Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.750
Filtrar
1.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 25(5): 30-38, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550680

RESUMO

Context: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has gained popularity on the internet in addition to certain clinical and research circles. This interest has expanded awareness of important new dietary, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical treatments in addition to laboratory evaluation assessment options. Concomitantly, there appears a loss of parsimony regarding how to use these tools resulting in an untenable degree of testing and treatment for this condition. Objectives: A balanced review of the data regarding SIBO testing, treatment, and management with the goal of establishing non-biased best practices. Design: Non-systematic review. Results: The results for the review fall into two categories. Ineffective Action: Treat only SIBO labs; Treat for SIBO if no symptoms are exhibited; Recommending eating or avoiding foods because they might be good or bad for SIBO; Recommending treatments that are non-validated. Effective Action: Use SIBO breath results, in addition to history and current symptoms, to determine the best treatment; Find foods that work for patients based on dietary elimination and reintroduction; Apply validated treatment for SIBO and IBS in a logical 'step-up' like treatment approach. Conclusions: Testing and treating for SIBO can offer patients clinically significant relief. However, these tests and treatments must be applied with circumspection to prevent over-testing, over-treatment, squandering resources, or creating a fear around certain foods.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Testes Respiratórios , Dietoterapia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/terapia
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 911-916, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484253

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Shanghai, China. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, one Tertiary hospital and one Secondary hospital were chosen as the surveillance sites. Two respiratory tract specimens per case were collected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. One specimen was tested for 22 respiratory pathogens by RT-PCR, and the other specimen was cultured for 6 respiratory bacteria. Results: A total of 287 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. 70.73% of the cases were aged 60 years and older, with 41.46% (119/287) were positive for at least one pathogen. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen, accounting for 17.77% (51/287) of all SARI cases. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus and Coronavirus were both accounting for 7.32% (21/287), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5.57%, 16/287). The positive rates of parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumo virus were all less than 5%. Bacterial strains were identified in seven SARI cases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 strain). Two or Three pathogens were co-detected from 40 cases, accounting for 33.61% of 119 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 cases). Influenza cases peaked in winter-spring and summer. Mycoplasma pneumoniae peaked in winter-spring season and overlapped with influenza. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between different age groups. Conclusions: Various respiratory pathogens can be detected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen and the co-detection of influenza virus with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common one.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 97-104, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473450

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the presence of the natural transovarial transmission of tick-borne pathogens in unfed larvae obtained from engorged female ticks from domestic animals in Turkey. Larvae (n = 4530, 151 pools) obtained from 75 engorged female ticks and female carcasses were screened for the presence of certain tick-borne pathogens by PCR. The presence of transovarial transmission of Babesia occultans was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hy. excavatum, while Ba. ovis in Rhipicephalus bursa. Theileria annulata was detected only in Hy. excavatum and Rh. turanicus female carcasses, but not in their examined progenies. Additionally, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia raoultii were detected in Hy. marginatum and Dermacentor marginatus females, respectively, and all their examined larvae. Besides, Ri. slovaca was detected in a De. marginatus female carcass and its one of two examined larvae pools. The presence of mixed Ba. occultans and Ri. aeschlimannii infection was also determined in an Hy. marginatum female and its larvae. This is the first demonstration of transovarial transmission of Ba. occultans in naturally infected Hy. excavatum. These data suggested that Hy. excavatum may act as vector in the natural cycle of Ba. occultans.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Ovário/microbiologia , Ovário/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Turquia
5.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(7): 937-943, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by tick-borne pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. are capable of causing serious lesions of the mitral and aortic valves, leading to a need for valve replacement. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether such cases are sporadic or frequent. An additional goal was to establish effective diagnostic methods to detect these infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 148 patients undergoing valve replacement. Blood samples were drawn for serological testing. Samples of the removed mitral and aortic valves were tested with polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Specific antibodies to Bartonella spp. were detected in 47 patients (31.7%) and in 1 of the healthy controls (1%) (p < 0.05). Antibodies to B. burgdorferi spirochetes were found in 18 of the patients (12.2%) and in 6 blood donors from the control group (5.8%) (p < 0.1). Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. were detected in 12 (8.1%) and to C. burnetii phase I and II antigens in the serum of 1 patient. All the participants in the control group were seronegative to C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. antigens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for detection of Bartonella spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. DNA in the valve samples were all negative. Inflammation foci with mononuclear lymphoid cells in the aortic and mitral valves were seen in sections stained with hematoxiline and eozine. In sections dyed using the indirect immunofluorescence method with hyperimmune sera, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. were found. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained indicate that laboratory diagnostics for patients with heart disorders should be expanded to include tests detecting tick-borne zoonoses such as bartonelloses, Lyme borreliosis, rickettsioses and Q fever.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Endocardite/microbiologia , Valva Mitral/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/complicações , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Borrelia/classificação , Borrelia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Endocardite/sangue , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiales/classificação , Rickettsiales/genética , Rickettsiales/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Carrapatos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9705-9718, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393722

