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1.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7906724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583259

RESUMO

Here we show that mouse IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies specific for the commensal Streptococcus mitis cross-react with pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 2 and 4, although the cross-reactivity conferred by IgG2a is stronger than that by IgG1 antibodies. These findings may be important for understanding the S. mitis-induced IgG isotype responses and have consequences for the development of an effective pneumococcal vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus mitis/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
2.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548323

RESUMO

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that contributes to miscarriage, preterm birth, and serious neonatal infections. Studies have indicated that some multilocus sequence types (STs) of GBS are more likely to cause severe disease than others. We hypothesized that the ability of GBS to elicit varying host responses in maternal decidual tissue during pregnancy is an important factor regulating infection and disease severity. To address this hypothesis, we utilized an antibody microarray to compare changes in production and activation of host signaling proteins in decidualized telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (dT-HESCs) following infection with GBS strains from septic neonates or colonized mothers. GBS infection increased levels of total and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members such as p38 and JNK and induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation. Infection also altered the regulation of additional proteins that mediate cell death and inflammation in a strain-specific manner, which could be due to the observed variation in attachment to and invasion of the decidual stromal cells and ability to lyse red blood cells. Further analyses confirmed array results and revealed that p38 promotes programmed necrosis in dT-HESCs. Together, the observed signaling changes may contribute to deregulation of critical developmental signaling cascades and inflammatory responses following infection, both of which could trigger GBS-associated pregnancy complications.


Assuntos
Decídua/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Decídua/citologia , Decídua/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 407-416, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521784

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the antibacterial, immunostimulatory and antioxidant properties of different derivatives of Oliveria decumbens, in vitro and in vivo. The GC-MS spectrometry analysis showed γ-terpinene as the most frequent compound in essential oil, whereas carvacrol and thymol were the most common ones in aromatic water. Plant essential oil and hydroethanolic extract showed a positive in vitro bactericidal activity against Streptococcus iniae as evaluated by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Also, in vivo resistance against S. iniae and immune and antioxidant responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were assayed after 60 days treatment with O. decumbens derivatives. Plant hydroethanolic extract and essential oil and their 1:1 combination were added to diet at 0 (negative control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1% (w:w). The plant aromatic water at doses of 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.1250% were also used as bath treatment. The results showed that aromatic water at lowest dose was more effective than other treatments in increment of fish resistance against S. iniae (7.14% mortality in comparison with 50% mortalities in control fish) and modulation of post-challenge respiratory burst activity. The bactericidal activity and biochemical contents of skin mucus did not change significantly among treatments. The levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes activities in spleen tissue were significantly higher in treatments received extract, essential oils and their combination in comparison to other groups, while treatments did not affect peroxidase level. In conclusion, administration of different derivatives of Oliveria decumbens showed remarkable antibacterial activity against streptococcosis and enhanced antioxidant status and post-challenge immunity in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus iniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soro/efeitos dos fármacos , Soro/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 889-895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546039

RESUMO

Short-term feed deprivation or fasting is commonly experienced by aquaculture fish species and may be caused by seasonal variations, production strategies, or diseases. To assess the effects of fasting on the resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae infection, vaccinated and unvaccinated fish were fasted for zero, one, three, and seven days prior to infection. The cortisol levels of both vaccinated and unvaccinated fish first decreased and then increased significantly as fasting time increased. Liver glycogen, triglycerides, and total cholesterol decreased significantly after seven days of fasting, but glucose content did not vary significantly between fish fasted for three and seven days. Hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity levels were lowest after seven days of fasting, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity levels varied in opposition to those of HK and PK. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity levels first increased and then decreased as fasting time increased; SOD activity was highest after three days of fasting. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) and IL-6 mRNA expression levels first increased and then decreased significantly, peaking after three days of fasting. However, suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) mRNA expression levels were in opposition to those of IL-1ß and IL-6. Specific antibody levels did not vary significantly among unvaccinated fish fasted for different periods. Although specific antibody level first increased and then decreased in the vaccinated fish as fasting duration increased, there were no significant differences in the survival rates of fasted vaccinated fish after challenge with S. agalactiae. The final survival rates of vaccinated fish fasted for zero, one, three, and seven days were 86.67 ±â€¯5.44%, 80.00 ±â€¯3.14%, 88.89 ±â€¯6.28%, and 84.44 ±â€¯8.32%, respectively. Among the unvaccinated fish, the survival rate was highest (35.56 ±â€¯3.14%) in the fish fasted for three days and lowest (6.67 ±â€¯3.14%) in the fish fasted for seven days. Therefore, our results indicated that short-term fasting (three days) prior to an infection might increase the resistance of unvaccinated Nile tilapia to S. agalactiae.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 280-287, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499203

