concomitant fungal infection, at least in the early phase of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Coinfecção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 29-36, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532935

RESUMO

We reviewed studies reporting bacterial and fungal co-infections in patients with COVID-19. The majority were retrospective studies with poor quality data biased with short follow-up and selection of patients. Septic shock was reported in 4% to 33.1% of patients. Seventy-one to 100% of patients received antibacterial treatments. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis seems to be an increasingly observed complication in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as previously reported in patients hospitalized in ICU with severe influenza. High quality prospective studies are urgently needed to verify the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections and their role on the outcome of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2719, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483195

RESUMO

National networks of laboratory-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) monitor resistance trends and disseminate these data to AMR stakeholders. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can support surveillance by pinpointing resistance mechanisms and uncovering transmission patterns. However, genomic surveillance is rare in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we implement WGS within the established Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program of the Philippines via a binational collaboration. In parallel, we characterize bacterial populations of key bug-drug combinations via a retrospective sequencing survey. By linking the resistance phenotypes to genomic data, we reveal the interplay of genetic lineages (strains), AMR mechanisms, and AMR vehicles underlying the expansion of specific resistance phenotypes that coincide with the growing carbapenem resistance rates observed since 2010. Our results enhance our understanding of the drivers of carbapenem resistance in the Philippines, while also serving as the genetic background to contextualize ongoing local prospective surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(25): 2397-2410, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death. METHODS: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Patients recruited in Ivory Coast, Uganda, Cambodia, and Vietnam were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo screening (Xpert MTB/RIF test, urinary lipoarabinomannan test, and chest radiography) to determine whether treatment for tuberculosis should be started or to receive systematic empirical treatment with rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months, followed by rifampin and isoniazid daily for 4 months. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease within 24 weeks (primary analysis) or within 48 weeks after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 522 patients in the systematic-treatment group and 525 in the guided-treatment group were included in the analyses. At week 24, the rate of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease (calculated as the number of first events per 100 patient-years) was 19.4 with systematic treatment and 20.3 with guided treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.44). At week 48, the corresponding rates were 12.8 and 13.3 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.67 to 1.40]). At week 24, the probability of tuberculosis was lower with systematic treatment than with guided treatment (3.0% vs. 17.9%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.26), but the probability of grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events was higher with systematic treatment (17.4% vs. 7.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.57; 95% CI, 1.75 to 3.78). Serious adverse events were more common with systematic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among severely immunosuppressed adults with HIV infection who had not previously received ART, systematic treatment for tuberculosis was not superior to test-guided treatment in reducing the rate of death or invasive bacterial disease over 24 or 48 weeks and was associated with more grade 3 or 4 adverse events. (Funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales; STATIS ANRS 12290 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02057796.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Carga Viral
13.
Orv Hetil ; 161(19): 797-803, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364362

RESUMO

Introduction: Anaerobes play an important etiological role in invasive infections, and may be clinically significant pathogens in bloodstream infections and septicemia, but little data are available on their true prevalence in Hungary. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the blood culture samples received at the Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, retrospectively. Method: Blood culture samples received at the Institute were analyzed over a 5-year period (01. 01. 2013-31. 12. 2017); the comparison was based on a similar study (2005-2009) conducted in the same region. Results: Between 2013 and 2017, our Institute received an average of 23,274 ± 2,756 blood culture bottles, of which an average of 10.5% were positive and 0.4% were positive for anaerobes (3.5-3.8/1000 bottles). Clinically significant anaerobic pathogens were predominantly Bacteroides fragilis group (39.9%) and Clostridium species (32.8%). Conclusion: Despite their relatively low numbers, anaerobic bacteria are considered important etiologic factors in bloodstream infections. Our results highlight the importance of modern identification methods in adequate anaerobic diagnostics. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(19): 797-803.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias/patogenicidade , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Incidência , Infecções , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
14.
J Infect ; 81(2): 266-275, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In previous influenza pandemics, bacterial co-infections have been a major cause of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the burden of co-infections in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, LILACS and CINAHL for eligible studies published from 1 January 2020 to 17 April 2020. We included patients of all ages, in all settings. The main outcome was the proportion of patients with a bacterial, fungal or viral co-infection. . RESULTS: Thirty studies including 3834 patients were included. Overall, 7% of hospitalised COVID-19 patients had a bacterial co-infection (95% CI 3-12%, n=2183, I2=92·2%). A higher proportion of ICU patients had bacterial co-infections than patients in mixed ward/ICU settings (14%, 95% CI 5-26, I2=74·7% versus 4%, 95% CI 1-9, I2= 91·7%). The commonest bacteria were Mycoplasma pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae. The pooled proportion with a viral co-infection was 3% (95% CI 1-6, n=1014, I2=62·3%), with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and influenza A the commonest. Three studies reported fungal co-infections. CONCLUSIONS: A low proportion of COVID-19 patients have a bacterial co-infection; less than in previous influenza pandemics. These findings do not support the routine use of antibiotics in the management of confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/microbiologia
15.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 195-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425649

