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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 789-798, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480559

RESUMO

Two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp.) have become popular animals in American culture and in American zoos, where they are frequently used as animal ambassadors. Despite the increased focus on sloth species, the prevalence of infectious diseases in sloth populations and the associated clinical consequences are relatively unknown. This study reviewed all published literature from 1809 to 2019 that examined infectious agents in both captive and wild populations of either two- or three-toed sloths. Online databases were electronically searched for relevant manuscripts using strings of inclusion and exclusion terms, resulting in an initial identification of 5,364 articles. After removing duplications and conducting two relevance screenings, 57 manuscripts were included in the full review. A total of 1,769 individual two-toed sloths and 879 individual three-toed sloths were accounted for in the included studies, with evidence of infection or exposure to infectious agents in 647 (36.6%) and 222 (25.3%) individual two- and three-toed sloths, respectively. Approximately 74% of documented infections were cryptic fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. The remaining 26% of infections represent those that were associated with clinical signs of disease. The infectious agents reported were bacterial (84), parasitic (20), viral (9), and fungal (4). Significant knowledge gaps remain regarding clinical and subclinical infectious disease prevalence and impact in both free-ranging and captive sloths.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Bichos-Preguiça , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Viroses/virologia
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 48, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Malopolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS: Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ß-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION: The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Malopolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenite/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/epidemiologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/patologia , Polônia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Carneiro Doméstico
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
4.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 594-597, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495719

RESUMO

We assessed the causes of polyserositis in pigs, categorized by causative agents and ages of animals affected. In a 3-y study, 246 pigs from 80 different farms with recurrent problems of polyserositis, in a high-density breeding area, were submitted for autopsy; 154 pigs with typical fibrinous serosal lesions were sampled for further bacterial and viral investigation. The most common gross lesions were pleuritis and pericarditis (141 of 154; 92%). The animals most affected were weaned pigs (139 of 154; 90%). Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were the most common bacteria detected and were present at the same rate (85 of 154; 55%). Other bacteria isolated were Streptococcus sp. (44 of 154; 29%), Pasteurella multocida (21 of 154; 14%), Escherichia coli (19 of 154; 12%), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (7 of 154; 5%), and Trueperella pyogenes (4 of 154; 3%). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV; 119 of 154; 77%) predominated among the viruses detected, followed, with lesser prevalence, by porcine circovirus 2 (40 of 154; 26%) and swine influenza A virus (19 of 154; 12%). Bacterial coinfection and coinfection of bacteria and viruses were common (128 of 154; 83%). A strong positive correlation was found between coinfection by H. parasuis and M. hyorhinis and also by H. parasuis with PRRSV.


Assuntos
Serosite/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Itália/epidemiologia , Serosite/epidemiologia , Serosite/microbiologia , Serosite/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/classificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397230

RESUMO

Animal-assisted interventions are widely implemented in different contexts worldwide. Particularly, animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities are often implemented in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other health facilities. These interventions bring several benefits to patients but can also expose them to the risk of infection with potentially zoonotic agents. The dog is the main animal species involved used in these interventions. Therefore, we aimed at collecting data regarding the occurrence of the pathogens ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) in dogs, in order to draft guidelines concerning the possible monitoring of dogs involved in animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities. We performed a literature search using the PRISMA guidelines to examine three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Out of 2604 records found, 52 papers were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review/meta-analysis. Sixteen papers reported data on E. faecium; 16 on S. aureus; nine on K. pneumoniae; four on A. baumannii; eight on P. aeruginosa; and six on Enterobacter spp. This work will contribute to increased awareness to the potential zoonotic risks posed by the involvement of dogs in animal-assisted therapies, and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii , Animais , Antibacterianos , Enterobacter , Enterococcus faecium , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Zoonoses/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233566, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442236