RESUMO

As recently applicable, there are few studies on the impact of using nano-selenium (nano-Se) on varied fish species. Where nothing reachable focused on its impact on tilapias so, the present analysis evaluated the efficacy of using nano-Se in tilapias on immune response, antioxidant defense compared by conventional Se form. 480 O. niloticus fingerlings were haphazardly grouped firstly into three groups with four replicates of each. The control one (CT) was fed on a basal diet. The second and third one supplemented with 0.7 mg/kg-1 Se and nano-Se respectively for ten weeks. At the start day of the ninth week, two replicates from each group were injected by Streptococcus iniae where, the remaining replicates stand without challenge. Enhancement of growth performance measurements were noted in nano-Se compared to Se or CT groups. Existed anemia in S. iniae tilapias became alleviated by using nano-Se that also, improves the alteration of leucogram induced by challenge. Elevation of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (ALT, AST, ALP and LDH) and creatinine in Se and CT challenged replicates that seemed nearly normal by using nano-Se. Usage of nano-Se showed more powerful antioxidant activities than Se. There were an expansion of immunoglobulin M, lysozymes, glutathione peroxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase and catalase (IgM, LYZ, GPx, NO, SOD, CAT) and their related gene expression in nano-Se with contrast in Se or CT challenged groups. Nile tilapias challenged by S. iniae disclosed substantial expansion in the percentage of mortality in CT challenged fish (93.33%), followed by the group supplemented with Se (73.33%), whereas the lowermost one at fish supplemented by nano-Se (26.66%). The mortalities have been stopped from the 5th, 12th and 14th days in, nano-Se, Se and CT respectively. It can be concluded that using of Se 0.7 mg/kg-1induce immunosuppressive, antioxidant, liver and kidneys negative impact on tilapias where the same dose from nano-Se was more potent immunomodulating and antioxidant. Also it is attend in counteracting the serious impact induced by S. iniae challenge.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 355-372, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533079

RESUMO

Streptococcus agalactiae is a major aquaculture pathogen infecting various saltwater and freshwater fish. To better understand the mechanism of the immune responses to S. agalactiae in wildtype zebrafish, the transcriptomic profiles of two organs containing mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues from S. agalactiae-infected and non-infected groups were obtained using RNA-seq techniques. In the intestines, 6735 and 12908 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, respectively. Among 66 and 116 significantly enriched pathways, 15 and 21 pathways were involved in immune system or signal transduction at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, respectively. A number of genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, B cell receptor signaling pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, NF-kappa B signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway were significantly downregulated. In the skins, 3113 and 4467 DEGs were identified at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, respectively. Among 24 and 56 significantly enriched pathways, 4 and 13 pathways were involved in immune system or signal transduction at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, respectively. More immune-related signaling pathways including Leukocyte transendothelial migration, Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, Complement and coagulation cascades, Hematopoietic cell lineage and Jak-STAT signaling pathway were differently enriched for upregulated DEGs at 48 hpi, which were completely different from that in the intestines. Furthmore, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the downregulated 1618 genes and upregulated 1622 genes existed both at 24 hpi and 48 hpi for the intestine samples. In the skins, the downregulated 672 genes and upregulated 428 genes existed both at 24 hpi and 48 hpi. Three pathways related to immune processes were significantly enriched for downregulated DEGs both in the intestines and skins collected at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, which included Antigen processing and presentation, Intestinal immune network for IgA production and Hematopoietic cell lineage. Interaction network analysis of DEGs identified the main DEGs in the sub-network of complement and coagulation cascades both in the intestines and skins. Twenty of DEGs involved in complement and coagulation cascades were further validated by Real-time quantitative PCR. Altogether, the results obtained in this study will provide insight into the immune response of zebrafish against S. agalactiae XQ-1 infection in fatal conditions, and reveal the discrepant expression pattern of complement and coagulation cascades in the intestines and skins.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 924-933, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374315

