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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901696

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread around the world during 2020, but the precise time in which the virus began to spread locally is difficult to trace for most countries. Here, we estimate the probable onset date of the community spread of SARS-CoV-2 for heavily affected countries from Western Europe and the Americas on the basis of the cumulative number of deaths reported during the early stage of the epidemic. Our results support that SARS-CoV-2 probably started to spread locally in all western countries analysed between mid-January and mid-February 2020, thus long before community transmission was officially recognised and control measures were implemented.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
2.
Lancet ; 396(10253): 786-798, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919518

RESUMO

Complicated community-acquired pneumonia in a previously well child is a severe illness characterised by combinations of local complications (eg, parapneumonic effusion, empyema, necrotising pneumonia, and lung abscess) and systemic complications (eg, bacteraemia, metastatic infection, multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and, rarely, death). Complicated community-acquired pneumonia should be suspected in any child with pneumonia not responding to appropriate antibiotic treatment within 48-72 h. Common causative organisms are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Patients have initial imaging with chest radiography and ultrasound, which can also be used to assess the lung parenchyma, to identify pleural fluid; CT scanning is not usually indicated. Complicated pneumonia is treated with a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, and then oral antibiotics. The initial choice of antibiotic is guided by local microbiological knowledge and by subsequent positive cultures and molecular testing, including on pleural fluid if a drainage procedure is done. Information from pleural space imaging and drainage should guide the decision on whether to administer intrapleural fibrinolytics. Most patients are treated by drainage and more extensive surgery is rarely needed; in any event, in low-income and middle-income countries, resources for extensive surgeries are scarce. The clinical course of complicated community-acquired pneumonia can be prolonged, especially when patients have necrotising pneumonia, but complete recovery is the usual outcome.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Drenagem , Humanos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1210-1213, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867426

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and transmission chain of COVID-19 in two families, and to provide scientific evidence for effective prevention and control measures. Methods: Field epidemiological investigation was conducted for the COVID-19 cases occurred in two families and the close contacts in a county of Baotou city in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Descriptive statistical analysis on epidemiological data was conducted. Results: The infection source of the COVID-19 cases in the two families was a man who had living history in Wuhan. After his return, his parents were infected by him. A few days later, the members of a neighbor family were found to be infected, and relatives of this family were also infected after dining together repeatedly. Finally, ten confirmed cases and three suspected cases of COVID-19 were detected in the two families. Conclusions: Human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 can occur not only in a family but also in neighborhoods. The cases in two families had close relationship, indicating the necessity to strengthen the health education about COVID-19 prevention and control and the management of groups at high risk to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in families and neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Família , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 668, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was to evaluate initial antimicrobial regimen and clinical outcomes and to explore risk factors for clinical failure (CF) in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: 3011 hospitalized elderly patients were enrolled from 13 national teaching hospitals between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014 initiated by the CAP-China network. Risk factors for CF were screened by multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of CF in elderly CAP patients was 13.1%. CF patients were older, longer hospital stays and higher treatment costs than clinical success (CS) patients. The CF patients were more prone to present hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, pleural effusion, respiratory failure and cardiovascular events. Inappropriate initial antimicrobial regimens in CF group were significantly higher than CS group. Undertreatment, CURB-65, PH < 7.3, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg, sodium < 130 mmol/L, healthcare-associated pneumonia, white blood cells > 10,000/mm3, pleural effusion and congestive heart failure were independent risk factors for CF in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Male and bronchiectasis were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Discordant therapy was a cause of CF. Early accurate detection and management of prevention to potential causes is likely to improve clinical outcomes in elderly patients CAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: A Retrospective Study on Hospitalized Patients With Community-acquired Pneumonia in China (CAP-China) (RSCAP-China), NCT02489578. Registered 16 March 2015, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S0005E5S&selectaction=Edit&uid=U0000GWC&ts=2&cx=1bnotb.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Falha de Tratamento
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(36): 1258-1264, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915165