RESUMO

Suspected bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common cause of overuse and misuse of antimicrobials. A bedside diagnostic test that could accurately predict urine culture results would prevent antimicrobial overuse, but accurate biomarkers have not yet been identified in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate urine myeloperoxidase (uMPO) as a rapidly available, accurate marker to predict urine culture results. We hypothesized that uMPO would be higher in dogs with a positive urine culture than in dogs with a negative urine culture, and that uMPO could be used to aid in the accurate diagnosis of significant bacteriuria. Urine samples were collected from a veterinary university clinical pathology lab. uMPO concentration was measured using a commercially available canine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following validation, samples from 98 dogs that had a urinalysis and urine culture performed as part of their diagnostic investigation were included. Forty-seven dogs had a negative urine culture and fifty-one dogs had a positive urine culture. uMPO levels were significantly higher in samples that had a positive culture (median 2.13 ng/ml; IQR 0.98-7.07) versus samples that had a negative culture (median 1.07 ng/ml; IQR 0.52-1.84)(p < 0.005). Based on receiver-operator characteristic, a cutoff of 0.55 ng/ml was chosen to maximize sensitivity and specificity. Using a cutoff of 0.55 ng/ml, uMPO had a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 69% to determine the presence of a positive culture. However, the degree of overlap between groups may preclude the use of this test as a surrogate for urine culture in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Bacteriúria , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças do Cão , Peroxidase/urina , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/urina , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Bacteriúria/urina , Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Masculino
7.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(1): 26-38, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248555

RESUMO

One of the major problems to be addressed in aquaculture is the prominence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The occurrence of bacterial infections in cultured fishes promotes the continuous use of antibiotics in aquaculture, which results in the selection of proliferated antibiotic-resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of transfer to the whole environment through horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the accurate cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent detection methods are very much crucial for the immediate and proper management of this menace. Antimicrobial resistance determinants carrying mobile genetic transfer elements such as transposons, plasmids, integrons and gene cassettes need to be specifically analysed through molecular detection techniques. The susceptibility of microbes to antibiotics should be tested at regular intervals along with various biochemical assays and conjugation studies so as to determine the extent of spread of AMR. Advanced omic-based and bioinformatic tools can also be incorporated for understanding of genetic diversity. The present review focuses on different detection methods to unearth the complexity of AMR in aquaculture. This monitoring helps the authorities to curb the use of antibiotics, commencement of appropriate management measures and adequate substitute strategies in aquaculture. The long battle of AMR could be overcome by the sincere implementation of One Health approach. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The use of antibiotics and increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are of major concerns in aquaculture industry. This could result in global health risks through direct consumption of cultured fishes and dissemination of AMR to natural environment through horizontal gene transfer. Hence, timely detection of the antimicrobial-resistant pathogens and continuous monitoring programmes are inevitable. Advanced microbiological, molecular biological and omic-based tools can unravel the menace to a great extent. This will help the authorities to curb the use of antibiotics and implement appropriate management measures to overcome the threat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Integrons/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos
8.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1906-1913, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241470