RESUMO

Our previous studies demonstrated that the deletion of D2 fragment in tilapia Streptococcus agalactiae(GBS) attenuated strain YM001 is the main reason for the loss of virulence to tilapia. In this study, a Δ2 mutant that deletion of D2 fragment in parental virulent strain HN016 was constructed, and the safety, stability, immunogenicity, and growth characteristics, as well as the virulence mechanism of Δ2 mutant were evaluated. The results showed that Δ2 mutant was not pathogenic to tilapia, and the virulent revertants were not observed after 50 generations of passage. The RPS reached 96.11% at 15 days and 93.05% at 30 days, respectively, after intraperitoneal injection, while RPS reached 74.80% at 15 days and 53.16% at 30 days, respectively, after oral immunization. The growth of Δ2 mutant was significantly faster than YM001, and genes that were enriched in the nitrogen metabolism and arginine biosynthesis signaling pathway (arc, glnA, and gdhA) were identified as important candidate genes responsible for growth rate of S. agalactiae. The absence of D2 fragment affected the expression of Sip, therefore influencing the bacterial virulence. Altogether, this study demonstrated that deletion of D2 fragment in HN016 causes the loss of virulence to tilapia, and Δ2 mutant is a promising, better attenuated oral vaccine strain of S. agalactiae compared to YM001.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Deleção de Sequência , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/veterinária , Sorogrupo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidade , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Virulência
8.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 130: 109360, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421723

RESUMO

Streptococcus uberis is a major mastitis-causing environmental pathogen, which rapid immunodetection has not been possible due to the absence of specific anti-Str. uberis antibodies. Recently, a specific antibody against the Str. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) has been designed. In the present study, the specificity and affinity of this antibody towards SUAM antigenic region SAPVYLGVSTE and Str. uberis cells are characterized, using experimental and in silico bioinformatic methods. The selectivity studies and bioinformatic analyses revealed high specificity of the antibody towards Str. uberis. The Kd value of SAPVYLGVSTE/anti-Str. uberis antibody complex was 27 ±â€¯6 nM, indicating the applicability of this antibody for the detection of Str. uberis. The anti-Str. uberis antibody was used as a specific biorecognition element of a biosensor for the detection of Str. uberis bacteria in phosphate buffer and in milk and these analyses took less than 20 min. The Str. uberis biosensor was also tested in the milk of cows suffering from mastitis and the obtained results were in good agreement with the conventional identification of this pathogen by microbiological plating.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Aderência Bacteriana , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Bovinos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus/patogenicidade
9.
J Dairy Res ; 86(3): 307-314, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451129

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional changes occurring in isolated perfused mammary alveolar tissue in response to inoculation with S. agalactiae and to identify the most affected biological functions and pathways after 3 h. Four udders taken at slaughter from cows with healthy mammary gland were perfused ex situ with warmed and gassed Tyrode's solution. Mammary alveolar tissue samples were taken from the left fore and rear quarters (IQ-inoculated quarters) before inoculation (hour 0) and at 3 h post inoculation (hpi) and at the same times from control right fore and rear quarters (not inoculated: NIQ). A total of 1756 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IQ and NIQ at 3 hpi using edgeR package. Within this set of DEGs, 952 were up regulated and mainly involved with innate immune response and inflammatory response, e.g., CD14, CCL5, TLR2, IL-8, SAA3, as well as in transcriptional regulation such as FOS, STAT3 and NFKBIA. Genes down-regulated (804) included those involved with lipid synthesis e.g., APOC2, SCD, FABP3 and FABP4. The most affected pathways were chemokine signaling, Wnt signaling and complement and coagulation cascades, which likely reflects the early stage response of mammary tissue to S. agalactiae infection. No significant gene expression changes were detected by RNA-Seq in the others contrasts. Real time-PCR confirmed the increase in mRNA abundance of immune-related genes: TLR2, TLR4, IL-1ß, and IL-10 at 3 hpi between IQ and NIQ. The expression profiles of Casp1 and Bax for any contrasts were unaffected whereas Bcl2 was increased in IQ, which suggests no induction of apoptosis during the first hours after infection. Results provided novel information regarding the early functional pathways and gene network that orchestrate innate immune responses to S. agalactiae infection. This knowledge could contribute to new strategies to enhance resistance to this disease, such as genomic selection.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Inflamação/genética , Mastite Bovina/genética , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 249-257, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470139

