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2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5027-5042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764934

RESUMO

Background: Bactericidal capacity, durable inhibition of biofilm formation, and a three-dimensional (3D) porous structure are the emphases of infected bone defect (IBD) treatment via local scaffold implantation strategy. Purpose: In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-loaded nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)@ reduced graphene oxide (RGO) 3D scaffolds (AHRG scaffolds) were designed to alleviate bone infection, inhibit biofilm formation, and promote bone repair through the synergistic effects of AgNPs, RGO, and nHA. Materials and Methods: AHRGs were prepared using a one-step preparation method, to create a 3D porous scaffold to facilitate a uniform distribution of AgNPs and nHA. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was used as a model-resistant bacterium, and the effects of different silver loadings on the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of materials were evaluated. Finally, a rabbit IBD model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the AHRG scaffold in vivo. Results: The results showed successful synthesis of the AHRG scaffold. The ideal 3D porous structure was verified using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction measurements revealed uniform distributions of AgNP and nHA. In vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility indicated that the 4% AHRG scaffolds possessed the most favorable balance of bactericidal properties and cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluation of the IBD model showed promising treatment efficacy of AHRG scaffolds. Conclusion: The as-fabricated AHRG scaffolds effectively eliminated infection and inhibited biofilm formation. IBD repair was facilitated by the bactericidal properties and 3D porous structure of the AHRG scaffold, suggesting its potential in the treatment of IBDs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/terapia , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Ósseos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Durapatita/química , Feminino , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Coelhos , Ratos , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 3-10, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600192

RESUMO

AIMS: Current treatments of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) are minimally effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. A murine PJI model of debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) was used to test the hypothesis that PlySs2, a bacteriophage-derived lysin, can target S. aureus biofilm and address the unique challenges presented in this periprosthetic environment. METHODS: The ability of PlySs2 and vancomycin to kill biofilm and colony-forming units (CFUs) on orthopaedic implants were compared using in vitro models. An in vivo murine PJI model of DAIR was used to assess the efficacy of a combination of PlySs2 and vancomycin on periprosthetic bacterial load. RESULTS: PlySs2 treatment reduced 99% more CFUs and 75% more biofilm compared with vancomycin in vitro. A combination of PlySs2 and vancomycin in vivo reduced the number of CFUs on the surface of implants by 92% and in the periprosthetic tissue by 88%. CONCLUSION: PlySs2 lysin was able to reduce biofilm, target planktonic bacteria, and work synergistically with vancomycin in our in vitro models. A combination of PlySs2 and vancomycin also reduced bacterial load in periprosthetic tissue and on the surface of implants in a murine model of DAIR treatment for established PJI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):3-10.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Enzimas/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriólise , Biofilmes , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desbridamento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1100-1104, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639225

RESUMO

Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-PJIs) are rare, with only a few studies reporting the treatment outcomes and even fewer reporting outcomes with one-stage exchange.Aim. This study aims to analyse the outcomes of one-stage exchange in the management of MRSA-PJIs.Methodology. Patients with MRSA-PJI of the hip and knee, who were treated with a one-stage exchange between 2001 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. The final cohort comprised of 29 patients, which included 23 hips and six knees. The mean follow-up was 5.3 years (1-9 years). Reinfection and complications rates after the one-stage exchange were analysed.Results. Overall infection control could be achieved in 93.1 % (27 out of 29 patients). The overall revision rate was 31.0% (9 patients), with three patients requiring an in-hospital revision (10.3 %). Six patients had to be revised after hospital discharge (20.7 %). Of the two reinfections, one had a growth of MRSA while the other was of methicillin-sensitive Staphyloccocus epidermidis.Conclusion. One-stage exchange surgery using current techniques could improve surgical outcomes with excellent results in the management of MRSA-PJIs.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/terapia , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Desbridamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 34-41, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bacterial flora in patients with deep sternal wound infection and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy on eradication of the pathogen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 102 patients with deep wound infection after cardiac surgery. Mean age was 66.9±9.9 years. Diabetes mellitus was detected in 21 (20.5%) cases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - in 15 (14.7%). Wound debridement via daily dressings was performed in 64 patients; vacuum-assisted dressings were applied in 38 patients. Bacteriological analysis of discharge was carried out every week.Results. Mixed infection was observed in 38 (37.3%) patients. S.aureus was the most common pathogen (n=51, 50%), Gram negative bacteria were found in 36 (35.3%) patients. Negative pressure wound therapy ensured eradication of S.aureus within 3 weeks while dressings were associated with only 40% decrease of the incidence of positive analyses (p<0.05). Effectiveness of the method was not obtained for Gram negative bacteria. CONCLUSION: Negative pressure wound therapy accelerates eradication of Gram positive pathogens but does not affect eradication of Gram negative microbes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Desbridamento , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/etiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/terapia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Esterno/microbiologia , Esterno/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
6.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 663-679, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505259