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is among the most urgent global challenges facing sustainable animal production systems. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters and for infectious disease prevention in intensive animal-farming practices has translated into the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in an unprecedented fashion. Several multi-resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from food-producing animals, thus constituting an alarming food-safety issue. Many industrial byproducts with potential antimicrobial properties are currently being investigated to identify empirical and affordable solutions/alternatives that can potentially be used in feed for animals. Grape pomace is among such byproducts that gained the attention as a result of its low cost, abundance, and, most importantly, its bioactive and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the recently reported studies with regard to exploring the use of grape pomace (and its extracts) in animal production to control pathogens, along with the promotion of beneficial bacterial species in the gut to ultimately alleviate antibacterial resistance. The review further summarizes realistic expectations connected with grape pomace usage and lists the still-to-be-addressed concerns about its application in animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384350

RESUMO

Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most common and life-threatening complications of patients with cirrhotic ascites. Recognition and prompt treatment of this condition is essential to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SBP among in-patients with cirrhotic ascites attending our facility and to determine the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with SBP. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving one hundred and three (103) patients admitted at medical block in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with cirrhotic ascites from 25th March, 2016 to 25th November, 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Ascitic fluid culture and cell count were conducted. Positive ascitic fluid culture and/or ascitic polymorphonuclear leukocyte ≥ 250cells/mm3 were diagnostic for SBP. Results: Of the 103 patients with cirrhotic ascites, the mean age was 43.5 ± 12.2 years. There were fifty eight (58) male patients. The prevalence of SBP was 25.24% (26/103). Majority, 5 (55.6%) of the bacteria isolated from ascitic fluid with SBP was Escherichia coli. Severe ascites and high INR were found to be independent predictors of SBP. Conclusion: SBP is common among patients with cirrhotic ascites admitted at KBTH. Severe ascites and high INR were highly suggestive of SBP. Diagnostic paracentesis should be done immediately on admission to confirm the diagnosis irrespective of the clinical characteristics as part of baseline investigation.


Assuntos
Ascite/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ascite/microbiologia , Líquido Ascítico/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Peritonite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 68(2): 99-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398983

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of multiresistant bacterial strains is currently a serious health concern. These pathogens are often the cause of nosocomial infections with limited treatment options and high fatality rates. A case report is presented of an uncommon detection of four different species (Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Morganella morganii) producing the same type of carbapenemase, KPC-2, in a female patient during her complicated long-term hospital stay. Resistance was probably spread to other species by horizontal transmission of plasmids carrying the blaKPC-2 genes. The implementation of strict anti-epidemic measures prevented further spread of these carbapenem-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas , Infecção Hospitalar , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
9.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 481-487, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269607