RESUMO

In recent years, streptococcal diseases have severely threatened the development of tilapia aquaculture, but effective prevention and control methods have not yet been established. To understand the immune responses of vaccinated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), digital gene expression (DGE) technology was applied in this study to detect the gene expression profile of the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) liver in response to ScpB (Streptococcal C5a peptidase from group B Streptococcus, ScpB) vaccination and a Streptococcus agalactiae-challenge. The control and the ScpB-vaccinated Nile tilapia yielded a total of 25,788,734 and 27,088,598 clean reads, respectively. A total of 1234 significant differentially expressed unigenes were detected (P < 0.05), of which 236 were significantly up-regulated, and 269 were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05, |fold|>2, FDR<0.05). Of the differentially expressed gene, the identified genes which were enriched using databases of GO and KEGG could be categorized into a total of 67 functional groups and were mapped to 153 signaling pathways including 15 immune-related pathways. The differentially expressed genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR9, MyD88, C3, IL-1ß, IL-10) were detected in the expression profiles, and this was subsequently verified via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results of this study can serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanism of S. agalactiae invasion, but also on the anti-S. agalactiae mechanism in targeted tissues of Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Cima
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 863-870, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422178

RESUMO

Interleukins (ILs) are a subgroup of cytokines, which are molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. These cytokines have been extensively studied in mammalian models, but systematic analyses of fish are limited. In the current study, 3 IL genes from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were characterized. The IL-1ß protein contains IL-1 family signature motif, and four long helices (αA - αD) in IL-11 and IL-34, which were well conserved. All 3 ILs clustered phylogenetically with their respective IL relatives in mammalian and other teleost species. Under normal physiological conditions, the expression of IL-1ß, IL-11, and IL-34 were detected at varied levels in the 11 tissues examined. Most of the 3 ILs examined were highly expressed in liver, spleen, kidney, gill, or skin. Following pathogenic bacterial, viral, or parasitic challenge, IL-1ß, IL-11, and IL-34 exhibited distinctly different expression profiles in a time-, tissue-, and pathogen-dependent manner. In general, IL-1ß was expressed at higher levels following challenge with all pathogens examined than was observed for IL-11 and IL-34. Furthermore, Streptococcus agalactiae and Cryptocaryon irritans caused higher levels of IL-1ß and IL-11 expression than Vibrio harveyi and viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). The increased expression of IL-34 caused by VNNV and C. irritans were higher than that caused by V. harveyi and S. agalactiae. These results suggest that these 3 ILs in T. ovatus may play different effect pathogen type specific responses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interleucina-11/genética , Interleucina-11/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 842-850, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284046

RESUMO

Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram-positive bacterium and a harmful aquaculture pathogen. To investigate the immune response against S. dysgalactiae, we performed transcriptome analysis of the head kidney and spleen of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) using RNA-seq. Total RNA was extracted from the head kidney and spleen of cobia, 1 and 2 days after treatment with S. dysgalactiae or control PBS. After RNA purification and cDNA library generation, sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform. The filtering and de novo assembling transcripts were annotated using several databases. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the S. dysgalactiae and PBS groups, the mapped values of fragments per kilobase of transcripts per million fragments were calculated. After de novo assembly, a total of 106,984 transcripts were detected, with an N50 of 3020 bp. These transcripts were annotated and categorised into a total of 7608 genes based on the KEGG pathway database. DEGs (2-fold difference) were calculated by comparing the S. dysgalactiae and PBS control group gene expression levels at each time point. The DEGs were mainly annotated into signal transduction and immune system categories, based on the KEGG database. The DEGs were significantly enriched in the immune-related pathways - "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction", "complement and coagulation cascades", and "hematopoietic cell linage". In this study, immune-related genes responding to S. dysgalactiae were detected, and several immune system pathways were categorized. We identified the IL17C-related pathway for inducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IFNγ). Additionally, neutrophil-related genes (CSF3, CD121, and CD114) were induced in the spleen after S. dysgalactiae infection. It was suggested that these pathways contribute to immune responses against S. dysgalactiae infection. The data revealed in this study may offer improved strategies against S. dysgalactiae infection in cobia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Baço/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/fisiologia
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 50-54, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276790

