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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 667, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequencies of polymicrobial infection and pathogens evidenced in course of infected nonunion treatment are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims at investigating microbial patterns in infected nonunions. METHODS: Surgically treated patients with long bone infected nonunion admitted between January 2010 and March 2018 were included in the study. Microbiological culture and polymerase-chain-reaction results of tissue samples of initial and follow-up revision surgeries were assessed and compared with patient and treatment characteristics. RESULTS: Forty two patients with a mean age of 53.9 ± 17.7 years were included. In six patients (14.3%) polymicrobial infection was evident. A change of pathogens evidenced in course of the treatment occurred in 21 patients (50%). In 16 patients (38.1%) previously detected bacteria could be determined by microbial testing after further revision surgery. Staphylococcus aureus was most often detected (n = 34, 30.6%), followed by Enterococcus spp. (n = 25, 22.5%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 18, 16.2%). Five Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to methicillin (MRSA). In patients without polymicrobial infection or further germ detection in course of the treatment, 86.4% of the infections were due to Staphylococcus spp.. Infections due to Streptococcus spp. and gram-negative bacteria were only present in patients with polymicrobial infection and germ-change in course of the treatment. CONCLUSION: A low rate of polymicrobial infections was evidenced in the present study. Germ-change often occurs in course of revision surgeries. Prospective studies with more sensitive diagnostic tools are necessary to elucidate the therapeutical relevance of microbiological testing results for surgical as well as medical treatment in infected nonunions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterococcus/genética , Consolidação da Fratura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 646, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is known as a new viral infection. Viral-bacterial co-infections are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. To date, few studies have investigated bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 patients. Hence, we designed the current study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Nineteen patients admitted to our ICUs were enrolled in this study. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. Endotracheal aspirate samples were also collected and cultured on different media to support the growth of the bacteria. After incubation, formed colonies on the media were identified using Gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out based on the CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of nineteen COVID-19 patients, 11 (58%) patients were male and 8 (42%) were female, with a mean age of ~ 67 years old. The average ICU length of stay was ~ 15 days and at the end of the study, 18 cases (95%) expired and only was 1 case (5%) discharged. In total, all patients were found positive for bacterial infections, including seventeen Acinetobacter baumannii (90%) and two Staphylococcus aureus (10%) strains. There was no difference in the bacteria species detected in any of the sampling points. Seventeen of 17 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to the evaluated antibiotics. No metallo-beta-lactamases -producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain was found. One of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was detected as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and isolated from the patient who died, while another Staphylococcus aureus strain was susceptible to tested drugs and identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the concern of superinfection in COVID-19 patients due to Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial co-infections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/complicações , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13396-13404, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867467

RESUMO

Rapid, accurate, reliable, and risk-free tracking of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level is critical to achieve efficient source control and prevent outbreaks of microbial infectious diseases. For the first time, we report a promising approach for integrating the concepts of a remarkably large Stokes shift and dual-recognition into a single matrix to develop a pathogenic microorganism stimuli-responsive ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe with speed, cost efficiency, stability, ultrahigh specificity, and sensitivity. As a proof-of-concept, we selected the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the target analyte model, which easily bound to its recognition aptamer and the broad-spectrum glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van). To improve the specificity and short sample-to-answer time, we employed classic noncovalent π-π stacking interactions as a driving force to trigger the binding of Van and aptamer dual-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent Apt-Van-QDs to the surface of an unreported blue fluorescent π-rich electronic carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), achieving S. aureus stimuli-responsive ratiometric nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs. In the assembly of Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs, the blue CNPs (energy donor) and NIR Apt-Van-QDs (energy acceptor) became close to allow the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process, leading to a remarkable blue fluorescence quenching for the CNPs at ∼465 nm and a clear NIR fluorescence enhancement for Apt-Van-QDs at ∼725 nm. In the presence of S. aureus, the FRET process from CNPs to Apt-Van-QDs was disrupted, causing the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs to display a ratiometric fluorescent response to S. aureus, which exhibited a large Stokes shift of ∼260 nm and rapid sample-to-answer detection time (∼30.0 min). As expected, the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs showed an ultrahigh specificity for ratiometric fluorescence detection of S. aureus with a good detection limit of 1.0 CFU/mL, allowing the assay at single-cell level. Moreover, we also carried out the precise analysis of S. aureus in actual samples with acceptable results. We believe that this work offers new insight into the rational design of efficient ratiometric nanoprobes for rapid on-site accurate screening of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level in the early stages, especially during the worldwide spread of COVID-19 today.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000856, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941420