RESUMO

From December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China and globally. However, the clinical characteristics and co-infection with other respiratory pathogens of patients with COVID-19 and the factors associated with severity of COVID-19 are still limited. In this retrospective cohort study, we included 354 inpatients with COVID-19 admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 4, 2020 to February 28, 2020. We found levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, white blood cell count and neutrophil count were clearly elevated in males and critical cases compared with females and severe and mild cases, respectively. However, lymphopenia was more severe in males than females and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha were reduced significantly in critical cases than severe and mild cases. 23.5% of severe cases and 24.4% of critical cases were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens. Additionally, stepwise multivariable regression analysis suggested that co-infection, lymphocyte count and levels of D-dimer were associated with severity of COVID-19.These findings provide crucial clues for further identification of the mechanisms, characteristics and treatments of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008333, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important contributors to morbidity and mortality and the causative agents for ~50% patients are never identified. The causative agents of some CNS infections have distinct spatial and temporal patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the results of a spatial epidemiological and ecological analysis of CNS infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011). The data came from hospitalizations for suspected CNS infection at Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane. Out of 1,065 patients, 450 were assigned a confirmed diagnosis. While many communities in Lao PDR are in rural and remote locations, most patients in these data came from villages along major roads. Japanese encephalitis virus ((JEV); n = 94) and Cryptococcus spp. (n = 70) were the most common infections. JEV infections peaked in the rainy season and JEV patients came from villages with higher surface flooding during the same month as admission. JEV infections were spatially dispersed throughout rural areas and were most common in children. Cryptococcus spp. infections clustered near Vientiane (an urban area) and among adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this analysis are related to complex environmental, social, and geographic factors. For example, JEV infected patients came from locations with environmental conditions (surface water) that are suitable to support larger mosquito vector populations. Most patients in these data came from villages that are near major roads; likely the result of geographic and financial access to healthcare and also indicating that CNS diseases are underestimated in the region (especially from more remote areas). As Lao PDR is undergoing major developmental and environmental changes, the space-time distributions of the causative agents of CNS infection will also likely change. There is a major need for increased diagnostic abilities; increased access to healthcare, especially for rural populations; and for increased surveillance throughout the nation.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Criança , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactose intolerance is a frequent gastrointestinal disease affecting 47% of the Eastern European population. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to carbohydrate malabsorption and therefore to false results during lactose breath and tolerance tests. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence of lactose maldigestion and intolerance in Hungary and to investigate the role of combined diagnostic method and testing for SIBO in reducing false results. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 264 adult symptomatic patients who underwent 50g lactose breath and tolerance tests in parallel over a one-year period at our center. A ≥20 ppm elevation of H2 or less than 1.1 mmol/l rise of blood glucose was diagnostic for lactose maldigestion. Patients with maldigestion who had symptoms during the test were defined as lactose intolerant. Patients with an early (≤90 min) significant (≥20 ppm) rise of H2 during lactose and/or lactulose breath tests were determined to have SIBO. Patients with slow/rapid oro-cecal transit and inappropriate preparation before the test were excluded. RESULTS: 49.6% of the 264 patients had lactose maldigestion, and 29.5% had lactose intolerance. The most frequent symptom was bloating (22.7%), while 34.8% of the study population and 60% of the symptomatic patients had SIBO. In 9.1% and 9.8% of the patients, the lactose breath and tolerance test alone gave false positive result compared with the combined method. SIBO was present in 75% of the false positives diagnosed with breath test only. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of lactose intolerance is lower in Hungary compared to the Eastern European value (29.5% vs 47%), so it is worth performing a population-based prospective analysis in this area. A combination of lactose breath and tolerance tests and the careful monitoring of results (with early H2 rise, lactulose breath test, etc.) can decrease the false cases caused by e.g. SIBO.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Testes Respiratórios , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Hidrogênio , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Lactose/administração & dosagem , Intolerância à Lactose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Lactose/microbiologia , Intolerância à Lactose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serious infections account for 25% of global newborn deaths annually, most in low-resource settings where hospital-based treatment is not accessible or feasible. In Bangladesh, one-third of neonatal deaths are attributable to serious infection; in 2014, the government adopted new policy for outpatient management of danger signs indicating possible serious bacterial infections (PSBI) when referral was not possible. We conducted implementation research to understand what it takes for a district health team to implement quality outpatient PSBI management per national guidelines. METHODS: PSBI management was introduced as part of the Comprehensive Newborn Care Package in 2015. The study piloted this package through government health systems with limited partner support to inform scale-up efforts. Data collection included facility register reviews for cases seen at primary level facilities; facility readiness and provider knowledge and skills assessments; household surveys capturing caregiver knowledge of newborn danger signs and care-seeking for newborn illness; and follow-up case tracking, capturing treatment adherence and outcomes. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Over the 15-month implementation period, 1432 young infants received care, of which 649 (45%) were classified as PSBI. Estimated coverage of care-seeking increased from 22% to 42% during the implementation period. Although facility readiness and providers' skills increased, providers' adherence to guidelines was not optimal. Among locally managed PSBI cases, 75% completed the oral antibiotic course and 15% received the fourth day follow-up. Care-seeking remained high among private providers (95%), predominantly village health doctors (over 80%). CONCLUSIONS: Facility readiness, including health care provider knowledge and skills were strengthened; future efforts should focus on improving provider adherence to guidelines. Social and behavior change strategies targeting families and communities should explore shifting care-seeking from private, possibly less-qualified providers. Strategies to improve private sector management of PSBI cases and improved linkages between private and public sector providers could be explored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laboratórios , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-center reports of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and the subcategory of mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) in pediatric hematology oncology transplant (PHO) patients have focused on the inpatient setting. Characterization of MBI-LCBI across PHO centers and management settings (inpatient and ambulatory) is urgently needed to inform surveillance and prevention strategies. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from August 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, on CLABSI (including MBI-LCBI) from a US PHO multicenter quality improvement network database was analyzed. CDC National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were applied for inpatient events and adapted for ambulatory events. RESULTS: Thirty-five PHO centers reported 401 ambulatory and 416 inpatient MBI-LCBI events. Ambulatory and inpatient MBI-LCBI rates were 0.085 and 1.01 per 1000 line days, respectively. Fifty-three percent of inpatient CLABSIs were MBI-LCBIs versus 32% in the ambulatory setting (P  <  0.01). Neutropenia was the most common criterion defining MBI-LCBI in both settings, being present in ≥90% of events. The most common organisms isolated in MBI-LCBI events were Escherichia coli (in 28% of events), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and viridans streptococci (12%) in the ambulatory setting and viridans streptococci (in 29% of events), E. coli (14%), and Klebsiella spp. (14%) in the inpatient setting. CONCLUSION: In this largest study of PHO MBI-LCBI inpatient events and the first such study in the ambulatory setting, the burden of MBI-LCBI across the continuum of care of PHO patients was substantial. These data should raise awareness of MBI-LCBI among healthcare providers for PHO patients, help benchmarking across centers, and help inform prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias , Neutropenia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/lesões , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/terapia
20.
Therapie ; 75(4): 355-362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418728