RESUMO

Atypical chemokine receptor 4 (ACKR4) is regulated by cytokines, binds chemokines and regulates the chemokine gradient. We verified the cDNA sequence by confirming ACKR4 from red sea bream (PmACKR4) by next generation sequencing (NGS) and analysed the molecular characteristics and gene expression profile. In the analysis using the predicted amino acid sequence of PmACKR4, a highly conserved G protein-coupled receptor 1 region and two cysteine residues were identified and included in the ACKR4 teleost cluster in the phylogenetic analysis. In healthy red sea bream, PmACKR4 mRNA was expressed at the highest levels in head kidney and was upregulated in all immune -related tissues used in the experiment after challenges with Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV). These results suggest that ACKR4 is highly conserved in red sea bream and may play an important role in the immune system as previously reported. It is thought that ACKR4 acts as a regulator of immune -related cells via immune reactions after pathogenic infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores CCR4/genética , Dourada/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Iridoviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 153-160, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319206

RESUMO

Cathepsins are the best-known group of proteases in lysosomes, playing a significant role in immune responses. Cathepsin K (CTSK) is abundantly and selectively expressed in osteoclasts, dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, where it is involved in ECM degradation and bone remodeling. A growing body of evidences have indicated the vital roles of cathepsin K in innate immune responses. Here, one CTSK gene was captured in turbot (SmCTSK) with a 993 bp open reading frame (ORF). The genomic structure analysis showed that SmCTSK had 7 exons similar to other vertebrate species. The syntenic analysis revealed that CTSK had the same neighboring genes across all the selected species, which suggested the synteny encompassing CTSK region was conserved during vertebrate evolution. Subsequently, SmCTSK was widely expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest expression level in spleen and the lowest expression level in liver. In addition, SmCTSK was significantly down-regulated in intestine following Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum immersion challenge, but up-regulated in three tissues (gill, skin and intestine) following Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae immersion challenge. Finally, the rSmCTSK showed strong binding ability to all the examined microbial ligands. Taken together, our results suggested SmCTSK played vital roles in fish innate immune responses against infection. However, the knowledge of SmCTSK is still limited in teleost species, further studies should be carried out to better characterize its comprehensive roles in teleost mucosal immunity.


Assuntos
Catepsina K/genética , Catepsina K/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , Catepsina K/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 621-628, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260736

RESUMO

Intestine in fish is a complex multifunctional organ, not only plays roles in digestion and absorption of nutrient, but also has critical role in immunity. The present study evaluated the effects of different levels of dietary sodium butyrate [Butirex® C4 (Butirex)] on intestinal immune-,antioxidant-and tight junction-related gene expression injuvenile rainbow trout(Oncorhynchusmykiss). 240 healthy rainbow trout were dispensed in 12 fiberglass tanks appointed to four treatments [0 (control), 1.5 (B1.5), 2.5 (B2.5) and 5 (B5)g Butirex per kg diet]. After a 45-day feeding trial, the fish fed with the Butirex-supplemented diets showed higher intestinal lysozyme (LYZ), complement(ACH50) and bactericidal activities; the elevations in ACH50 and bactericidal activities depended on Butirex levels (P < 0.05). The Butirex-supplemented groups, particularly the B2.5 group, had significantly higher LYZ gene expression compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Butirex at 2.5 and 5 g/kg levels led to significantly higher IL-1ß gene expression. B2.5 and B5 had significantly lower and higher TNF-α gene expression compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The B2.5 group had significantly higher TGF-B, and significantly lower IL-8 compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The B1.5 and B2.5 group had significantly higher IL-10 gene expression compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The B2.5 and B5 groups had significantly higher SOD gene expression compared to the other groups; the highest expression was related to the B2.5 group (P < 0.05). Dietary Butirex supplementation significantly up-regulated CAT and GPx genes expression compared to the control group; the highest expression as related to the B2.5 and B5 groups (P < 0.05). The B2.5 group had significantly lower CLD12 gene expression compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The B2.5 and B5 groups had significantly higher CLD3, OCLD and ZO-1 gene expression compared to the control. The highest CLD3, ZO-1 gene expressions was related to the B2.5, and B5 groups respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with Streptococcus iniae, B2.5 and B5 had significantly higher survival compared to the control group (55.6 ±â€¯7.70 and 68.9 ±â€¯10.2 vs. 33.3 ±â€¯6.67). In conclusion, Butirex is efficient immune stimulant and health booster in rainbow trout, which augments the fish resistance to disease. Modulation of immune components, cytokines, antioxidant system and intestinal integrity might involve in improving disease resistance in Butirex-treated fish. Although most of the examined genes were modulated by 2.5 g/kg Butirex under normal conditions, 5 g/kg level is recommended under pathogenic state to mitigate mortality.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/imunologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 781-788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326588