RESUMO

Hospital-acquired infections increase cost, morbidity, and mortality for patients across the United States and the world. Principal among these infections are central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, Clostridioides difficile, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infections. This article provides succinct summaries of the background, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these conditions. In addition, novel prevention strategies, including those related to recent national interventions, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/terapia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/terapia
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 200: 112341, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505848

RESUMO

The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causing skin and soft tissue infections in both the community and healthcare settings challenges the limited options of effective antibiotics and motivates the search for alternative therapeutic solutions, such as antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). While many publications have described the promising anti-bacterial activities of PDT in vitro, its applications in vivo and in the clinic have been very limited. This limited availability may in part be due to variabilities in the selected photosensitizing agents (PS), the variable testing conditions used to examine anti-bacterial activities and their effectiveness in treating MRSA infections. We thus sought to systematically review and examine the evidence from existing studies on aPDT associated with MRSA and to critically appraise its current state of development and areas to be addressed in future studies. In 2018, we developed and registered a review protocol in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with registration No: CRD42018086736. Three bibliographical databases were consulted (PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE), and a total of 113 studies were included in this systematic review based on our eligibility criteria. Many variables, such as the use of a wide range of solvents, pre-irradiation times, irradiation times, light sources and light doses, have been used in the methods reported by researchers, which significantly affect the inter-study comparability and results. On another note, new approaches of linking immunoglobulin G (IgG), antibodies, efflux pump inhibitors, and bacteriophages with photosensitizers (PSs) and the incorporation of PSs into nano-scale delivery systems exert a direct effect on improving aPDT. Enhanced activities have also been achieved by optimizing the physicochemical properties of the PSs, such as the introduction of highly lipophilic, poly-cationic and site-specific modifications of the compounds. However, few in vivo studies (n = 17) have been conducted to translate aPDT into preclinical studies. We anticipate that further standardization of the experimental conditions and assessing the efficacy in vivo would allow this technology to be further applied in preclinical trials, so that aPDT would develop to become a sustainable, alternative therapeutic option against MRSA infection in the future.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos da radiação , Fotoquimioterapia/normas , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 508-514, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314689

RESUMO

Intensive care unit-acquired bloodstream infections (ICU-BSI) are frequent and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. We conducted this study to describe the epidemiology and the prognosis of ICU-BSI in our ICU and to search for factors associated with mortality at 28 days. For this, we retrospectively studied ICU-BSI in the ICU of the Cayenne General Hospital, from January 2013 to June 2019. Intensive care unit-acquired bloodstream infections were diagnosed in 9.5% of admissions (10.3 ICU-BSI/1,000 days). The median delay to the first ICU-BSI was 9 days. The ICU-BSI was primitive in 44% of cases and secondary to ventilator-acquired pneumonia in 25% of cases. The main isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae in 67.7% of patients. They were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in 27.6% of cases. Initial antibiotic therapy was appropriate in 65.1% of cases. Factors independently associated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) as the causative microorganism of ICU-BSI were ESBL-PE carriage before ICU-BSI (odds ratio [OR]: 7.273; 95% CI: 2.876-18.392; P < 0.000) and prior exposure to fluoroquinolones (OR: 4.327; 95% CI: 1.120-16.728; P = 0.034). The sensitivity of ESBL-PE carriage to predict ESBL-PE as the causative microorganism of ICU-BSI was 64.9% and specificity was 81.2%. Mortality at 28 days was 20.6% in the general population. Factors independently associated with mortality at day 28 from the occurrence of ICU-BSI were traumatic category of admission (OR: 0.346; 95% CI: 0.134-0.894; P = 0.028) and septic shock on the day of ICU-BSI (OR: 3.317; 95% CI: 1.561-7.050; P = 0.002). Mortality rate was independent of the causative organism.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/terapia , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Candidemia/terapia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/terapia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo Periférico/estatística & dados numéricos , Coma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/terapia , Prognóstico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
10.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(1): 10-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326711