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an optional prescription status that has resulted in frequent use, in particular for the symptomatic treatment of fever and non-rheumatic pain. In 2019, a multi-source analysis of complementary pharmacological data showed that using NSAIDs in these indications (potentially indicative of an underlying infection) increases the risk of a severe bacterial complication, in particular in the case of lung infections. First, the clinical observations of the French Pharmacovigilance Network showed that severe bacterial infections can occur even after a short NSAID treatment, and even if the NSAID is associated with an antibiotic. Second, pharmacoepidemiological studies, some of which minimized the protopathic bias, all converged and confirmed the risk. Third, experimental in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest several biological mechanisms, which strengthens a causal link beyond the well-known risk of delaying the care of the infection (immunomodulatory effects, effects on S. pyogenes infections, and reduced antibiotics efficacy). Therefore, in case of infection, symptomatic treatment with NSAIDs for non-severe symptoms (fever, pain, or myalgia) is not to be recommended, given a range of clinical and scientific arguments supporting an increased risk of severe bacterial complication. Besides, the existence of a safer drug alternative, with paracetamol at recommended doses, makes this recommendation of precaution and common sense even more legitimate. In 2020, such recommendation is more topical than ever with the emergence of COVID-19, especially since it results in fever, headaches, muscular pain, and cough, and is further complicated with pneumopathy, and given experimental data suggesting a link between ibuprofen and the level of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , França , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
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