RESUMO

Antibiotic combination therapies are important for the efficient treatment of many types of infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Combination treatment strategies are typically used under the assumption that synergies are conserved across species and strains, even though recent results show that the combined treatment effect is determined by specific drug-strain interactions that can vary extensively and unpredictably, both between and within bacterial species. To address this problem, we present a new method in which antibiotic synergy is rapidly quantified on a case-by-case basis, allowing for improved combination therapy. The novel CombiANT methodology consists of a 3D-printed agar plate insert that produces defined diffusion landscapes of 3 antibiotics, permitting synergy quantification between all 3 antibiotic pairs with a single test. Automated image analysis yields fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICis) with high accuracy and precision. A technical validation with 3 major pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, showed equivalent performance to checkerboard methodology, with the advantage of strongly reduced assay complexity and costs for CombiANT. A synergy screening of 10 antibiotic combinations for 12 E. coli urinary tract infection (UTI) clinical isolates illustrates the need for refined combination treatment strategies. For example, combinations of trimethoprim (TMP) + nitrofurantoin (NIT) and TMP + mecillinam (MEC) showed synergy, but only for certain individual isolates, whereas MEC + NIT combinations showed antagonistic interactions across all tested strains. These data suggest that the CombiANT methodology could allow personalized clinical synergy testing and large-scale screening. We anticipate that CombiANT will greatly facilitate clinical and basic research of antibiotic synergy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Algoritmos , Andinocilina/administração & dosagem , Andinocilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Nitrofurantoína/administração & dosagem , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Trimetoprima/administração & dosagem , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 628-634, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842382

