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1.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(2): 18-20, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122094

RESUMO

Hospital antibiograms, because they are typically derived from samples obtained from hospitalized patients, may overestimate the prevalence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus in individuals presenting to the hospital for surgery. Because hospital antibiograms are commonly used to justify empiric perioperative prophylactic antibiotic selection prior to surgery, this may lead to unnecessary treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics such as vancomycin. In a single-institution study, we observed that in our hospital antibiogram the proportion of S. aureus that are methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was significantly higher (45%) than isolates in preoperative nasal cultures obtained at the same hospital in outpatients prior to their lower extremity joint replacement surgery (13%): mean difference 0.32, [95% CI 0.25, 0.39], p <0.0001. These data suggest that hospital antibiograms may overstate the true prevalence of MRSA in those at risk for MRSA surgical site infections who present from the outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19283, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080142

RESUMO

Surgical site infection (SSI) can be a devastating complication in joint arthroplasty. Objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with SSI following primary joint arthroplasty.This retrospective cohort study was performed from January 2016 to October 2017. A total of 986 patients were enrolled. We extracted the patients' baseline information, treatment-related variables and indexes of laboratory examination during their hospitalization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to find the optimum cut-off value for serum albumin. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis models were performed respectively to determine independent predictors of SSI.Nine hundred eighty-six patients with complete data were included in the final analysis. There were 314 male and 672 females in this study with a mean age of 64.6 years, and twenty patients developed SSI. The overall incidence of SSI was 2.03%, with 0.20% for deep infection and 1.83% for superficial SSI. Independent predictors of SSI identified by multivariate analysis were ALB < 36.7 g/L (odds ratio = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.24-9.48; P = .018), BMI ≥28 (odds ratio = 5.08; 95%CI = 1.52-17.01; P = .008) and ASA class 3 or higher (odds ratio = 3.36; 95% CI = 1.22-9.30; P = .019). Drain use was demonstrated as a protective factor of postoperative wound healing.The incidence of SSI following primary joint arthroplasty was 2.03%. ASA ≥3, BMI ≥28 and ALB < 36.7 g/L were demonstrated as risk factors of postoperative wound infection. Supplementary nutrition support is necessary to reduce the risk of infection in patients who underwent artificial joint arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Drenagem , Feminino , Globulinas/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(1): 5-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intranasal septal splints are often used in nasal septal surgeries. Routine use of postoperative antibiotics is an accepted practice, although data regarding its efficacy in preventing postsurgical complications are limited. This study aimed to examine bacterial colonization on septal splints following prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the association with postoperative infections. METHODS: Fifty-five patients underwent septoplasty by a single surgeon between March 2015 and April 2016. All had intranasal septal splints and were given antibiotic prophylaxis for 7 days until removal of splints. Nasal cultures were taken before surgery, and septal splints were examined for bacterial colonization following their removal. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (65%) had positive nasal culture prior to surgery. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (30%) and Enterobacteriaceae species (66%). All these patients had postoperative bacterial colonization on septal splints. In 15 patients with negative preoperative cultures, bacteria were isolated postoperatively. An increased resistance profile was documented postoperatively in 9 patients (16%), including two with multidrug resistance. In two of these patients preoperative wild-type strains acquired antibiotic resistance postoperatively. No adverse drug reactions to antibiotics were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Increased bacterial growth and emergence of resistant strains were observed on intranasal septal splints despite prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Nonetheless, this did not translate into clinical infection. Thus, considering antibiotics overuse and increasing bacterial resistance, further research is needed to determine the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of intranasal splints.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/métodos , Contenções/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Cefalexina/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Cultura , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1026, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of nosocomial pathogens in many intensive care units poses a threat to patients and public health worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen endemic in many hospital settings. Patients who are colonized with MRSA may develop an infection that can complicate their prior illness. METHODS: A mathematical model to describe transmission dynamics of MRSA among high-risk and low-risk patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) via hands of health care workers is developed. We aim to explore the effects of the proportion of high-risk patients, the admission proportions of colonized and infected patients, the probability of developing an MRSA infection, and control strategies on MRSA prevalence among patients. RESULTS: The increasing proportion of colonized and infected patients at admission, along with the higher proportion of high-risk patients in an ICU, may significantly increase MRSA prevalence. In addition, the prevalence becomes higher if patients in the high-risk group are more likely to develop an MRSA infection. Our results also suggest that additional infection prevention and control measures targeting high-risk patients may considerably help reduce MRSA prevalence as compared to those targeting low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of high-risk patients and the proportion of colonized and infected patients in the high-risk group at admission may play an important role on MRSA prevalence. Control strategies targeting high-risk patients may help reduce MRSA prevalence.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1023, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus carriage is a known risk factor for staphylococcal disease. However, the carriage rates vary by country, demographic group and profession. This study aimed to determine the S. aureus carriage rate in children in Eastern Uganda, and identify S. aureus lineages that cause infection in Uganda. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples from 742 healthy children less than 5 years residing in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the BD Phoenix™ system. Genotyping was performed by spa and SCCmec typing. RESULTS: The processed samples yielded 144 S. aureus isolates (one per child) therefore, the S. aureus carriage rate in children was 19.4% (144/742). Thirty one percent (45/144) of the isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA) yielding a carriage rate of 6.1% (45/742). All isolates were susceptible to rifampicin, vancomycin and linezolid. Moreover, all MRSA were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin. Compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (68.8%, 99/144), MRSA isolates were more resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials -trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 73.3% (33/45) vs. 27.3% (27/99) [p < 0.0001]; erythromycin 75.6% (34/45) vs. 24.2% (24/99) [p < 0.0001]; chloramphenicol 60% (27/45) vs. 19.2% (19/99) [p < 0.0001]; gentamicin 55.6% (25/45) vs. 25.3% (25/99) [p = 0.0004]; and ciprofloxacin 35.6% (16/45) vs. 2% (2/99) [p < 0.0001]. Furthermore, 42 MRSA (93.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and one exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. Overall, 61 MSSA (61.6%) were MDR, including three mupirocin and clindamycin resistant isolates. Seven spa types were detected among MRSA, of which t037 and t064 were predominant and associated with SCCmec types I and IV, respectively. Fourteen spa types were detected in MSSA which consisted mainly of t645 and t4353. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus carriage rate in healthy children in Eastern Uganda is high and comparable to rates for hospitalized patients in Kampala. The detection of mupirocin resistance is worrying as it could rapidly increase if mupirocin is administered in a low-income setting. S. aureus strains of spa types t064, t037 (MRSA) and t645, t4353 (MSSA) are prevalent and could be responsible for majority of staphylococcal infections in Uganda.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Nariz/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Mupirocina/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 371-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880882