RESUMO

The standardized application of antibacterial agents in the treatment of biliary tract diseases is of great significance.On the basis of international and domestic guidelines and consensuses, combining with the actual situation of Chinese biliary tract infection, Study Group of biliary Tract Surgery in Chinese Society of Surgery of Chinese Medical Association and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association and Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Surgery organized experts to make recommendations which adopted a problem-oriented approach on the severity grade of biliary tract infection, the protocol of specimen examination, the use of antibiotics, the indication of drug withdrawal, the agents application strategy of drug-resistant bacteria infection and special situation to guide surgeons getting the accurate judgement of the severity of biliary tract infection and the formulation of standard protocols for the use of antibacterial agents on the premise of following the bacteriological and drug resistance monitoring information.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/normas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar , Sistema Biliar/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Humanos
10.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 82(2): 261-266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The microbiological characteristics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are changing worldwide with a shift in patterns of SBP and increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We, therefore, conducted this retrospective study aiming to characterise the current patterns and microbiology of SBP in our region. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting with their first episodes of SBP. The demographical, clinical and laboratory parameters of all patients at first paracentesis were recorded. RESULTS: The study included 200 cirrhotic patients with SBP. Mean age was 60.4±13.5 years and 116 (58%) patients were males. Liver cirrhosis was predominantly viral in 138 (69%) patients. Ascitic fluid cultures were positive in 103 (51.5%) patients and negative in 97 (48.5%). Ninety-eight (95.1%) patients had monomicrobial bacterial growth. The most common variants of spontaneous ascitic fluid infection were culture negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA) in 97(48.5%) patients and SBP in 65 (32.5%) patients. E.Coli was most frequently isolated microorganism in 41 (39.8%) patients followed by staphylococcus species in 19 (18.4%) patients, Klebsiella pneumonae in 14(13.6%) patients and streptococcus species in 13 (10.7%) patients. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) resistant E.Coli was 29.3%. Antibiotic resistance rate for meropenem, piperacillin\ tazobactam, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was 0%, 22.0%, 29.0%, and 28.6% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the patterns and microbiology of SBP are evident in our region with increasing prevalence of culture negative SBP, extended spectrum beta-lactamases resistant E.Coli, and increased resistance rate to first line antibiotics. Our data argue for relying on periodic hospital based antibiotic susceptibility data whenever SBP is treated.


Assuntos
Ascite/microbiologia , Líquido Ascítico/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Peritonite/microbiologia , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303935