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates. Methods: The clinical data of children with MRSA infection and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates from 11 children's hospitals in Infectious Diseases Surveillance of Paediatrics (ISPED) group of China between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 were collected retrospectively. The children's general condition, high-risk factors, antimicrobial therapy and prognosis, differences in clinical disease and laboratory test results between different age groups, and differences of antibiotic sensitivity between community-acquired (CA)-MRSA and hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA were analyzed. The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for statistical analysis of the quantitative data and Chi-square test were used for comparison of rates. Results: Among the 452 patients, 264 were males and 188 were females, aged from 2 days to 17 years. There were 233 cases (51.5%) in the ≤1 year old group, 79 cases (17.5%) in the>1-3 years old group, 29 cases (6.4%) in the >3-5 years old group, 65 cases (14.4%) in the >5-10 years old group, and 46 cases (10.2%) in the>10 years old group. The main distributions of onset seasons were 55 cases (12.2%) in December, 47 cases (10.4%) in February, 46 cases (10.2%) in November, 45 cases (10.0%) in January, 40 cases (8.8%) in March. There were 335 cases (74.1%) CA-MRSA and 117 (25.9%) cases HA-MRSA. Among all cases, 174 cases (38.5%) had basic diseases or long-term use of hormone and immunosuppressive drugs. During the period of hospitalization, 209 cases (46.2%) received medical interventions. There were 182 patients (40.3%) had used antibiotics (ß-lactams, glycopeptides, macrolides, carbapenems, oxazolones, sulfonamides etc) 3 months before admission. The most common clinical disease was pneumonia (203 cases), followed by skin soft-tissue infection (133 cases), sepsis (92 cases), deep tissue abscess (42 cases), osteomyelitis (40 cases), and septic arthritis (26 cases), suppurative meningitis (10 cases). The proportion of pneumonia in the ≤1 year old group was higher than the >1-3 years old group,>3-5 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (57.5% (134/233) vs. 30.4% (24/79), 31.0% (9/29), 38.5% (25/65), 23.9% (11/46), χ(2)=17.374, 7.293, 7.410, 17.373, all P<0.01) The proportion of skin and soft tissue infections caused by CA-MRSA infection was higher than HA-MRSA (33.4% (112/335) vs. 17.9% (21/117), χ(2)=10.010, P=0.002), and the proportion of pneumonia caused by HA-MRSA infection was higher than CA-MRSA (53.0% (62/117) vs. 42.1% (141/335), χ(2)=4.166, P=0.041). The first white blood cell count of the ≤1 year old group was higher than that children > 1 year old ((15±8)×10(9)/L vs. (13±7)×10(9)/L, t=2.697, P=0.007), while the C-reactive protein of the ≤1 year old group was lower than the 1-3 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (8.00 (0.04-194.00) vs.17.00 (0.50-316.00), 15.20 (0.23-312.00), 21.79(0.13-219.00) mg/L, Z=3.207, 2.044, 2.513, all P<0.05), there were no significant differences in procalcitonin (PCT) between different age groups (all P>0.05). After the treatment, 131 cases were cured, 278 cases were improved, 21 cases were not cured, 12 cases died, and 10 cases were abandoned. The 452 MRSA isolates were all sensitive to vancomycin (100.0%), linezolid (100.0%), 100.0% resistant to penicillin, highly resistant to erythromycin (85.0%, 375/441), clindamycin (67.7%, 294/434), less resistant to sulfonamides (5.9%, 23/391), levofloxacin (4.5%, 19/423), gentamicin (3.2%, 14/438), rifampicin (1.8%, 8/440), minocycline (1.1%, 1/91). The antimicrobial resistance rates were not significantly different between the CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The infection of MRSA is mainly found in infants under 3 years old. The prevalent seasons are winter and spring, and MRSA is mainly acquired in the community. The main clinical diseases are pneumonia, skin soft-tissue infection and sepsis. No MRSA isolate is resistant to vancomycin, linezolid. MRSA isolates are generally sensitive to sulfonamides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, minocycline, and were highly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. To achieve better prognosis. clinicians should initiate anti-infective treatment for children with MRSA infection according to the clinical characteristics of patients and drug sensitivity of the isolates timely and effectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 583, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is endemic and a leading health problem in Sri Lanka. Increased incidence of concurrent bacteremia in patients with dengue infection is a recognized complication. However, Staphylococcal endocarditis following dengue fever is uncommon. Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported in QAV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Sri Lankan male presented to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with recurrence of fever and acute left hemiplegia following an uncomplicated recovery of dengue fever. He was diagnosed to have Staphylococcal infective endocarditis of quadricuspid aortic valve, with septic emboli to brain and spleen. He was managed with intravenous vancomycin initially, however, due to inadequate response, intravenous linezolid was added. He developed rhabdomyolysis with very high creatine phosphokinase leading to acute kidney injury, which settled with the cessation of linezolid. The patient succumbed to his illness despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy and maximum supportive care while being assessed for aortic valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates three clinical issues that a clinician should be aware of. Firstly, the possibility of a serious secondary bacterial infection as a cause for recurrence of fever following dengue infection. Secondly, this case highlights the importance of identifying QAV as a cause for complicated infective endocarditis of increased severity. The report also denotes the value of being vigilant of linezolid induced rhabdomyolysis which had a causal relationship with the commencement of the drug and its cessation.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Dengue/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocultura , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Evolução Fatal , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linezolida/farmacologia , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Rabdomiólise/induzido quimicamente , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 621, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) among gold mine workers. METHODS: In February 2018, we retrospectively reviewed a random sample of 50 medical records from 243 cases and conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Pus aspirates were sent to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases from prospectively-identified cases (November 2017-March 2018). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected during a colonisation survey in February 2018. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were screened with a conventional PCR for lukS/F-PV. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine the genetic relatedness among the isolates. A sample of isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS). We conducted an assessment on biological risks associated with mining activities. RESULTS: From January 2017 to February 2018, 10% (350/3582) of mine workers sought care for cutaneous abscesses. Forty-seven medical files were available for review, 96% were male (n = 45) with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 7). About 52% (24/46) were involved in stoping and 28% (13/47) worked on a particular level. We cultured S. aureus from 79% (30/38) of cases with a submitted specimen and 14% (12/83) from colonisation swabs. All isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin. Seventy-one percent of S. aureus isolates (30/42) were PVL-PCR-positive. Six PFGE clusters were identified, 57% (21/37) were closely related. WGS analysis found nine different sequence types. PFGE and WGS analysis showed more than one cluster of S. aureus infections involving closely related isolates. Test reports for feed and product water of the mine showed that total plate counts were above the limits of 1000 cfu/ml, coliform counts > 10 cfu/100 ml and presence of faecal coliforms. Best practices were poorly implemented as some mine workers washed protective clothing with untreated water and hung them for drying at the underground surface. CONCLUSIONS: PVL-producing MSSA caused an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses among underground workers at a gold mining company. To our knowledge, no other outbreaks of PVL-producing S. aureus involving skin and soft tissue infections have been reported in mining facilities in South Africa. We recommend that worker awareness of infection prevention and control practices be strengthened.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adulto , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750089