RESUMO

Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 541-548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880897

RESUMO

Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1062, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the cumulative incidence of and factors associated with mortality among patients with infective endocarditis (IE) at Thailand's largest national tertiary referral center. METHODS: Medical charts of adult patients diagnosed with IE by Duke criteria at Siriraj Hospital during January 2005 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of 380 patients, 66.3% had definite IE, and 81.3% had native valve IE (NVE). Cumulative IE incidence was 5.67/1000 admissions. The most common pathogens were viridans group streptococci (VGS) (39.7%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (13.1%), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (11.5%) in NVE; and, MSSA (20.3%), VGS (20.3%), and Enterococcus spp. (16.9%) in prosthetic valve (PVE) or device-related IE (DRIE). Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.4%. Mortality was significantly higher in PVE/DRIE than in NVE (26.8% vs. 16.5%, p = 0.047). End-stage renal disease (ESRD) (aOR: 9.43, 95% CI: 2.36-37.70), diabetes mellitus (DM) (aOR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.06-7.49), neurological complication (aOR: 14.16, 95% CI: 5.11-39.22), congestive heart failure (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.91-9.75), hospital-acquired infection (aOR: 3.78, 95% CI: 1.66-8.57), renal complication (aOR: 3.12, 95%CI: 1.32-7.37), and other complication during admission (aOR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.41-7.61) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IE, and the mortality rate among those diagnosed with IE are both increasing in Thailand - particularly among those with PVE or DRIE. End-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and development of IE-related complications during admission were found to be independent predictors of mortality.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estreptococos Viridans/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 193, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692677