RESUMO

AIM: Staphylococcus aureus strains are the cause of frightening hospital and community infections, especially when they are resistant to antimicrobials, have important pathogenicity factors, or have biofilm production ability. Looking for novel therapeutic options which would be effective against such strains is one of the highest priorities of medicine and medical research. The study aim was to describe the occurrence of S. aureus strains and proportion of methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) detected in laboratories of the Microbiological Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University (FM MU) and St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno in 2011-2018. Selected strains of S. aureus were tested for biofilm production ability and susceptibility to antimicrobials and Stafal®, a phage therapeutic agent. A prerequisite was to develop a simple routine method suitable for phage susceptibility testing of bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Altogether 867 clinical isolates of S. aureus and 132 strains of other species of the genus Staphylococcus (isolated in 2011-2017) were tested for susceptibility to the phage therapy preparation Stafal® using the double-layer agar method. All strains of S. aureus were tested for biofilm production ability by the modified Christensen method with the use of titration microplates and for susceptibility to antistaphylococcal antibiotics by the disk diffusion test. For 95 S. aureus strains, the outcome of the double-layer agar method (DAM) was compared with that of our newly designed method (ODM) based on optical density decrease of the bacterial suspension. RESULTS: During the study period, the laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University (FM MU) and St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno detected 2900 strains of S. aureus per year on average. The proportion of MRSA among S. aureus isolates from blood culture and venous catheters ranged between 8.8-15.2 %. S. aureus strains recovered from venous catheters and blood culture were confirmed as stronger biofilm producers than those from other clinical specimens. MRSA strains showed higher biofilm production than methicillin susceptible strains (MSSA). As many as 90.4 % of S. aureus strains tested susceptible to the Stafal® preparation. Even a higher proportion, i.e. 99.0 %, of MRSA strains were Stafal® susceptible. No relationship was found between Stafal® susceptibility and biofilm production ability. Although Stafal® targets primarily S. aureus, some susceptibility (26.5 %) was also found for other staphylococcal species. A novel simple method designed for routine testing of susceptibility to phage therapy preparations based on optical density decrease was comparably sensitive and reliable as the commonly used double-layer agar method (DAM) and, in addition to being easy and rapid to perform, after prolonged suspension culture and at higher measurement frequency, it has an extra advantage of providing the possibility for monitoring also phage action dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of MRSA strains detected in this study is comparable to that reported for the whole Czech Republic, and the biofilm production data are consistent with scientific evidence. The host range of the Stafal® preparation is relatively wide and covers most strains of S. aureus and some coagulase negative staphylococci. The highest efficiency of Stafal® (99.4 %) was observed against MRSA strains with multiple types of antibiotic resistance. In vitro testing of 867 strains of S. aureus and 132 other staphylococcal species has shown the phage therapy preparation Stafal® to be a suitable candidate therapeutic option for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, especially in case of failure of conventional antibiotic therapy. Moreover, a simple method for routine phage susceptibility testing of clinical bacterial isolates has been designed, which is an essential tool to be used in phage therapy.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , República Tcheca , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/virologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/virologia , Staphylococcus/virologia
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 28, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the workup of a pediatric patient with pericarditis we found evidence of a pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle, which is a rare complication of purulent pericarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a six-year-old girl who was diagnosed with pericarditis and a fistula between the pericardial and the intra-luminal space of the left ventricle of the heart. She was successfully treated with antibiotics and cardio-thoracic surgery. We found 23 published cases (21 with follow-up) of infectious pseudo-aneurysm of the heart, of which 19 underwent surgery, 5 had fatal outcome, and 2 who refused surgery survived. The majority of cases were associated with Staphylococcus aureus. The exact mechanisms of this rare complication remain unknown. CONCLUSIONS: A pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle is a rare and not well understood complication of a purulent pericarditis most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Because of risk of rupture, surgical intervention is advised.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/microbiologia , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/microbiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Pericardite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Infectado/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Criança , Feminino , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/terapia , Humanos , Osteomielite/complicações , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/terapia , Pericardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericardite/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
World Neurosurg ; 137: 281-285, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary abscesses within pre-existing pituitary conditions, such as craniopharyngioma, pituitary adenoma, or Rathke cleft cyst, are quite rare. A case of pituitary abscess secondary to adenoma is presented, and the literature is reviewed. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of sudden-onset headache and visual loss. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar region lesion with intralesional hemorrhage. Preoperative diagnosis was pituitary adenoma with apoplexy. An endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach was used for emergent total tumor resection. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with apoplexy and inflammation, and microbiologic examination was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary pituitary abscess is a rare entity, and preoperative diagnosis is challenging. The treatment strategy includes prompt surgical resection and drainage of the abscess, followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Adenoma/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Apoplexia Hipofisária/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Sinusite Esfenoidal/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/patologia , Abscesso Encefálico/terapia , Criança , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Apoplexia Hipofisária/diagnóstico por imagem , Apoplexia Hipofisária/patologia , Apoplexia Hipofisária/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Sinusite Esfenoidal/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite Esfenoidal/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus aureus , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921048, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049296