RESUMO

The intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Although many of these microbes execute functions that are critical for host physiology, the host immune system must control the microbial community so that the dynamics of this interdependent relationship is maintained. To facilitate host homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the microbial load is tolerated, but anatomically contained, while remaining reactive to microbial invasion. Although the microbiota is required for intestinal immune development, immune responses regulate the structure and composition of the intestinal microbiota by evolving unique immune adaptations that manage this high-bacterial load. The immune mechanisms work together to ensure that commensal bacteria rarely breach the intestinal barrier and that any that do invade should be killed rapidly to prevent penetration to systemic sites. The communication between microbiota and the immune system is mediated by the interaction of bacterial components with pattern recognition receptors expressed by intestinal epithelium and various antigen-presenting cells resulting in activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Interaction between the microbial community and host plays a crucial role in the mucosal homeostasis and health status of the host. In addition to providing a home to numerous microbial inhabitants, the intestinal tract is an active immunological organ, with more resident immune cells than anywhere else in the body, organized in lymphoid structures called Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles such as the cecal tonsils. Macrophages, dendritic cells, various subsets of T cells, B cells and the secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) they produce, all contribute to the generation of a proper immune response to invading pathogens while keeping the resident microbial community in check without generating an overt inflammatory response to it. IgA-producing plasma cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and γδT cell receptor-expressing T cells are lymphocytes that are uniquely present in the mucosa. In addition, of the γδT cells in the intestinal lamina propria, there are significant numbers of IL-17-producing T cells and regulatory T cells. The accumulation and function of these mucosal leukocytes are regulated by the presence of intestinal microbiota, which regulate these immune cells and enhance the mucosal barrier function allowing the host to mount robust immune responses against invading pathogens, and simultaneously maintains immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Sistema Imunitário , Microbiota , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
10.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 914-922, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of initial aerobic bacterial cultures of acute open traumatic wounds to predict bacterial species in wounds that become infected. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: Sixty-four dogs with naturally occurring acute cutaneous traumatic wounds (2017-2018). METHODS: Initial swabs were taken from each wound prior to and after lavage and debridement for quantitative and qualitative aerobic bacterial culture. Cultures were repeated on wounds that displayed any clinical sign of infection within 14 days of presentation. RESULTS: Fewer bacteria were cultured from postlavage than from prelavage swabs in 43 of 50 (86%) acute wounds. All primary clinicians prescribed ß-lactam antibiotics to the dogs at initial presentation. All bacteria cultured from postlavage/debridement cultures at initial presentation were susceptible to the prophylactic antimicrobial prescribed. Postoperative infection was subsequently diagnosed in 14 of 64 (22%) dogs; 13 of these dogs had positive culture results. No correlation was detected between the results of initial wound cultures and the subsequent development of wound infection. Bacterial species present in the initial wound swab did not correlate with those subsequently cultured from infected tissues. CONCLUSION: Results of pretreatment wound cultures from open traumatic wounds in dogs were not predictive of bacterial species subsequently recovered from infected wounds. The bacterial burden present in pretreatment wounds was not predictive of whether wounds would ultimately become infected after surgical management. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Routine bacterial culturing of acute wounds is not likely to help predict subsequent wound infection, nor is it likely to accurately guide early selection of antimicrobials to treat wounds that become infected.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 162(3): 141-151, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are of increasing importance in human and veterinary medicine. Also, small animal clinics and practices are facing patients carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. What risk do these animals pose for animal owners? How can the risk of transmission to humans be reduced? A working group of human and veterinary medicine experts developed a guide for dog or cat owners with pets carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The guide contains background information on the most important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in dogs and cats, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococci and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Measures are listed to reduce the risk of transmission to humans. This review explains the pathophysiology, occurrence and risk factors of these bacteria in dogs, cats and humans. Recommended measures are outlined.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 631-640, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112892

RESUMO

Understanding how the brine shrimp responds to different geographical populations can provide novel insights on response to bacterial stimulation. In the paper, Artemia sinica from lower altitudes and Artemia parthenogenetica from higher altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau, were used to illustrate different defense against bacteria mechanisms that these organisms used to adapt to different geographical environments. Protein kinase CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase with a multitude of protein substrates. It is a ubiquitous enzyme essential for the viability of eukaryotic cells, where its functions in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, transcription, and viral infection. The gene encodes the same mRNA sequence in A. sinica and A. parthenogenetica, named AsCK2α and ApCK2α, respectively. The open reading frame was obtained, a 1047-bp sequence encoding a predicted protein of 349 amino acids. To systematically analyze the expression of AsCK2α and ApCK2α during embryonic development and bacterial challenge, real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed. The results showed that AsCK2α was higher than ApCK2α at different developmental stages. Under bacterial challenge, the expression of ApCK2α was significantly higher than AsCK2α. Protein localization analysis showed that AsCK2α and ApCK2α were mainly distributed in the head and chest. Our research revealed that CK2α plays a vital role in the growth, development and bacterial stimulation of the brine shrimp.