RESUMO

Introduction: Blood cultures are the best diagnostic tool for the detection of bacteremia. However, false positive results may lead to confusion about antibiotic regimens, putting the lives of patients at risk. The main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) as well as of Corynebacterium spp and Bacillus spp in the bags of blood culture analyzed in the microbiology laboratory at the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca. This prevalence was evaluated according to various Hospital Departments over the year 2016. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study by analysing the computerized database of the Laboratory of bacteriology and virology at the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca over a 12-month period from 1st January to 31st December 2016. Our study focused on bacteria forming part of the commensal flora (coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacteria spp and Bacillus spp). The blood culture bags were incubated in the automated blood culture system (Bactec FX). The identification of the germs from a positive culture was performed according to the standard techniques of bacteriology and susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST 2015. We conducted an analysis of the computerized database of KALISIL system (Netika) version (2.2.10.) of the Microbiology Laboratory at the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca. Results: Out of 7959 requests for blood cultures obtained from 5801 patients addressed to the laboratory of bacteriology, 2491 were positive, of which 848, reflecting a rate of 34% of positive bags or 10.6% of the whole of bags received over the year 2016, were positive for coagulase negative Staphylococcus, 56 bags of blood cultures, reflecting a rate of 2.2%, were positive for Corrynébacteruim SP, followed by 60 bags of blood cultures, reflecting a rate of 2.4%, which were positive for Bacillus sp. The frequency of isolation of coagulase negative Staphylococcus compared to other bacteria according to Clinical Departments showed a higher frequency in the Paediatric Department (47.2%) followed by the Medicine Department (44.1%). Conclusion: This study shows that coagulase negative Staphylococci are the organisms most frequently isolated from blood cultures. They are a non-negligible cause of nosocomial infections, but they are also the most common blood culture contaminants.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Coagulase , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 899, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reports designate the recent increase in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) nasal carriage. Because of the scanty information regarding the nasal carriage sate of MRSA in the west of Iran, the purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of CA-MRSA in Sanandaj city. METHODS: Swabs collected from anterior nares of 600 volunteers were analyzed for the presence of S. aureus. The isolates were further investigated for methicillin resistance by using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, followed by PCR-amplification of the mecA gene. SCCmec types and the presence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) encoding genes were determined through PCR. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Nasal screening identified 181 S. aureus, of which 55 isolates were MRSA. SCCmec types IV and V were detected in MRSA at frequencies of 80 and 20%, respectively. The overall frequency of pvl genes among the MRSA isolates was 14.54%. MRSA isolates were highly susceptible (98.18%) to mupirocin, gentamicin, and fusidic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in the population could pose a serious public health concern for the region. Additionally, advent of drug-resistant pvl-positive strains demands continuous surveillance on the colonization state of CA-MRSA in order to prevent dissemination of the bacterium in the community.


Assuntos
Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exotoxinas/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leucocidinas/genética , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17185, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567961

RESUMO

Infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) mostly present as recurrent skin abscesses and furunculosis. However, life-threatening infections (eg, necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and osteomyelitis) caused by PVL-SA have also been reported.We assessed the clinical phenotype, frequency, clinical implications (surgery, length of treatment in hospitals/intensive care units, and antibiotic treatments), and potential preventability of severe PVL-SA infections in children.Total, 75 children treated for PVL-SA infections in our in- and outpatient units from 2012 to 2017 were included in this retrospective study.Ten out of 75 children contracted severe infections (PVL-methicillin resistant S aureus n = 4) including necrotizing pneumonia (n = 4), necrotizing fasciitis (n = 2), pyomyositis (n = 2; including 1 patient who also had pneumonia), mastoiditis with cerebellitis (n = 1), preorbital cellulitis (n = 1), and recurrent deep furunculosis in an immunosuppressed patient (n = 1). Specific complications of PVL-SA infections were venous thrombosis (n = 2), sepsis (n = 5), respiratory failure (n = 5), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). The median duration of hospital stay was 14 days (range 5-52 days). In 6 out of 10 patients a history suggestive for PVL-SA colonization in the patient or close family members before hospital admission was identified.PVL-SA causes severe to life-threatening infections requiring lengthy treatments in hospital in a substantial percentage of symptomatic PVL-SA colonized children. More than 50% of severe infections might be prevented by prompt testing for PVL-SA in individuals with a history of abscesses or furunculosis, followed by decolonization measures.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pneumonia Necrosante/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11384-11400, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606215