RESUMO

Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is common and associated with poor long-term outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between infectious diseases (ID) consultation and improved short-term (ie, within 90 days) outcomes for patients with SAB, but associations with long-term outcomes are unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of ID consultation with long-term (ie, 5 years) postdischarge outcomes among patients with SAB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included all patients (N = 31 002) with a first episode of SAB who were discharged alive from 116 acute care units of the nationwide Veterans Health Administration where ID consultation was offered. Data were collected from January 2003 to December 2014, with follow-up through September 30, 2018. Data analysis was conducted from February to December 2019. Exposures: Infectious diseases consultation during the index hospital stay. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to development of a composite event of all-cause mortality or recurrence of SAB within 5 years of discharge. As secondary outcomes, SAB recurrence and all-cause mortality with and without recurrence were analyzed while accounting for semicompeting risks. Results: The cohort included 31 002 patients (30 265 [97.6%] men; median [interquartile range] age at SAB onset, 64.0 [57.0-75.0] years). Among 31 002 patients, there were 18 794 (60.6%) deaths, 4772 (15.4%) SAB recurrences, and 20 414 (65.8%) composite events during 5 years of follow-up; 12 773 deaths (68.0%) and 2268 recurrences (47.5%) occurred more than 90 days after discharge. Approximately half of patients (15 360 [49.5%]) received ID consultation during the index hospital stay; ID consultation was associated with prolonged improvement in the composite outcome (adjusted hazard ratio at 5 years, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.74; P < .001). Infectious diseases consultation was also associated with improved outcomes when all-cause mortality without recurrence and SAB recurrence were analyzed separately (all-cause mortality without recurrence: adjusted hazard ratio at 5 years, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74-0.81; P < .001; SAB recurrence: adjusted hazard ratio at 5 years, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.64-0.72; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Having an ID consultation during the index hospital stay among patients with SAB was associated with improved postdischarge outcomes for at least 5 years, suggesting that contributions of ID specialists to management during acute infection may have a substantial influence on long-term outcomes. Further investigations of the association of ID consultation with outcomes after S aureus should include long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Infectologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(3): 465-472, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066959

RESUMO

In this single-arm non-comparative trial, 13 patients in an Australian hospital with severe Staphylococcus aureus infections were intravenously administered a good manufacturing practice-quality preparation of three Myoviridae bacteriophages (AB-SA01) as adjunctive therapy. AB-SA01 was intravenously administered twice daily for 14 d and the clinical, haematological and blood biochemical parameters of the recipients were monitored for 90 d. The primary outcome was the assessment of safety and tolerability (that is, pain and redness at the infusion site and systemic adverse reactions, such as fever, tachycardia, hypotension, diarrhoea or abdominal pain and the development of renal or hepatic dysfunction). No adverse reactions were reported, and our data indicate that AB-SA01 administered in this way is safe in severe S. aureus infections, including infective endocarditis and septic shock. Future controlled trials will be needed to determine the efficacy of AB-SA01 but no phage resistance evolved in vivo and the measurements of bacterial and phage kinetics in blood samples suggest that 12 h dosing of 109 plaque-forming units may be a rational basis for further studies.