RESUMO

Community and close contact exposures continue to drive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CDC and other public health authorities recommend community mitigation strategies to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). Characterization of community exposures can be difficult to assess when widespread transmission is occurring, especially from asymptomatic persons within inherently interconnected communities. Potential exposures, such as close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, have primarily been assessed among COVID-19 cases, without a non-COVID-19 comparison group (3,4). To assess community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19, exposures reported by case-patients (154) were compared with exposures reported by control-participants (160). Case-patients were symptomatic adults (persons aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Control-participants were symptomatic outpatient adults from the same health care facilities who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Close contact with a person with known COVID-19 was more commonly reported among case-patients (42%) than among control-participants (14%). Case-patients were more likely to have reported dining at a restaurant (any area designated by the restaurant, including indoor, patio, and outdoor seating) in the 2 weeks preceding illness onset than were control-participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.8). Restricting the analysis to participants without known close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, case-patients were more likely to report dining at a restaurant (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9-4.3) or going to a bar/coffee shop (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5-10.1) than were control-participants. Exposures and activities where mask use and social distancing are difficult to maintain, including going to places that offer on-site eating or drinking, might be important risk factors for acquiring COVID-19. As communities reopen, efforts to reduce possible exposures at locations that offer on-site eating and drinking options should be considered to protect customers, employees, and communities.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 628-634, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842382

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates. Methods: The clinical data of children with MRSA infection and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates from 11 children's hospitals in Infectious Diseases Surveillance of Paediatrics (ISPED) group of China between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 were collected retrospectively. The children's general condition, high-risk factors, antimicrobial therapy and prognosis, differences in clinical disease and laboratory test results between different age groups, and differences of antibiotic sensitivity between community-acquired (CA)-MRSA and hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA were analyzed. The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for statistical analysis of the quantitative data and Chi-square test were used for comparison of rates. Results: Among the 452 patients, 264 were males and 188 were females, aged from 2 days to 17 years. There were 233 cases (51.5%) in the ≤1 year old group, 79 cases (17.5%) in the>1-3 years old group, 29 cases (6.4%) in the >3-5 years old group, 65 cases (14.4%) in the >5-10 years old group, and 46 cases (10.2%) in the>10 years old group. The main distributions of onset seasons were 55 cases (12.2%) in December, 47 cases (10.4%) in February, 46 cases (10.2%) in November, 45 cases (10.0%) in January, 40 cases (8.8%) in March. There were 335 cases (74.1%) CA-MRSA and 117 (25.9%) cases HA-MRSA. Among all cases, 174 cases (38.5%) had basic diseases or long-term use of hormone and immunosuppressive drugs. During the period of hospitalization, 209 cases (46.2%) received medical interventions. There were 182 patients (40.3%) had used antibiotics (ß-lactams, glycopeptides, macrolides, carbapenems, oxazolones, sulfonamides etc) 3 months before admission. The most common clinical disease was pneumonia (203 cases), followed by skin soft-tissue infection (133 cases), sepsis (92 cases), deep tissue abscess (42 cases), osteomyelitis (40 cases), and septic arthritis (26 cases), suppurative meningitis (10 cases). The proportion of pneumonia in the ≤1 year old group was higher than the >1-3 years old group,>3-5 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (57.5% (134/233) vs. 30.4% (24/79), 31.0% (9/29), 38.5% (25/65), 23.9% (11/46), χ(2)=17.374, 7.293, 7.410, 17.373, all P<0.01) The proportion of skin and soft tissue infections caused by CA-MRSA infection was higher than HA-MRSA (33.4% (112/335) vs. 17.9% (21/117), χ(2)=10.010, P=0.002), and the proportion of pneumonia caused by HA-MRSA infection was higher than CA-MRSA (53.0% (62/117) vs. 42.1% (141/335), χ(2)=4.166, P=0.041). The first white blood cell count of the ≤1 year old group was higher than that children > 1 year old ((15±8)×10(9)/L vs. (13±7)×10(9)/L, t=2.697, P=0.007), while the C-reactive protein of the ≤1 year old group was lower than the 1-3 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (8.00 (0.04-194.00) vs.17.00 (0.50-316.00), 15.20 (0.23-312.00), 21.79(0.13-219.00) mg/L, Z=3.207, 2.044, 2.513, all P<0.05), there were no significant differences in procalcitonin (PCT) between different age groups (all P>0.05). After the treatment, 131 cases were cured, 278 cases were improved, 21 cases were not cured, 12 cases died, and 10 cases were abandoned. The 452 MRSA isolates were all sensitive to vancomycin (100.0%), linezolid (100.0%), 100.0% resistant to penicillin, highly resistant to erythromycin (85.0%, 375/441), clindamycin (67.7%, 294/434), less resistant to sulfonamides (5.9%, 23/391), levofloxacin (4.5%, 19/423), gentamicin (3.2%, 14/438), rifampicin (1.8%, 8/440), minocycline (1.1%, 1/91). The antimicrobial resistance rates were not significantly different between the CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The infection of MRSA is mainly found in infants under 3 years old. The prevalent seasons are winter and spring, and MRSA is mainly acquired in the community. The main clinical diseases are pneumonia, skin soft-tissue infection and sepsis. No MRSA isolate is resistant to vancomycin, linezolid. MRSA isolates are generally sensitive to sulfonamides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, minocycline, and were highly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. To achieve better prognosis. clinicians should initiate anti-infective treatment for children with MRSA infection according to the clinical characteristics of patients and drug sensitivity of the isolates timely and effectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 151-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669524