RESUMO

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a pivotal economic fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus infections. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a crucial adaptor molecule, which can trigger downstream signaling cascades involved in immune pathway. In this study, Nile tilapia TRAF5 coding sequence (named OnTRAF5) was obtained, which contained typical functional domains, such as RING, zinc finger, coiled-coil and MATH domain. Different from other TRAF molecules, OnTRAF5 had shown relatively low identify with its homolog, and it was clustered into other teleost TRAF5 proteins. qRT-PCR was used to analysis the expression level of OnTRAF5 in gill, skin, muscle, head kidney, heart, intestine, thymus, liver, spleen and brain, In healthy Nile tilapia, the expression level of OnTRAF5 in intestine, gill and spleen were significantly higher than other tissues. While under Streptococcus agalactiae infection, the expression level of OnTRAF5 was improved significantly in all detected organs. Additionally, over-expression WT OnTRAF5 activated NF-κB, deletion of RING or zinc finger caused the activity impaired. In conclusion, OnTRAF5 participate in anti-bacteria immune response and is crucial for the signaling transduction.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Ciclídeos/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/química , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia
17.
Infect Immun ; 87(10)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331954

RESUMO

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) commonly causes pharyngitis and skin infections. Little is known why streptococcal pharyngitis usually does not lead to pneumonia and why the skin is a favorite niche for GAS. To partially address these questions, the effectiveness of neutrophils in clearing wild-type (wt) M1T1 GAS strain MGAS2221 from the lung and from the skin was examined in murine models of intratracheal pneumonia and subcutaneous infection. Ninety-nine point seven percent of the MGAS2221 inoculum was cleared from the lungs of C57BL/6J mice at 24 h after inoculation, while there was no MGAS2221 clearance from skin infection sites. The bronchial termini had robust neutrophil infiltration, and depletion of neutrophils abolished MGAS2221 clearance from the lung. Phagocyte NADPH oxidase but not myeloperoxidase was required for MGAS2221 clearance. Thus, wt M1T1 GAS can be cleared by neutrophils using an NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism in the lung. MGAS2221 induced robust neutrophil infiltration at the edge of skin infection sites and throughout infection sites at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation, respectively. Neutrophils within MGAS2221 infection sites had no nuclear staining. Skin infection sites of streptolysin S-deficient MGAS2221 ΔsagA were full of neutrophils with nuclear staining, whereas MGAS2221 ΔsagA infection was not cleared. Gp91phox knockout (KO) and control mice had similar GAS numbers at skin infection sites and similar abilities to select SpeB activity-negative (SpeBA-) variants. These results indicate that phagocyte NADPH oxidase-mediated GAS killing is compromised in the skin. Our findings support a model for GAS skin tropism in which GAS generates an anoxic niche to evade phagocyte NADPH oxidase-mediated clearance.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Pulmão/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidases/imunologia , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/enzimologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Feminino , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fagócitos/enzimologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Estreptolisinas/deficiência , Estreptolisinas/genética , Estreptolisinas/imunologia
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 428-435, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362090