RESUMO

Objectives of this study were to (1) describe the intramammary infection (IMI) prevalence and pathogen profiles in quarters of cows approaching dry-off in US dairy herds, (2) compare IMI prevalence in quarters of cows exposed to different bedding material types, and (3) identify associations between bedding bacteria count and IMI in cows approaching dry-off. Eighty herds using 1 of 4 common bedding materials (manure solids, organic non-manure, new sand, and recycled sand) were recruited in a multi-site cross-sectional study. Each herd was visited twice for sampling. At each visit, aseptic quarter-milk samples were collected from 20 cows approaching dry-off (>180 d pregnant). Samples of unused and used bedding were also collected. Aerobic culture was used to determine the IMI status of 10,448 quarters and to enumerate counts (log10 cfu/mL) of all bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Streptococcus-like organisms (SSLO), coliforms, Klebsiella spp., noncoliform gram-negatives, Bacillus spp., and Prototheca spp. in unused (n = 148) and used (n = 150) bedding. The association between bedding bacteria count and IMI was determined using multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects. Quarter-level prevalence of IMI was 21.1%, which was primarily caused by non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. (11.4%) and SSLO (5.6%). Only modest differences in IMI prevalence were observed between the 4 common bedding material types. Counts of all bacteria in unused bedding was positively associated with odds of IMI caused by any pathogen [ALL-IMI; odds ratio (OR) = 1.08]. A positive association was also observed for counts of SSLO in unused bedding and SSLO-IMI (OR = 1.09). These patterns of association were generally consistent across the 4 common bedding materials. In contrast, the association between counts of all bacteria in used bedding and ALL-IMI varied by bedding type, with positive associations observed in quarters exposed to manure solids (OR = 2.29) and organic non-manure (OR = 1.51) and a negative association in quarters exposed to new sand (OR = 0.47). Findings from this study suggest that quarter-level IMI prevalence in late-lactation cows is low in US dairy herds. Furthermore, bedding material type may not be an important risk factor for IMI in late lactation. Higher levels of bacteria in bedding may increase IMI prevalence at dry-off in general, but this relationship is likely to vary according to bedding material type.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/microbiologia , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/veterinária , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Lactação , Modelos Logísticos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11401-11413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606221

RESUMO

Because cloth udder towels (CUT) may function as a fomite for mastitis-causing pathogens, most udder health laboratories offer towel culture services as a tool to monitor towel hygiene. However, no studies have investigated if an association exists between bacteria levels in CUT and udder health outcomes. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1) describe associations between herd-level measures of towel bacteria count (ToBC) and quarter-level intramammary infection (IMI) status in late-lactation cows, (2) establish pathogen-specific target levels of bacteria in CUT to aid the interpretation of towel culture reports, and (3) identify laundering-related risk factors for high ToBC. The study was conducted in 67 herds from 10 dairy states in the United States that used CUT. These 67 herds were originally recruited as part of a larger (80 herd) cross-sectional study of bedding management. Each herd was visited once during December 2017 to April 2018 and quarter-milk samples (n = 4,656) were collected from late-gestation (>180 d pregnant) cows (n = 1,313). Two recently laundered CUT were collected and a questionnaire was used to collect information about pre-milking teat preparation and CUT management practices. Quarter-level IMI status was determined using standard bacteriologic methods. In addition, colony-forming units of all bacteria (total bacteria), Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. or Streptococcus-like organisms (SSLO), coliforms, noncoliform gram-negatives, and Bacillus spp. were determined for each pair of CUT (log10 cfu/cm2). The association between ToBC and IMI was determined using multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects. After dichotomizing ToBC into high and low categories, associations between towel management practices and ToBC category were determined using unconditional logistic regression. The quarter-level prevalence of IMI was 19.6%, which was predominantly caused by non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. (NAS; 10.2%) and SSLO (5.1%). The predominant bacteria in CUT were Bacillus spp. (median = 3.13 log10 cfu/cm2). Total bacteria count was not associated with odds of IMI (odds ratio = 1.06), likely due to the predominance of Bacillus spp. in CUT and low number of IMI caused by Bacillus spp. In contrast, counts of Staphylococcus spp. and SSLO were positively associated with odds of IMI caused by NAS (odds ratio = 1.33) and SSLO (odds ratio = 1.45), respectively. Of 12 CUT management practices evaluated, only the failure to use a dryer was identified as a clear predictor of risk for a high ToBC (risk ratio of high coliform count = 8.17). Our study findings suggest that CUT may act as a fomite for NAS and SSLO. We recommend that herds aim to keep counts of Staphylococcus spp. and SSLO in CUT below 32 cfu/cm2 (or 5 cfu/in2), and that laundered towels be completely dried in a hot air dryer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Lactação , Modelos Logísticos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
14.
N Z Med J ; 132(1502): 84-95, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563930