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 540, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an ecological and multicausal problem. Infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) can be acquired and transmitted in the community. Data on community-associated ESBL-E infections/colonizations in Colombia are scarce. Georeferencing tools can be used to study the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance at the community level. METHODS: We conducted a study of geographic mapping using modern tools based on geographic information systems (GIS). Two study centers from the city of Pereira, Colombia were involved. The records of patients who had ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and phenotypic detection of ESBL was done according to CLSI standards. RESULTS: A population of 415 patients with community-acquired infections/colonizations and 77 hospital discharges were obtained. Geographic distribution was established and heat maps were created. Several hotspots were evidenced in some geographical areas of the south-west and north-east of the city. Many of the affected areas were near tertiary hospitals, rivers, and poultry industry areas. CONCLUSIONS: There are foci of antimicrobial resistance at the community level. This was demonstrated in the case of antimicrobial resistance caused by ESBL in a city in Colombia. Causality with tertiary hospitals in the city, some rivers and the poultry industry is proposed as an explanation of the evidenced phenomenon. Geographic mapping tools are useful for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Mapeamento Geográfico , Fenótipo , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 918-922, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678072

RESUMO

To limit introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the United States restricted travel from China on February 2, 2020, and from Europe on March 13. To determine whether local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be detected, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) conducted deidentified sentinel surveillance at six NYC hospital emergency departments (EDs) during March 1-20. On March 8, while testing availability for SARS-CoV-2 was still limited, DOHMH announced sustained community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). At this time, twenty-six NYC residents had confirmed COVID-19, and ED visits for influenza-like illness* increased, despite decreased influenza virus circulation.† The following week, on March 15, when only seven of the 56 (13%) patients with known exposure histories had exposure outside of NYC, the level of community SARS-CoV-2 transmission status was elevated from sustained community transmission to widespread community transmission (2). Through sentinel surveillance during March 1-20, DOHMH collected 544 specimens from patients with influenza-like symptoms (ILS)§ who had negative test results for influenza and, in some instances, other respiratory pathogens.¶ All 544 specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at CDC; 36 (6.6%) tested positive. Using genetic sequencing, CDC determined that the sequences of most SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens resembled those circulating in Europe, suggesting probable introductions of SARS-CoV-2 from Europe, from other U.S. locations, and local introductions from within New York. These findings demonstrate that partnering with health care facilities and developing the systems needed for rapid implementation of sentinel surveillance, coupled with capacity for genetic sequencing before an outbreak, can help inform timely containment and mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 477, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The probability of hospitalization in patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with an underlying comorbidity, such as a cardiac pathology, is 73-fold higher than that in CAP patients without a comorbidity. Although previous studies have investigated patients with cardiac events and pneumonia, they have not studied the burden of disease in depth at the population level. The objective of this study is to provide population-level data on patients ≥60 years old who were hospitalized with pneumonia with comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Spain over a period of 19 years (1997-2015). METHODS: This is a retrospective study based on a minimum basic data set (MBDS). The following variables were collected: age, sex, re-admission (yes/no), hospital stay (days), and other diagnoses. Hospitalization rate (per 100,000 inhabitants), mortality rate (per 100,000 inhabitants), and lethality rate (%) were obtained, and the 95% confidence interval of each rate was calculated. Analyses were stratified by age (categorized into 4-year intervals), sex, and year of admission. Differences were assessed for significance with the chi-squared test for proportions and the Poisson model for rates. Logistic regression was run with in-hospital survival as the dependent variable and sex, age, year of admission, and re-admission (yes/no) as the independent variables. The level of significance was p < 0.005. RESULTS: The total number of patients ≥60 years old hospitalized for pneumonia with comorbid CVD was 99,346. The rates of hospitalization, mortality, and lethality increased significantly with age over the 19 years. Men had higher rates of hospitalization and mortality. The probability of a patient with CAP and CVD dying was correlated with male sex, older age, hospital re-admission, and having been hospitalized earlier in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired pneumonia with comorbid cardiovascular disease continues to be a major cause of hospitalization in Spain, especially in the elderly population, making it necessary to develop more preventive strategies for this group of patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2332-2337, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to investigate and compare the risks and incidences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) between the 2 groups of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Approach and Results: Medical records of 616 pneumonia patients who were admitted to the Yichang Central People's Hospital in Hubei, China, from January 1 to March 23, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were treated in the dedicated COVID-19 units, and the patients with CAP were admitted to regular hospital campus. Risks of VTE were assessed using the Padua prediction score. All the patients received pharmaceutical or mechanical VTE prophylaxis. VTE was diagnosed using Duplex ultrasound or computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. Differences between COVID-19 and CAP groups were compared statistically. All statistical tests were 2 sided, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data managements and analyses were performed by IBM SPSS, version 24, software (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL). Of the 616 patients, 256 had COVID-19 pneumonia and 360 patients had CAP. The overall rate of VTE was 2% in COVID-19 pneumonia group and 3.6% in CAP group, respectively (P=0.229). In these two groups, 15.6% of the COVID-19 pneumonia patients and 10% of the CAP patients were categorized as high risk for VTE (Padua score, >4), which were significantly different (P=0.036). In those high-risk patients, the incidence of VTE was 12.5% in COVID-19 pneumonia group and 16.7% in CAP group (P=0.606). Subgroup analysis of the critically ill patients showed that VTE rate was 6.7% in COVID-19 group versus 13% in CAP group (P=0.484). In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 and CAP was 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P=0.180). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that COVID-19 pneumonia was associated with hypercoagulable state. However, the rate of VTE in COVID-19 pneumonia patients was not significantly higher than that in CAP patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Farm Hosp ; 44(7): 43-48, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533670