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common isolates from blood culture in neonates resulting in high mortality and morbidity. This study investigated CoNS obtained from blood cultures of neonates for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, and possible association with inflammatory response (C-reactive protein). A total of 93 CoNS isolates were collected from 76 blood cultures of neonates at the Maternity hospital in Kuwait in a six-month period and investigated for susceptibility to antibiotics, carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and virulence-associated genes. The 93 CoNS isolates consisted of S. epidermidis (76; 81.7%), S. capitis (12; 12.9%), S. hominis (2; 2.1%), S. warneri (2; 2.1%) and S. haemolyticus (1; 1.0%). Eighty-six (92.4%) of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (MR-CoNS) while 49 (52.7%) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance. The methicillin-resistant isolates (MR-CoNS) carried SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa and four combinations of SCCmec types including SCCmec types I+IVa (one S. warneri and 25 S. epidermidis isolates), types I+III (one S. epidermidis isolate), types III+IVa (six S. epidermidis isolates) and types I+III+IVa (one S. epidermidis isolate). The most common virulence-related genes were icaC, seb, arc detected in 69.7%, 60.5%, 40.8% of the isolates respectively. Two isolates were positive for tst1. No association between C-reactive protein and antibiotic resistance or virulence factors was established. This study revealed that S. epidermidis carrying different SCCmec genetic elements, was the dominant CoNS species isolated from neonatal blood cultures with 90.3% and 36.6% of the isolates positive for genes for biofilm and ACME production respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
11.
Circ J ; 84(10): 1887, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779609
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804961

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious public health problem. There is limited information regarding the genetics of MRSA strains among the native Iraqi and incoming Syrian refugee communities. We aimed to characterize the genotypes and different virulence factors of MRSA in strains isolated from these two communities. Frozen MRSA strains (125) isolated from the native Iraqi and Syrian refugee communities were used in this study. PCR (singleplex and multiplex) and agr typing was used for the genotypic analysis of different virulence genes. We tested for the presence of virulence genes including pvl, arcA, tst, lukE/lukD, hla, hlb, eta, etb and agr. Prevalence of arcA MRSA in the Iraqi community (56.58%) was significantly higher (p = 0.008) than that in the Syrian refugee community (32.66%). Prevalence of lukE-lukD was also significantly higher (p = 0.001) in the Iraqi (82.89%) compared to that in the Syrian refugee community (57.14%). Further, prevalence of hla MRSA in the Iraqi community was (93.4%) and in the Syrian refugee community was (71.4%); (p = 0.0008). No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of pvl, tst, eta, etb and hlb. The most dominant agr types in both Iraqi (76.1% and 10.5%) and Syrian refugee (44.9% and 18.37%) communities were I and III. To sum up, no significant differences were observed between the groups for a majority of virulence factors. This is the first investigation of MRSA genotypes and virulence in both these communities. These results could be useful for further studies that assess the genetic relatedness of strains in the region for epidemiological and monitoring purposes, which would be crucial to limiting the spread of MRSA.


Assuntos
Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Refugiados , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Síria , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/isolamento & purificação
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8545-8561, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735661