RESUMO

Deadly outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infection occurred in New Zealand from the mid-1950s to early 1960s. The 'H' or 'Hospital-Bug' epidemic was part of a pandemic wave characterised by high numbers of nosocomial staphylococcal infections and the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Surgical patients and childbearing women and babies proved particularly vulnerable to the predominant pathogenic strain, identified as phage type 80/81. The post-war baby boom was at its height in New Zealand, and overcrowded maternity hospitals and outdated nursing techniques increased the risks of infection. The outbreaks challenged the medical profession, which had become reliant on antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment. The Health Department ascribed responsibility for the indiscriminate use of antibiotics to medical practitioners but had little control over their prescribing habits. Confronted by increasing infection rates and falling public confidence in the maternity services, health officials supported a fundamental change in maternity care to 'rooming-in' of mother and baby, epidemiological research on staphylococcal transmission in hospitals, notification of nosocomial infections, improved barrier nursing and heightened awareness of appropriate aseptic techniques. Phage type 80/81 waned in the early 1960s concurrent with the arrival of methicillin but the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the 1980s, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) in the 2000s, and the rapid emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria over the past decade, highlights the potential for further outbreaks while the use of antimicrobials remains high. Non-pharmacological interventions such as those promoted during the 'H-Bug' epidemic are likely to be central to controlling future waves of resistant nosocomial infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecção Hospitalar , Surtos de Doenças/história , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/história , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Nova Zelândia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/história
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2165316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534954

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Staphylococcus, Gram negative bacteria (GNB) and the occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci (MRS) and Extended-Spectrum ß-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing GNB. Bacterial culture of 300 clinical mastitis milk samples from 30 different farms across different regions of Tunisia during four seasons was realized. The obtained results showed the presence of high frequency of the tested samples with a positive growth for bacteria (64%). In addition a high recovery rate of Staphylococci and/or GNB in these clinical mastitis milk samples (87%) was detected. In addition, a high percentage of GNB (68.2%) compared to Staphylococcus species (32%) was noted. Moreover, a significant variation of the number of these bacteria according to the farm location, the seasons, and cows age was detected. The highest percentage was observed in the North of Tunisia during the winter and the spring seasons in adult cows with a dominance of GNB growth. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) (n=11) and GNB (n=16) species were identified. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most frequently found bacterium followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The dominant Staphylococcus isolates was S. xylosus followed by S. aureus the major pathogen isolated. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in 3 S. aureus and 14 CNS isolates; all of these isolates were lacking the mecC gene. Various species of GNB, resistant to cefotaxime, were detected (n=15). ESBLs were detected on selective medium in 10 E. coli and 4 K. pneumoniae. All ESBL producers strains carry the blaCTX-M. The presence of different resistant mastitis pathogens in dairy farms may complicate therapeutic options and contaminated animals could become zoonotic agent reservoir for human.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Mastite Bovina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/enzimologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/enzimologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Mastite Bovina/enzimologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/genética , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/enzimologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522665

RESUMO

From 1 January to 31 December 2017, 36 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2017 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 2,515 S. aureus bacteraemia episodes were reported, of which 77% were community-onset. Approximately one in five S. aureus (19.0%) were methicillin resistant. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 18.7% which was significantly higher than the 14.0% mortality associated with methicillin-susceptible SAB. With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was rare. However in addition to the ß-lactams approximately 42% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 14% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the EUCAST breakpoints teicoplanin resistance was detected in five S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to two healthcare-associated MRSA clones: ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Australia. Seventy-five percent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated clones. Although polyclonal approximately 74% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA), ST5-IV [2B], ST45-VT [5C2&5] and ST1-IV [2B]. CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. ST45-VT [5C2&5] accounted for 12.8% of CA-MRSA. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important antimicrobial resistance patterns in community- and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540055