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the possible effects of Assam tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (ATE) on growth performances, immune responses, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus against Streptococcus agalactiae. Five levels of ATE were supplemented into the based diet at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g kg-1 feed of Nile tilapia fingerlings (10.9 ±â€¯0.04 g initial weight) in triplicate. After four and eight weeks of feeding, fish were sampled to determine the effects of the tea supplements upon their growth performance, as well as serum and mucosal immune responses. A disease challenge using S. agalactiae was conducted at the end of the feeding trial. Fish fed ATE revealed significantly improved serum lysozyme, peroxidase, alternative complement (ACH50), phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activities compared to the basal control fed fish (P < 0.05). The mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities were ameliorated through ATE supplementation in the tilapia diets. Supplementation of ATE significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate; while a decreased feed conversion ratio was revealed at 2 g kg-1 inclusion level, after four and eight weeks. Challenge test showed that the relative percent survival (RSP) of fish in each treatment was 33.33%, 60.00%, 83.33%, 76.68%, and 66.68% in groups fed 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g kg-1, respectively. In summary, diets supplemented with ATE especially at 2 g kg-1 increased the humoral and mucosal immunity, enhanced growth performance, and offered higher resistance against S. agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 208-215, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306760

RESUMO

Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is known to be involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the biological mechanisms of immune cells. In this study, we have confirmed the tissue specific expression of the cathepsin Z (PmCTSZ) gene in Pagrus major, and confirmed its biological function after producing recombinant protein using Escherichia coli (E. coli). Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that the active site of the cysteine proteases and three N-glycosylation sites of the deduced protein sequence were highly conserved among all of the organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCTSZ was included in the clusters of CTSZ and the cysteine proteases of other bony fish and is most closely related to Japanese flounder CTSZ. PmCTSZ was distributed in all of the tissues from healthy red sea bream that were used in the experiment and was most abundantly found in the spleen and gill. Analysis of mRNA expression after bacterial (Edwardsiella piscicida: E. piscicida and Streptococcus iniae: S. iniae) or viral (red seabream iridovirus: RSIV) challenge showed significant gene expression regulation in immune-related tissues, but they maintained relatively normal levels of expression. We produced recombinant PmCTSZ (rPmCTSZ) using an E. coli expression system and confirmed the biological function of extracellular rPmCTSZ in vitro. We found that bacterial proliferation was significantly inhibited by rPmCTSZ, and the leukocytes of red sea bream also induced apoptosis and viability reduction.


Assuntos
Catepsina Z/genética , Catepsina Z/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Dourada/genética , Dourada/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catepsina Z/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Edwardsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Iridoviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 124-134, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323329

RESUMO

The use of probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics for disease control is a relatively eco-friendly approach in aquaculture; hence, studies isolating and assessing the benefit of potential probiotics to fish farming are common. The zebrafish is an excellent model system for validating beneficial functions of potential probiotics before their practical application in aquaculture. Here, a potentially probiotic Chromobacterium aquaticum was isolated from lake water samples and characterized by biochemical analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The probiotic produced extracellular enzymes (protease and xylanase) and a bacteriocin-like substance, which exhibited tolerance to extreme pH and high-temperature conditions and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against diverse pathogens, including aquatic, foodborne, clinical and plant pathogens. The effects of C. aquaticum on zebrafish nutrient metabolism, growth performance and innate immunity were evaluated by measuring the expression of indicator genes after C. aquaticum feeding for 8 weeks. Fish administered the probiotic exhibited significantly increased hepatic mRNA expression of carbohydrate metabolism-related genes, including glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and pyruvate kinase (PK-L), and growth-related genes, including the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Innate immune-related genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-21, NF-κb, lysozyme and complement C3b) were induced in fish with probiotic supplementation. Probiotic-treated fish exhibited a higher survival rate than control fish after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae. Together, these data suggest that C. aquaticum, as a probiotic feed supplement, could enhance nutrient metabolism and growth performance and could modulate innate immunity against A. hydrophila and S. iniae in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Chromobacterium/química , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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