RESUMO

A crucial bacterial strategy to avoid killing by antibiotics is to enter a growth arrested state, yet the molecular mechanisms behind this process remain elusive. The conditional overexpression of mazF, the endoribonuclease toxin of the MazEF toxin-antitoxin system in Staphylococcus aureus, is one approach to induce bacterial growth arrest, but its targets remain largely unknown. We used overexpression of mazF and high-throughput sequence analysis following the exact mapping of non-phosphorylated transcriptome ends (nEMOTE) technique to reveal in vivo toxin cleavage sites on a global scale. We obtained a catalogue of MazF cleavage sites and unearthed an extended MazF cleavage specificity that goes beyond the previously reported one. We correlated transcript cleavage and abundance in a global transcriptomic profiling during mazF overexpression. We observed that MazF affects RNA molecules involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell wall synthesis, cell division and RNA turnover and thus deliver a plausible explanation for how mazF overexpression induces stasis. We hypothesize that autoregulation of MazF occurs by directly modulating the MazEF operon, such as the rsbUVW genes that regulate the sigma factor SigB, including an observed cleavage site on the MazF mRNA that would ultimately play a role in entry and exit from bacterial stasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Óperon/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Especificidade por Substrato , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the third most common cause of death among neonates, with about 225,000 newborns dying every year globally. Data concerning the microbial etiology of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance profiles of its causative agents are necessary to inform targeted and effective treatment and prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of newborns with symptoms and signs of sepsis who had a positive blood culture, its bacterial etiology, the antimicrobial resistance patterns as well as the factors associated with culture-positivity and case fatality at Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 359 neonates with symptoms and signs of sepsis who presented to the pediatric emergency care unit of Mulago national referral hospital from mid-January to end of December 2018. We performed blood culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conducted polymerase chain reaction to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between potential risk factors and culture-positive neonatal sepsis. FINDINGS: Of the 359 neonates recruited, 46 (12.8%; 95% CI 9.5%, 16.7%) had a positive blood culture. The predominant isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in 29 (63.0%), Escherichia coli in seven (15.2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae in five (10.9%). Of the 46 pathogens, 73.9% were resistant to ampicillin, 23.9% to gentamicin and 8.7% to ceftriaxone. We isolated MRSA from the blood specimens of 19 (5.3%) of the 359 neonates, while 3 (0.8%) grew extended spectrum beta lactamase producers. The case fatality risk among neonates with neonatal sepsis was 9.5% (95% CI: 6.6%, 13.0%). Cesarean section delivery was strongly associated with culture-positive sepsis (adjusted odds ratio 3.45, 95% CI: 1.2, 10.1). CONCLUSION: One in eight neonates with clinical signs of sepsis grew a likely causative bacterial pathogen. S. aureus was the main pathogen isolated and a third of these isolates were MRSA. A significant proportion of the isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant to the first and second line antibiotics used for the treatment of neonatal sepsis. There is need to revisit the current treatment guidelines for neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Uganda
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008733, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817694

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide, and antibiotic resistant strains such as Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are a major threat and burden to public health. MRSA not only infects immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals and has rapidly spread from the healthcare setting to the outside community. However, all vaccines tested in clinical trials to date have failed. Immunocompromised individuals such as patients with HIV or decreased levels of CD4+ T cells are highly susceptible to S. aureus infections, and they are also at increased risk of developing fungal infections. We therefore wondered whether stimulation of antifungal immunity might promote the type of immune responses needed for effective host defense against S. aureus. Here we show that vaccination of mice with a fungal ß-glucan particle (GP) loaded with S. aureus antigens provides protective immunity to S. aureus. We generated glucan particles loaded with the four S. aureus proteins ClfA, IsdA, MntC, and SdrE, creating the 4X-SA-GP vaccine. Vaccination of mice with three doses of 4X-SA-GP promoted protection in a systemic model of S. aureus infection with a significant reduction in the bacterial burden in the spleen and kidneys. 4X-SA-GP vaccination induced antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cell and antibody responses and provided long-term protection. This work suggests that the GP vaccine system has potential as a novel approach to developing vaccines for S. aureus.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Coagulase/administração & dosagem , Coagulase/genética , Coagulase/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Vacinação , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1095-1099, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639226

RESUMO

Introduction. Empirical vancomycin (VAN) treatment failure for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia, with significantly higher mortality, has been reported for MRSA strains with reduced VAN susceptibility.Aim. Our goal was to study the effect of sub-culture on VAN minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values compared to direct susceptibility of MRSA-positive blood cultures.Methodology. Using 19 MRSA-positive blood cultures and 19 seeded MRSA-positive blood cultures, we compared the VAN MICs from direct susceptibility testing of MRSA-positive blood cultures and MRSA sub-cultured from positive blood cultures.Results. In comparing direct VAN MICs from MRSA-positive blood cultures and standard agar dilution, nearly half of the MICs from agar dilution were lower, with one sample decreasing from 1.5 to 0.75 µg ml-1. Furthermore, in seeded blood cultures, 80 % or more showed lower values from standard agar dilution compared to direct VAN MICs.Conclusion. Our results reveal a trend towards lower MICs after positive blood culture isolates are sub-cultured. Some clinical failures among MRSA infections treated with VAN may result from this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ovinos
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1079-1088, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729813