RESUMO

Introduction: Superbugs are pathogenic micro-organism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: One hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (NIs) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that acinetobacter were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem. Conclusion: Superbugs (Acinetobacter species) significantly contributed to delayed hospital admissions through observed 100% resistance to used antibiotics. The healthcare managers of these hospitals and the ministry of health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 648, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of anaerobic vertebral osteomyelitis associated with surgical tracheotomy which has never been reported to the best of our knowledge. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 39-year-old man was admitted to intensive care for a severe brain trauma injury where a surgical tracheotomy was performed. He was discharged to a rehabilitation centre after 54 days hospital stay. During rehabilitation, he developed progressive and febrile tetraplegia associated with cervical pain, requiring an intensive care readmission. A polymicrobial anaerobic bloodstream infection was revealed and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed cervical vertebral osteomyelitis. Both the type of anaerobic micro-organisms found and the timing of the symptoms strongly suggest that the surgical tracheotomy was responsible for this rare case of cervical vertebral osteomyelitis. The patient was successfully treated by a prolonged antimicrobial therapy and by surgical laminectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheotomy may generate anaerobic bacteraemia and related osteomyelitis in the specific setting of severe trauma patients. Clinicians should consider anaerobic vertebral osteomyelitis when they are confronted with a febrile tetraplegia after tracheotomy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Traqueotomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bactérias Anaeróbias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 25, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although artificial insemination (AI) was developed as a means of controlling disease transmission, pathogens can still be transmitted to females in semen used for AI. In addition, bacteria can cause deterioration in sperm quality during storage. Semen becomes contaminated by the male's normal bacterial flora as it passes out of the reproductive tract but potential pathogens may also contaminate the semen. Therefore, semen samples from stallions to be used for AI are tested before the breeding season to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares. In Sweden, semen samples are tested at the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (SVA). For the present study, a retrospective analysis was made of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from samples submitted to the SVA from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In our study, Taylorella equigenitalis was found infrequently (53 out of 25,512 samples), representing 11 out of 2308 stallions. If T. equigenitalis was detected, the stallions were treated with antibiotics and re-tested later in the same year. Klebsiella pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most commonly found potential pathogens, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated occasionally. There were considerable differences in the number of species isolated each year. CONCLUSIONS: Potential pathogens were identified in relatively few of the samples submitted to SVA during this period, with T. equigenitalis not being identified since 2015. Of the other potential pathogens, K. pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common. The information is relevant for determining guidelines on the testing and treatment of stallions before breeding.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Sêmen/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Suécia
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 150, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine remedies are commonly used for treatment of diverse ailments including bacterial infections. The activity against resistant bacteria and safety of some remedies sold as anti-infective treatments in market places in Buea, Southwest Cameroon were investigated as potential alternative treatment to counter increasing antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Ten remedies were purchased, their components documented and microbial load estimated. Methanol extracts of the remedies were tested for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and microdilution. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on monkey kidney epithelial cells (LLC-MK2) while acute oral toxicity was done in BALB/c mice for the bactericidal extract. Extracts were further analysed using phytochemical tests. RESULTS: All the remedies had microbial loads above the acceptable limit of 105 CFU/g. The highest activity was produced by extracts of four remedies (TP 1, 2, 4, 6a, 6b) against all clinical isolates among which three were active against four control strains. Zones of inhibition ranged from 8 to 27 mm. Two of the four extracts produced zones ≥20 mm against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli but were less active compared to Gentamycin positive control (P < 0.0001-0.0014). The most active extracts also recorded minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 to 4 mg/mL. One of them (TP2) was bactericidal against a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 8 mg/mL. Extracts of six remedies did not show cytotoxicity and no mortality or adverse effect was recorded in the acute oral toxicity test. Phytochemical screening showed the most active extracts contained relatively high amounts of alkaloids and flavonoids. CONCLUSION: Only four of the eight remedies tested showed activity against multidrug resistant bacteria suggesting some of these remedies may not be effective against bacterial infections. Production and handling methods should be improved and the product quality controlled to ensure biosecurity. The remedies which were both active and non-toxic should be further investigated including in vivo experiments to assess their efficacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Camarões , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 826, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella is a highly contagious childhood disease. Generally benign, serious complications necessitating antibiotic use may occur. The objective of this study was to characterize the rate, appropriateness and patterns of real-world antibiotic prescribing for management of varicella-associated complications, prior to universal varicella vaccination (UVV) implementation. METHODS: Pooled, post-hoc analysis of 5 international, multicenter, retrospective chart reviews studies (Argentina, Hungary, Mexico, Peru, Poland). Inpatient and outpatient primary pediatric (1-14 years) varicella cases, diagnosed between 2009 and 2016, were eligible. Outcomes, assessed descriptively, included varicella-associated complications and antibiotic use. Three antibiotic prescribing scenarios were defined based on complication profile in chart: evidence of microbiologically confirmed bacterial infection (Scenario A); insufficient evidence confirming microbiological confirmation (Scenario B); no evidence of microbiological confirmation (Scenario C). Stratification was performed by patient status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and country. RESULTS: Four hundred one outpatients and 386 inpatients were included. Mean (SD) outpatient age was 3.6 (2.8) years; inpatient age was 3.1 (2.8) years. Male gender was predominant. Overall, 12.2% outpatients reported ≥1 infectious complication, 3.7% ≥1 bacterial infection, and 0.5% ≥1 microbiologically confirmed infection; inpatient complication rates were 78.8, 33.2 and 16.6%, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed to 12.7% of outpatients and 68.9% of inpatients. Among users, ß-lactamases (class), and clindamycin (agent), dominated prescriptions. Scenario A was assigned to 3.9% (outpatients) vs 13.2% (inpatients); Scenario B: 2.0% vs. 6.0%; Scenario C: 94.1% vs. 80.8%. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of infectious complications and antibiotic use are reported, with low rates of microbiological confirmation suggesting possible antibiotic misuse for management of varicella complications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Varicela/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases/uso terapêutico
16.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 225-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250593

RESUMO

Drug-resistant bacteria has been a threat to public life and property. We described the trends and changes in antibiotic resistance of important pathogens in a general hospital in Zhengzhou, China from 2011 to 2016, to control antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospital and provide support to clinicians and decision-making departments. Five dominant bacteria were enrolled based on the data from the general hospital during 6 years. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). From 2011 to 2016, a total of 19,260 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 51.98%. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae and E. coli to carbapenem was less than 15%, but resistance of K. pneumoniae to carbapenems increased with time and resistance of E. coli to meropenem increased. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among K. pneumoniae and E. coli was decreasing. For most antibiotics, the resistance rate of ESBL-positive isolates was higher than that of ESBL-negative isolates, excluding carbapenems and cefoxitin. For S. aureus, the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was stable. Resistance of S. aureus to mostly antibiotics decreased with time. Besides polymyxin B, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii showed high resistance to other antibiotics. For A. baumannii, the resistance rate to mostly antibiotics was increasing. The bacteria showed high levels of resistance and multiple drug resistance. Continuous surveillance and optimizing the use of antibiotics are essential.Drug-resistant bacteria has been a threat to public life and property. We described the trends and changes in antibiotic resistance of important pathogens in a general hospital in Zhengzhou, China from 2011 to 2016, to control antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospital and provide support to clinicians and decision-making departments. Five dominant bacteria were enrolled based on the data from the general hospital during 6 years. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). From 2011 to 2016, a total of 19,260 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 51.98%. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae and E. coli to carbapenem was less than 15%, but resistance of K. pneumoniae to carbapenems increased with time and resistance of E. coli to meropenem increased. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among K. pneumoniae and E. coli was decreasing. For most antibiotics, the resistance rate of ESBL-positive isolates was higher than that of ESBL-negative isolates, excluding carbapenems and cefoxitin. For S. aureus, the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was stable. Resistance of S. aureus to mostly antibiotics decreased with time. Besides polymyxin B, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii showed high resistance to other antibiotics. For A. baumannii, the resistance rate to mostly antibiotics was increasing. The bacteria showed high levels of resistance and multiple drug resistance. Continuous surveillance and optimizing the use of antibiotics are essential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , China , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163288