Assuntos
Artemia/genética , Artemia/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Altitude , Animais , Artemia/enzimologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Caseína Quinase II/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Geografia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Estresse Fisiológico , Tibet
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168354

RESUMO

Antimicrobial Resistance is a global crisis that veterinarians contribute to through their use of antimicrobials in animals. Antimicrobial stewardship has been shown to be an effective means to reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospital environments. Effective monitoring of antimicrobial usage patterns is an essential part of antimicrobial stewardship and is critical in reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to describe how frequently antimicrobials were used in veterinary consultations and identify the most frequently used antimicrobials. Using VetCompass Australia, Natural Language Processing techniques, and the Australian Strategic Technical Advisory Group's (ASTAG) Rating system to classify the importance of antimicrobials, descriptive analysis was performed on the antimicrobials prescribed in consultations from 137 companion animal veterinary clinics in Australia between 2013 and 2017 (inclusive). Of the 4,400,519 consultations downloaded there were 595,089 consultations where antimicrobials were prescribed to dogs or cats. Antimicrobials were dispensed in 145 of every 1000 canine consultations; and 38 per 1000 consultations involved high importance rated antimicrobials. Similarly with cats, 108 per 1000 consultations had antimicrobials dispensed, and in 47 per 1000 consultations an antimicrobial of high importance rating was administered. The most common antimicrobials given to cats and dogs were cefovecin and amoxycillin clavulanate, respectively. The most common topical antimicrobial and high-rated topical antimicrobial given to dogs and cats was polymyxin B. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the antimicrobial usage patterns in Australia using methods that can be automated to inform antimicrobial use surveillance programs and promote antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Registros , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
14.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(3): 359-381, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160657

RESUMO

Approximately 60% of all human pathogens and 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (of animal origin). Camel zoonotic diseases can be encountered in all camel-rearing countries. In this article, all studies carried out on camel zoonotic diseases in Iran are reviewed to show the importance of camels for public health in this country. More than 900 published documents were systematically searched to find relevant studies from 1,890 until late 2018. The collected articles were classified according to the aetiological agents. In this study, 19 important zoonotic diseases were reported among Iranian camels including listeriosis, leptospirosis, plague, Q fever, brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, Escherichia coli infections, rabies, camelpox, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, echinococcosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis and dermatophytosis, most of which belong to bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal pathogens, respectively. Results show that camels are one of the most important sources of infections and diseases in human; therefore, continuous monitoring and inspection programs are necessary to prevent the outbreak of zoonotic diseases caused by this animal in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Camelus/microbiologia , Camelus/virologia , Micoses/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Zoonoses
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 783-790, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036978

RESUMO

In the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair economic development and challenge the livelihoods of many rural households. We investigated 61 diseased small-scale flocks (122 chickens) for evidence of infection with 5 bacteria, 4 viruses, and helminths. Serological profiles (ELISA) were also determined against 6 of these pathogens. The aims of this study were the following: (1) to investigate the prevalence of different pathogens and to compare the probability of detection of bacterial pathogens using PCR and culture; (2) to investigate the relationship between detection of organisms in birds' tissues and the observed morbidity and mortality, as well as their antibody profile; and (3) to characterize risk factors for infection with specific viral or bacterial pathogens. We used PCR to test for viral (viruses causing infectious bronchitis [IB], highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], Newcastle disease, and infectious bursal disease [IBD]) and bacterial pathogens (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale [ORT]). The latter two were also investigated in respiratory tissues by conventional culture. Colisepticemic Escherichia coli was investigated by liver or spleen culture. In 49 of 61 (80.3%) flocks, at least one bacterial or viral pathogen was detected, and in 29 (47.5%) flocks, more than one pathogen was detected. A. paragallinarum was detected in 62.3% flocks, followed by M. gallisepticum (26.2%), viruses causing IBD (24.6%) and IB (21.3%), septicemic E. coli (14.8%), ORT (13.1%), and HPAI viruses (4.9%). Of all flocks, 67.2% flocks were colonized by helminths. Mortality was highest among flocks infected with HPAI (100%, interquartile range [IQR]: 81.6-100%) and lowest with flocks infected with ORT (5.3%, IQR: 1.1-9.0%). The results indicated slight agreement (kappa ≤ 0.167) between detection by PCR and culture for both A. paragallinarum and ORT, as well as between the presence of cestodes and ORT infection (kappa = 0.317). Control of A. paragallinarum, viruses causing HPAI, IBD, and IB, M. gallisepticum, and gastrointestinal helminths should be a priority in small-scale flocks.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Galinhas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 508-514, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004613