RESUMO

Introduction. Linezolid-resistant (LZR) Staphylococcus capitis has recently emerged in our hospital, and its potential resistance mechanisms are still not clear.Aim. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical and genetic characteristics, resistance mechanisms and biofilm formation capacity of LZR S. capitis isolated from patients at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, PR China between 2012 and 2018.Methodology. Strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with antibiotics using the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The presence of cfr, optrA and poxtA, as well as mutations in the 23S ribosomal (r)RNA and ribosomal proteins, was investigated using PCR and sequencing techniques. The genetic relationship between isolates was analysed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Biofilm biomasses were detected by using crystal violet staining.Results. Twenty-one LZR S. capitis strains displayed MICs of 32-512 µg ml-1. All LZR strains showed G2576T and C2104T mutations in the 23S rRNA V region. Besides G2576T and C2104T, no base mutations were detected in the V region. The cfr was detected in 12 strains, while optrA and poxtA were not amplified in 21 S. capitis strains. PFGE showed that the LZR S. capitis strains belonged to a single clone. The phylogenetic tree showed that 20 LZR S. capitis strains were highly similar to LNZR-1, isolated from Harbin (located in the north of China) in 2013, which showed resistance to linezolid.Conclusions. In this research, cfr-negative strains displayed linezolid MICs of 32 µg ml-1. In comparison, cfr-positive strains exhibited linezolid MICs of 128-512 µg ml-1, indicating that high levels of linezolid resistance appear to be related to the presence of cfr. The outbreak of LZR S. capitis in our hospital needs to be monitored closely.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Linezolida/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus capitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus capitis/genética , Staphylococcus capitis/fisiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was done to assess the etiology and infectious complications of CVC in children on long term hemodialysis. METHODS: Children newly undergoing hemodialysis and having indwelling CVC were included. They were followed up to a period of 2-years to assess infectious complications. Catheter bundle care approach was employed to prevent infections and other complications. Automated culture from the central catheter and peripheral vein and 2D echocardiography were done in each hemodialysis. Serial procalcitonin (PCT) was measured. Differential time of positivity (DTP) was used to detect CLABSI. During homestay in weekly telephone conversations were done to assess features of infection, and whenever having, we have asked to admit to the tertiary care unit. Logistic regression was performed, and the significant outcome variable was considered following multivariable analysis as a risk factor. RESULTS: Blood cultures were positive in 1090 (74.5%) out of 1462 children. According to DTP, 410 (28%) were having CLABSI, while 520 (35.6%) were having bacteremia without CLABSI. Out of 410 CLABSI patients, 79 (19.2%) were asymptomatic. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) bacteremia was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI. Right-sided infective endocarditis (RS-IE) was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia without CLABSI. CoNS was associated significantly in RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia. PCT was in asymptomatic CLABSI was 1.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL while in symptomatic CLABSI was 11.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml (P = 0.02). CoNS bloodstream infection, tunneled CVC, peripherally inserted central catheter, femoral site, the number of line days > 90, receipt of vancomycin, meropenem, or linezolid in the 5 days before CLABSI diagnosis and recurrent bacteremia were risk factors for asymptomatic CLABSI. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic CLABSI could be a rare occurrence. CoNS was predominantly isolated in patients with asymptomatic CLABSI. RS- IE is a well-known complication in long term indwelling CVC. CoNS was significantly associated with RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI. Regular procalcitonin, microbiological, and imaging studies would be essential to detect infectious complications in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients implanted with long term indwelling CVCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 539, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports have described deep-seated infections. Virulence factors remain poorly known, although, genomic analysis highlights pathogenic potential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus spondylodiscitis that followed kyphoplasty, a procedure associated with a low rate but possible severe infectious complication (0.46%), and have reviewed the literature. This case specifically stresses the risk of healthcare-associated S. saccharolyticus infection in high-risk patients (those with a history of alcoholism and heavy smoking). CONCLUSION: S. saccharolyticus infection is difficult to diagnose due to microbiological characteristics of this bacterium; it requires timely treatment, and improved infection control procedure should be encouraged for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Torácicas/microbiologia , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 37-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of most prevalent pathogens in the world associated with a high mortality rate and a rapid development of resistance to antibiotics. Despite its pathogenicity, epidemiological monitoring in Mexico is scarce. AIM: To analyze the local molecular epidemiology and determine the clonal origin of methicillin-resistant (MR) strains isolated from patients admitted to Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto". METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out from July to December 2016. The characterization of the strains was carried out by Spa genotyping, frequency of specific virulence genes by PCR and antibiogram. RESULTS: The prevalence of MRSA was 25.7%, highlighting the presence of the Spa type t895 in 76% of the resistant strains and a similar pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the regional prevalence of MRSA has not changed in the last 10 years and provide valuable information on the clonal origin and the virulence factors of the strains of S. aureus isolated in the region.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , México/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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