RESUMO

Recent reports from the Netherlands document the emergence of novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types (e.g., ST-398) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in livestock, particularly swine. In Eastern North Carolina (NC), one of the densest pig farming areas in the United States, as many as 14% of MRSA isolates from active case finding in our medical center have no matches in a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) library. The current study was designed to determine if these non-matched MRSA (NM-MRSA) were geographically associated with exposure to pig farming in Eastern NC. While residential proximity to farm waste lagoons lacked association with NM-MRSA in a logistic regression model, a spatial cluster was identified in the county with highest pig density. Using MLST, we found a heterogeneous distribution of strain types comprising the NM-MRSA isolates from the most pig dense regions, including ST-5 and ST-398. Our study raises the warning that patients in Eastern NC harbor livestock associated MRSA strains are not easily identifiable by rep-PCR. Future MRSA studies in livestock dense areas in the U.S. should investigate further the role of pig-human interactions.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Suínos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
18.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e8, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478731

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, has been detected in food products of animal origin globally. Limited data have been reported on the factors contributing to antibiotic resistance of food-borne pathogens in South Africa. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus, including antibiotic-resistant strains, in poultry meat products as well as the evaluation of potential risk factors for contamination of poultry meat products with antibiotic-resistant S. aureus isolates. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in municipalities located across the nine provinces of South Africa, which included abattoirs, meat processing facilities, retail outlets and cold stores at the major ports of entry into South Africa. Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various poultry meat products were tested for susceptibility to 14 antibiotic compounds representing 10 antibiotic classes using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Potential risk factors were evaluated using a logistic regression model. Of the 311 samples tested, 34.1% (n = 106) were positive for S. aureus (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.9% - 39.7%). Seventy-two of the 106 isolates were randomly selected for antibiotic sensitivity testing. Twenty-one per cent (n = 15) of the isolates selected for sensitivity testing were methicillin-resistant strains (95% CI, 12.2% - 32.0%). Multi-drug resistance was detected in 22.2% (n = 16) of these isolates tested (95% CI, 13.3% - 33.6%). Origin of the product (p = 0.160), type of meat product (p = 0.962), type of facility (p = 0.115) and facility hygiene practices (p = 0.484) were not significantly associated with contamination of poultry meat products with methicillin-resistant strains. The study provides baseline data for further studies on antibiotic resistance risk assessments for food-borne pathogens, including S. aureus, which should guide the implementation plans of the South African National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy Framework, 2017-2024.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Aves Domésticas , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 18(1): 25, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of a medically important Gram-positive bacteria, which can be harboured majorly in the nasal cavity. Risk of consequent infection in a person colonized with S. aureus as well as MRSA upsurges with time and remains insistently increased. Hence, the objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization in Ethiopia at large. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Hinari, Sci Hub, Scopus, and the Directory of Open Access Journals were searched and a total of 10 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used for the literature search strategy, selection of publications, data extraction, and the reporting of results for the review. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11 software via random effects model. The pooled prevalence was presented in forest plots and figure with 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of ten studies with 2495 nasal swab samples were included in this meta-analysis, and the overall pooled estimated prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization in Ethiopia were 30.90% [95% CI 21.81-39.99%], 10.94% [95% CI 8.13-13.75%] respectively. Subgroup analysis was also noted in different regions of Ethiopia, henceforth Oromia region ranked first 21.28% [95% CI 8.22-34.35%], followed by Amhara region 6.78% [95% CI 3.02-10.54%], whereas relatively low magnitude of MRSA colonization was demonstrated from Tigray region 4.82% [95% CI 2.18-7.45%]. CONCLUSION: The analysis showed that the overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization in Ethiopia were comparable with the global prevalence. But a huge variation between the regions, so the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia should design appropriate decolonization program that can address the specific regional groups as well as the national population.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 614, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Molecular typing such as spa typing is used to control and prevent Staphylococcus aureus widespread in hospitals and communities. Hence, the aim of this study was to find the most common types of S. aureus strain circulating in Shiraz via spa and SCCmec typing methods. RESULTS: Total of 159 S. aureus isolates were collected from two tertiary hospitals in Shiraz. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method and then genetic analysis of bacteria was performed using SCCmec and spa typing. In this study 31.4% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The majority of isolates were SSCmec type III. Spa type t030 was the most prominent type among MRSA strains. For the first time in Iran, spa003, t386, t1877, t314, t186, t1816, t304, t325, t345 were reported in this study. It was shown that there is a possibility that these spa types are native to this region. Our findings showed that SCCmec II, III and IV disseminate from hospital to community and vice versa. Thus, effective monitoring of MRSA in hospital and community is necessary.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica , Glicopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
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