RESUMO

At present, several reports have indicated that the C-terminal peptides of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) were active antibacterial peptides. However, the functions of TFPI-1 C-terminal peptides in teleost are still very limited. In this study, a C-terminal peptide, TC26 (with 26 amino acids), derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TFPI-1, was synthesized and investigated for its antibacterial spectrum, action mechanism, as well as the in vivo effects on bacterial invasion. Our results showed that TC26 was active against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus. TC26 treatment facilitated the bactericidal process of erythromycin by enhancing the out-membrane permeability of V. vulnificus. During the bactericidal process, TC26 killed the target bacterial cells Vibrio vulnificus, by destroying cell membrane integrity, penetrating into the cytoplasm and inducing degradation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In vivo study showed that administration of turbot with TC26 before bacterial infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. These results indicated that TC26 is a novel and active antibacterial peptide and may play a vital role in fighting pathogenic infection in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 19-26, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014588

RESUMO

In mammals, interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a broad pleiotropic cytokine that plays critical roles in the development of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In fish, functional information of Il-21 is limited, and its role in immune response is largely unknown. In the present study, we cloned a coding sequence of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) il21 gene (gcil21). To characterize the release patterns and biological activity of gcIl-21, we prepared recombinant gcIl-21 (rgcIl-21) and obtained the polyclonal antibody with gcIl-21 specificity. Western blotting analysis showed that in grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), gcIl-21 was undetected in culture supernatant of untreated cells but drastically induced by heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), uncovering the release features of gcIl-21 and its possible involvement in immune response. Subsequent functional experiments revealed that rgcIl-21 did not affect the mRNA expression of grass carp il1b and tgfb, but induced a strong expression of grass carp il10, and to a lesser extent of grass carp tnfa in HKLs, suggesting a dominant effect of gcIl-21 in modulating Il-10 signaling as seen in rainbow trout and mammals. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that intraperitoneal injection of rgcIl-21 was able to increase the survival rate of grass carp infected with live A. hydrophila, and reduce the pathological responses caused by the same pathogenic bacteria in head kidney and intestine. Taken together, these results for the first time revealed the close relationship of fish Il-21 production and function with inflammatory responses, and highlighted its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory ability, thereby providing a new insight into host defense mechanisms in fish.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Carpas/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Carpas/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Clonagem Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 495-504, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081809