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a devastating effect on the nursing homes for dependent older people. The difficulty of management of this crisis is aggravated by the frailty of the people served and by the specific characteristics of the care  area, mainly the fact of not being integrated into the health system. The  objective of this work is to describe the pharmaceutical care developed by a  hospital pharmacy service established in a nursing home and, from a more  global perspective, analyze the strengths and weaknesses found from the  various experiences of hospital pharmacy in all spanish autonomous  communities to deal with this pandemic. Specialized pharmaceutical care has  provided rigor in the validation and treatments review processes from a  comprehensive perspective, maximizing safety and collaborating in the  establishment of the therapeutic intensity degree most appropriate to the  individual situation, has ensured the availability of all necessary medications,  has collaborated in the acquisition and management of personal protective equipment, has been able to adapt the dispensation processes to the internal  nursing homes sectorization and has facilitated the coordination between the  nursing home and the health system. It is clear that the crisis casued by COVID- 19 has put relevance of the need to integrate the social-health level into the  health system. And also, the contribution of specialized pharmaceutical care in  improving healthcare coverage and coordination with health services has  highlighted the urgency of developing the current legislation, prioritizing the  establishment of pharmacy services able to provid specialized and specific care  for this area, so that it meets healthcare needs and is integrated into the health  system.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Sistemas de Medicação no Hospital/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Polimedicação , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 862-864, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482515

RESUMO

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive USA300 clone is a highly pathogenic and global epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone. Athletes are particularly vulnerable to CA-MRSA infection because of the frequency of skin trauma, close-contact situations, and sharing of equipment that is customary in the athletic setting. We experienced a case of Japanese collegiate football player with septic pulmonary emboli secondary to infectious iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis caused by the USA300 clone. Here, we screened the nasal carriage of USA300 clone colonization among asymptomatic teammate of the patient to elucidate the infection route. Among 69 nasal samples, CA-MRSA strains were found in 5.8% (four samples). Molecular epidemiological analyses showed that three of the CA-MRSA strains were USA300 clone. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that all nasal USA300 clones showed 100% identity with the USA300 clone isolated from their teammate with critical infection. Our findings indicate that nasal colonization of the PVL-positive CA-MRSA, especially USA300 clone, pose a threat among contact sport athletes in Japan likewise other countries. An immediate infection control strategy for contact sport athletes is necessary to prevent outbreaks of PVL-positive CA-MRSA infections.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Futebol , Esportes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e209673, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327117