Assuntos
Terapia por Fagos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus aureus/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Bacteriófagos , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Endocardite/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myoviridae , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(2): 411-419, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the elbow is a relatively common complication after total elbow arthroplasty (TEA), and its treatment is frequently variable. Few articles have provided direct comparisons of outcomes, making it difficult to draw conclusions from the available literature. This systematic review synthesizes the English-language literature on elbow PJI to quantify treatment outcomes. METHODS: The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in December 2018. Our review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Keywords included "elbow replacement infection" and "elbow arthroplasty infection." A total of 1056 titles were identified; after application of the exclusion criteria, 41 studies met the screening criteria and underwent full-text review. Fifteen articles were included for the final analysis regarding demographic characteristics, risk factors, infecting organisms, success of eradication of infection based on surgical method, and functional outcomes of specific treatment regimens. RESULTS: Among the 15 articles selected, there were 309 TEA infections. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organism (42.4%), followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (32.6%). Risk factors for the development of elbow PJI included rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, an immunocompromised state, and previous elbow surgery. The rate of successful infection eradication was highest with 2-stage revision (81.2%) and lowest with irrigation and débridement for component retention (55.8%). The level of evidence was IV in 14 studies and III in 1 study. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review of TEA infections, Staphylococcus species represent the most common infecting organism. Two-stage revision was the most effective treatment for elbow PJI, showing the lowest recurrence rate for infection.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/terapia , Artroplastia de Substituição do Cotovelo/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Cotovelo/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Desbridamento , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Infection ; 48(1): 3-5, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Even though prosthetic valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is widely documented and attracts global attention, native valve endocarditis due to CoNS has been also described lately and may warrant closer attention due to the relative increased incidence. METHODS: We describe a 35-year-old male patient who is a former resident of a long-term health-care facility with multiple co-morbidities, diagnosed with native aortic valve S. capitis endocarditis and underwent conservative antimicrobial treatment with full recovery and no recurrence after 6 months' follow-up. In addition, we reviewed the English literature on all reported cases of S. capitis endocarditis. RESULTS: Infective endocarditis due to S. capitis has thus far been described in 13 patients. All but three had involved native valves with two infected prosthetic valves and a single case of infection in an implanted transvenous pacemaker. Although the number of cases of endocarditis due to S. capitis is small, early removal of either a prosthetic valve or infected pacemaker would appear prudent, while native valve endocarditis could successfully be treated with appropriate antimicrobials alone. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus capitis is classified as coagulase-negative staphylococci with the inherent ability to cause debilitating native valve endocarditis and is usually managed conservatively.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus capitis/fisiologia , Adulto , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/cirurgia
20.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(1): 32-50, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399725

RESUMO

For over a century, acute 'post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis' (APSGN) was the prototypical form of bacterial infection-associated glomerulonephritis, typically occurring after resolution of infection and a distinct infection-free latent period. Other less common forms of infection-associated glomerulonephritides resulted from persistent bacteraemia in association with subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. However, a major paradigm shift in the epidemiology and bacteriology of infection-associated glomerulonephritides has occurred over the past few decades. The incidence of APSGN has sharply declined in the Western world, whereas the number of Staphylococcus infection-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) cases increased owing to a surge in drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, both in the hospital and community settings. These Staphylococcus infections range from superficial skin infections to deep-seated invasive infections such as endocarditis, which is on the rise among young adults owing to the ongoing intravenous drug use epidemic. SAGN is markedly different from APSGN in terms of its demographic profile, temporal association with active infection and disease outcomes. The diagnosis and management of SAGN is challenging because of the lack of unique histological features, the frequently occult nature of the underlying infection and the older age and co-morbidities in the affected patients. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacterial strains further complicates patient treatment.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Hidratação , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/microbiologia , Glomerulonefrite/terapia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rim/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus pyogenes , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
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