RESUMO

Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small ubiquitous multifunctional protein with a characteristic WCGPC thiol-disulfide active site that is conserved through evolution. Trx plays a crucial role in the antioxidant defense system. Further, it is involved in a variety of biological functions including gene expression, apoptosis, and growth regulation. Trx exists in several forms, with the cytosolic (Trx-1) and mitochondrial (Trx-2) forms being the most predominant. In this study, the mitochondrial Trx protein (HaTrx-2), from the big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) was characterized, and its molecular features and functional properties were investigated. The cDNA sequence of HaTrx-2 consists of a 519 bp ORF, and it encodes a polypeptide of 172 amino acids. This protein has a calculated molecular mass of 18.8 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 7.80. The highest values of identity (78.7%) and similarity (86.2%) were observed with Fundulus heteroclitus Trx-2 from the pairwise alignment results. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that HaTrx-2 is closely clustered with teleost fishes. The qPCR results showed that HaTrx-2 was prevalently expressed at various levels in all the tissues examined. The ovary showed the highest expression, followed by the brain and kidney. HaTrx-2 showed varying mRNA expression levels during the immune challenge experiment, depending on the type of tissue and the time interval. Our results confirmed the antioxidant property of HaTrx-2 by performing the MCO assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and cell viability assays. Further, an insulin disulfide reduction assay revealed the dithiol remove the enzymatic activity of HaTrx-2. Altogether these results indicate that HaTrx-2 plays indispensable roles in the regulation of oxidative stress and immune response in the seahorse.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Smegmamorpha/imunologia , Tiorredoxinas/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , DNA Complementar/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Filogenia , Smegmamorpha/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 609-630, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088284

RESUMO

Up to now, many previous reports have emphasized that Annexins (ANX) family played an important role in immune responses. Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), the most common zoonotic pathogenic bacteria of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), can cause serious economic loss, especially to yellow catfish with high economic value. In our previous work, we demonstrated that synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) owned powerful immunostimulatory activity. However, the relationship among Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Annexins (Pf_ANX), CpG ODN and A. hydrophila is unknown. Therefore, we cloned Pf_ANX1-6 genes and analyzed its sequences, structures, genetic evolution, post-translation modifications (PTMs), Ca2+ ion binding sites and tissue distribution to reveal the relevance. In addition, we investigated the responses of ANXA1-6 and cytokines in intestine and spleen as well as morbidity/survival rate of fish post CpG ODN immunization and/or A. hydrophila infection. The results showed that compared with challenge alone (challenge-CK) group, the CpG immunization following challenge (CpG-challenge) group displayed relatively flat IL-1ß level throughout in both organs. Meanwhile, the expression of IFN-γ and morbidity/survival rate of fish in CpG-challenge group showed a great improvement compared with the challenge-CK group. Our results indicated that CpG ODN could improve morbidity/survival by up-regulating Pf_ANXA 1, 2 and 5 in the intestine and spleen to ameliorate inflammatory responses and promote anti-infective responses. Our findings offer some important insights into ANX related to the immunity of fish infection and lay a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of fish infections.


Assuntos
Anexinas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Peixes-Gato/genética , Peixes-Gato/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Clonagem Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 52, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of infectious diseases of cultured fish is caused by bacteria. Rapid identification of bacterial pathogens is necessary for immediate management. The present study developed a custom Main Spectra Profile (MSP) database and validate the method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid identification of fish bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, and Edwardsiella tarda obtained from diseased fish were used as representative bacterial pathogens in this study. Bacterial peptides were extracted to create a Main Spectra Profile (MSP), and the MSPs of each bacterial species was added into the MALDI Biotyper database. Fifteen additional isolates of each bacterial species were tested to validate the utilized technique. RESULTS: The MSPs of all field isolates were clearly distinguishable, and the MSPs of the same species were clustered together. The identification methodology was validated with 75 bacterial isolates. The reliability and specificity of the method were determined with MALDI Biotyper log score values and matching results with 16 s rDNA sequencing. The species identification using the public MALDI Biotyper library (Bruker MALDI Biotyper) showed unreliable results (log score < 2.000) with 42.67% matching result with the reference method. In contrast, accurate identification was obtained when using the custom-made database, giving log score > 2.115, and a 100% matching result. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an effective identification of fish bacterial pathogens when a complete custom-made MSP database is applied. Further applications require a broad, well-established database to accommodate prudent identification of many fish bacterial pathogens by MALDI-TOF MS.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Animais , Aquicultura , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Peixes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
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