RESUMO

Importance: On February 27, 2020, the first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the Netherlands. During the following weeks, at 2 Dutch teaching hospitals, 9 health care workers (HCWs) received a diagnosis of COVID-19, 8 of whom had no history of travel to China or northern Italy, raising the question of whether undetected community circulation was occurring. Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of COVID-19 among HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2 teaching hospitals in the southern part of the Netherlands in March 2020, during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care workers employed in the participating hospitals who experienced fever or respiratory symptoms were asked to voluntarily participate in a screening for infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data analysis was performed in March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was determined by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on oropharyngeal samples. Structured interviews were conducted to document symptoms for all HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: Of 9705 HCWs employed (1722 male [18%]), 1353 (14%) reported fever or respiratory symptoms and were tested. Of those, 86 HCWs (6%) were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (median age, 49 years [range, 22-66 years]; 15 [17%] male), representing 1% of all HCWs employed. Most HCWs experienced mild disease, and only 46 (53%) reported fever. Eighty HCWs (93%) met a case definition of fever and/or coughing and/or shortness of breath. Only 3 (3%) of the HCWs identified through the screening had a history of travel to China or northern Italy, and 3 (3%) reported having been exposed to an inpatient with a known diagnosis of COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: Within 2 weeks after the first Dutch case was detected, a substantial proportion of HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, likely as a result of acquisition of the virus in the community during the early phase of local spread. The high prevalence of mild clinical presentations, frequently not including fever, suggests that the currently recommended case definition for suspected COVID-19 should be used less stringently.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008268, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352959

RESUMO

Data on causes of community-onset bloodstream infection in Myanmar are scarce. We aimed to identify etiological agents of bloodstream infections and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among febrile adolescents and adults attending Yangon General Hospital (YGH), Yangon, Myanmar. We recruited patients ≥12 years old with fever ≥38°C who attended YGH from 5 October 2015 through 4 October 2016. A standardized clinical history and physical examination was performed. Provisional diagnoses and vital status at discharge was recorded. Blood was collected for culture, bloodstream isolates were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae and sequence types of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus agalactiae. Among 947 participants, 90 (9.5%) had bloodstream infections (BSI) of which 82 (91.1%) were of community-onset. Of 91 pathogens isolated from 90 positive blood cultures, we identified 43 (47.3%) Salmonella enterica including 33 (76.7%) serovar Typhi and 10 (23.3%) serovar Paratyphi A; 20 (22.0%) Escherichia coli; 7 (7.7%) Klebsiella pneumoniae; 6 (6.6%), Staphylococcus aureus; 4 (4.4%) yeasts; and 1 (1.1%) each of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Streptococcus agalactiae. Of 70 Enterobacteriaceae, 62 (88.6%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Among 27 E. coli and K. pneumoniae, 18 (66.6%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producers, and 1 (3.7%) each were AmpC beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producers. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated predominantly with mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. blaCTX-M-15 expression was common among ESBL-producers. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. Fluoroquinolone-resistant, but not multiple drug-resistant, typhoidal S. enterica was the leading cause of community-onset BSI at a tertiary hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. Fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance was common among other Enterobactericeae. Our findings inform empiric management of severe febrile illness in Yangon and indicate that measures to prevent and control enteric fever are warranted. We suggest ongoing monitoring and efforts to mitigate antimicrobial resistance among community-onset pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Febre/etiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/microbiologia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e209673, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437576

RESUMO

Importance: On February 27, 2020, the first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the Netherlands. During the following weeks, at 2 Dutch teaching hospitals, 9 health care workers (HCWs) received a diagnosis of COVID-19, 8 of whom had no history of travel to China or northern Italy, raising the question of whether undetected community circulation was occurring. Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of COVID-19 among HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2 teaching hospitals in the southern part of the Netherlands in March 2020, during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care workers employed in the participating hospitals who experienced fever or respiratory symptoms were asked to voluntarily participate in a screening for infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data analysis was performed in March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was determined by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on oropharyngeal samples. Structured interviews were conducted to document symptoms for all HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: Of 9705 HCWs employed (1722 male [18%]), 1353 (14%) reported fever or respiratory symptoms and were tested. Of those, 86 HCWs (6%) were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (median age, 49 years [range, 22-66 years]; 15 [17%] male), representing 1% of all HCWs employed. Most HCWs experienced mild disease, and only 46 (53%) reported fever. Eighty HCWs (93%) met a case definition of fever and/or coughing and/or shortness of breath. Only 3 (3%) of the HCWs identified through the screening had a history of travel to China or northern Italy, and 3 (3%) reported having been exposed to an inpatient with a known diagnosis of COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: Within 2 weeks after the first Dutch case was detected, a substantial proportion of HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, likely as a result of acquisition of the virus in the community during the early phase of local spread. The high prevalence of mild clinical presentations, frequently not including fever, suggests that the currently recommended case definition for suspected COVID-19 should be used less stringently.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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