RESUMO

Treatment of chronic lung infection becomes a great challenge due to the drug resistant bacteria. In this scenario, evolving a new drug based on lipid metal conjugation loaded with potential antibiotic provides better drug delivery. In this study, ciprofloxacin loaded selenium-lipid nanoparticle (CxLSENPs) is produced in a novel route and its antimicrobial properties were tested against clinically important Gram-negative P. aeruginosa. The synthesized CxLSENPs was characterized by biophysical techniques (UV, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, FESEM, HRTEM and Zeta potential). Raman spectra coupled with FTIR spectra confirmed the possible interaction of lipid components in the NPs. HRTEM analysis confirmed the spherical shape of NPs. CxLSENPs recorded greater antibacterial effects on P. aeruginosa. A drastic reduction in the count of P. aeruginosa was observed after treatment with CxLSENPs. In order to further confirm the antibacterial efficiency, the live/dead cell assay was carried out. Live/dead analysis helps us to investigate the viability of bacterial cells. The number of dead bacterial cells was significantly higher in CxLSENPs treated groups when compare to the control. Furthermore, CxLSENPs increased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, CAT and LPO) in mouse and protected the liver damage from bacterial infection. This study concludes that the developed CxLSENPs might be employed as strong antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for treating lung infection or interstitial lung diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Selênio/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Catalase/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/microbiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 203-209, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232046

RESUMO

The antibiotic resistance in many pathogenic bacteria has become a major clinical problem, therefore, the necessity arises to search for new therapeutic strategies. The most promising solution lies in bacteriophages, phage endolysins and antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study is to review the possibilities for the common use of bacteriophages, phage endolysins and antimicrobial peptides, both in the form of combined therapies and new strategies for the production of peptide drugs. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect and destroy pathogenic bacteria by penetration into bacterial cells, causing metabolism disorders and, consequently, cell lysis. Phage-encoded endolysins are bacteriolytic proteins produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle that destroy elements of bacterial cell wall and enable the release of phage progeny from host cells. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an element of the innate immunity of living organisms and are characterized by the activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. In the literature, there are only a few reports on the direct interaction of bacteriophages, phage endolysins and antimicrobial peptides against pathogenic bacteria. In each of them, a synergistic effect was observed, and Phage-encoded antimicrobial peptides as a specific group of AMPs have were also discussed. Phage-display technique was also reviewed in terms of its applications to produce and deliver biologically active peptides. The literature data also suggest that bacteriophages, phage endolysins and antimicrobial peptides can be used in combined therapy, thus negating many of the limitations resulting from their specificity as a single antimicrobial agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriófagos/química , Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Bactérias/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Desenho de Drogas , Endopeptidases/química , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Humanos
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1872(1): 1-10, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059737

RESUMO

Pyroptosis, a type of inflammatory programmed cell death, is mediated by multiple inflammasomes which can recognize danger signals and activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-181 and IL-1ß2. It can induce cancer cell death within the gastrointestinal tract. NLRs3, AIM24, GSDM5 family play important roles in pyroptosis signaling pathways in intestinal cancer such as gastric cancer, colitis-associated colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer, etc. Furthermore, several inflammasomes are elucidated to be involved in mucosal innate immune responses and modulate specific enteric pathogens infection. Precise modulation of inflammasome activation and exploration of potential diagnostic markers can contribute to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of intestinal tumors and inflammatory or infectious disorders in human patients in the near future.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Piroptose/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamassomos/genética , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Intestinos/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA