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1.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1405-1413, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085538

RESUMO

As the global COVID-19 pandemic spreads worldwide, new challenges arise in the clinical landscape. The need for reliable diagnostic methods, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 is the major worldwide urgency. While these goals are especially important, the growing risk of co-infections is a major threat not only to the health systems but also to patients' lives. Although there is still not enough published statistical data, co-infections in COVID-19 patients found that a significant number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 developed secondary systemic mycoses that led to serious complications and even death. This review will discuss some of these important findings with the major aim to warn the population about the high risk of concomitant systemic mycoses in individuals weakened by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/complicações , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/microbiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Risco
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093763

RESUMO

Background: Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein and we analyzed its concentrations in lung transplantated patients (LTX). Methods: 26 LTX patients (58.6 ± 11 years) and 11 healthy controls (55 ± 11.3 years). Three groups of LTX patients: acute rejection (AR, 7) bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS, 3), acute infection (INF, 9) and stable patients (NEG, 7). Results: In LTX patients SAA concentrations were significantly increased, particularly in AR and INF. In LTX-AR patients were observed a correlation between SAA levels and peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte percentage (r=0.9, p<0.01) and a reverse correlation with FVC percentages (r -0.94, p=0.01). Conclusions: SAA may represent a potential biomarker of LTX acute complications, with a prognostic value in AR. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (1): 2-7).


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas/sangue , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico , Bronquiolite Obliterante/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 439-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886464

RESUMO

At the 2020 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, held virtually as a result of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, trends in the HIV epidemic were highlighted, with decreasing HIV incidence reported across several countries, although key regions remain heavily impacted, including the US South. Adolescent girls and young women, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons, and people who inject drugs continue to experience a high burden of new infections. Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy can lead to a number of adverse outcomes in infants; novel strategies to detect and treat these infections are needed. Innovative HIV testing strategies, including self-testing and assisted partner services, are expanding the reach of testing; however, linkage to care can be improved. Novel preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivery strategies are increasing uptake of PrEP in different groups, although adherence and persistence remain a challenge. Use of on-demand PrEP is increasing among MSM in the US. Strategies are needed to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence among cis- and transgender women. Several novel regimens for postexposure prophylaxis show promise.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Retroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mycopathologia ; 185(4): 607-611, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737746

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2109, and has rapidly spread around the world. Until May 25, 2020, there were 133,521 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 7359 deaths in Iran. The role of opportunistic fungal infections in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients remains less defined. Based on our multicenter experiences, we categorized the risks of opportunistic fungal infections in COVID-19 patients in Iran. The COVID-19 patients at high risk included those with acute respiratory distress syndrome, in intensive care units, receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressants or corticosteroid, and supported by invasive or noninvasive ventilation. The patients were most likely to develop pulmonary aspergillosis, oral candidiasis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Most diagnoses were probable as the accurate diagnosis of opportunistic fungal infections remains challenging in resource-poor settings. We summarize the clinical signs and laboratory tests needed to confirm candidiasis, aspergillosis, or pneumocystosis in our COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doenças Faríngeas/complicações , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Doenças Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(3): 106103, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712333

RESUMO

This systemic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of tocilizumab for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Candidate studies up to 24 May 2020 were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, medRxiv and bioRxiv. Treatment outcomes included mortality, risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and the requirement for mechanical ventilation (MV). Seven retrospective studies involving 592 adult patients with severe COVID-19, including 240 in the tocilizumab group and 352 in the control group, were enrolled. All-cause mortality of severe COVID-19 patients among the tocilizumab group was 16.3% (39/240), which was lower than that in the control group (24.1%; 85/352). However, the difference did not reach statistical significance [risk ratio (RR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-1.22; I2 = 68%]. Additionally, risk of ICU admission was similar between the tocilizumab and control groups (35.1% vs. 15.8%; RR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.33-6.78; I2 = 86%). The requirement for MV was similar between the tocilizumab and control groups (32.4% vs. 28.6%; RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.14-4.94; I2 = 91%). However, these non-significant differences between the tocilizumab and control groups may have been the result of baseline characteristics of the tocilizumab group, which were more severe than those of the control group. Based on low-quality evidence, there is no conclusive evidence that tocilizumab would provide any additional benefit to patients with severe COVID-19. Therefore, further recommendation of tocilizumab for COVID-19 cases should be halted until high-quality evidence from randomised controlled trials is available.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(33): 7-18, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-485461

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. In December 2019, an outbreak of atypical pneumonia known as COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients are often in need for intensive chemotherapy to induce remission that will be complicated with prolonged period of cytopenias. They are often recalled to the hospital for treatment and disease surveillance. These patients may be immunocompromised due to the underlying malignancy or anti-cancer therapy. ALL patients are at higher risk of developing life-threatening infections. Several factors increase the risk of infection and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is common. Cancer patients had an estimated 2-fold increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. With the World Health Organization declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the impact of such pandemic on ALL patients. This include changes to resource allocation, clinical care, and the consent process during a pandemic. Currently and due to limited data, there are no international guidelines to address the optimal management of ALL patients in any infectious pandemic. In this review, we will address the potential challenges associated with managing ALL patients during the COVID-19 infection pandemic with suggestions of some practical approaches, focusing on screening asymptomatic ALL patients, diagnostic and response evaluation and choice of chemotherapy in different scenarios and setting and use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Clínicos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 270-274, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) was first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and subsequently announced as a pandemic on March 12, 2020. In several studies, solid-organ transplant recipients were reported to have higher risk for COVID-19. Here, we aimed to determine the frequency of COVID-19 in our kidney and liver transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 583 transplant patients who were admitted to our outpatient transplant clinics and emergency departments between March 1 and May 1, 2020. Seventy-four of them were liver transplant recipients (46 male, 28 female, of which 14 were pediatric and 60 were adult patients) and 509 of them were kidney transplant recipients (347 male, 162 female, of which 16 were pediatric and 493 were adult patients). We retrospectively evaluated demographic characteristics, currently used immunosuppressant treatment, present complaints, treatment and diagnosis of comorbid diseases, and results of COVID-19 tests. RESULTS: Of 583 transplant recipients, 538 were seen in our outpatient transplant clinics and 45 were seen in our emergency departments. Of these, 18 patients who had had cough and fever were evaluated by respiratory clinic doctors, and nasopharyngeal swab samples were taken. One kidney transplant recipient had a positive COVID-19 test; he was followed with home isolation. He received treatment with hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day). The other 17 patients had negative tests. There were no mortalities due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant patients also got affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the data of our centers, this effect is not much more different from the normal population. We recommend that transplant recipients should be warned in terms of personal hygiene and should be closely monitored by organ transplant centers. If there is an indication for hospitalization, they should be followed in an isolated unit, with no aggressive changes made to immunosuppressive doses unless necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia
11.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 275-283, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a great threat to the modern world and significant threat to immunocompromised patients, including patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluated COVID-19 incidence among our hemodialysis patients and investigated the most probable immune mechanisms against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baskent University has 21 dialysis centers across Turkey, with 2420 patients on hemodialysis and 30 on peritoneal dialysis. Among these, we retrospectively evaluated 602 patients (257 female/345 male) with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis as renal replacement therapy; 7 patients (1.1%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively collected patient demographic characteristics, clinical data, and immunological factors affecting the clinical course of the disease. We divided patients into groups and included 2 control groups (individuals with normal renal functions): group I included COVID-19-positive patients with normal renal function, group II included COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients, group III included COVID-19-negative hemodialysis patients, and group IV included COVID-19-negative patients with normal renal function. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and typing of human leukocyte antigens were analyzed in all groups, with killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor genes analyzed only in COVID-19-positive patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: No deaths occurred among the 7 COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients. Group I patients were significantly older than patients in groups II and III (P = .039, P = .030, respectively) but not significantly different from group IV (P = .060). Absolute counts of natural killer cells in healthy controls were higherthan in other groups (but not significantly). ActivatedT cells were significantly increased in both COVID-19-positive groups versus COVID-19-negative groups. Groups showed significant differences in C and DQ loci with respect to distribution of alleles in both HLA classes. CONCLUSIONS: Although immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for COVID-19, we found lower COVID-19 incidence in our hemodialysis patients, which should be further investigated in in vitro and molecular studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 270-274, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) was first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and subsequently announced as a pandemic on March 12, 2020. In several studies, solid-organ transplant recipients were reported to have higher risk for COVID-19. Here, we aimed to determine the frequency of COVID-19 in our kidney and liver transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 583 transplant patients who were admitted to our outpatient transplant clinics and emergency departments between March 1 and May 1, 2020. Seventy-four of them were liver transplant recipients (46 male, 28 female, of which 14 were pediatric and 60 were adult patients) and 509 of them were kidney transplant recipients (347 male, 162 female, of which 16 were pediatric and 493 were adult patients). We retrospectively evaluated demographic characteristics, currently used immunosuppressant treatment, present complaints, treatment and diagnosis of comorbid diseases, and results of COVID-19 tests. RESULTS: Of 583 transplant recipients, 538 were seen in our outpatient transplant clinics and 45 were seen in our emergency departments. Of these, 18 patients who had had cough and fever were evaluated by respiratory clinic doctors, and nasopharyngeal swab samples were taken. One kidney transplant recipient had a positive COVID-19 test; he was followed with home isolation. He received treatment with hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day). The other 17 patients had negative tests. There were no mortalities due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant patients also got affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the data of our centers, this effect is not much more different from the normal population. We recommend that transplant recipients should be warned in terms of personal hygiene and should be closely monitored by organ transplant centers. If there is an indication for hospitalization, they should be followed in an isolated unit, with no aggressive changes made to immunosuppressive doses unless necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 275-283, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a great threat to the modern world and significant threat to immunocompromised patients, including patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluated COVID-19 incidence among our hemodialysis patients and investigated the most probable immune mechanisms against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baskent University has 21 dialysis centers across Turkey, with 2420 patients on hemodialysis and 30 on peritoneal dialysis. Among these, we retrospectively evaluated 602 patients (257 female/345 male) with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis as renal replacement therapy; 7 patients (1.1%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively collected patient demographic characteristics, clinical data, and immunological factors affecting the clinical course of the disease. We divided patients into groups and included 2 control groups (individuals with normal renal functions): group I included COVID-19-positive patients with normal renal function, group II included COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients, group III included COVID-19-negative hemodialysis patients, and group IV included COVID-19-negative patients with normal renal function. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and typing of human leukocyte antigens were analyzed in all groups, with killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor genes analyzed only in COVID-19-positive patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: No deaths occurred among the 7 COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients. Group I patients were significantly older than patients in groups II and III (P = .039, P = .030, respectively) but not significantly different from group IV (P = .060). Absolute counts of natural killer cells in healthy controls were higherthan in other groups (but not significantly). ActivatedT cells were significantly increased in both COVID-19-positive groups versus COVID-19-negative groups. Groups showed significant differences in C and DQ loci with respect to distribution of alleles in both HLA classes. CONCLUSIONS: Although immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for COVID-19, we found lower COVID-19 incidence in our hemodialysis patients, which should be further investigated in in vitro and molecular studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(33): 7-18, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476644

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. In December 2019, an outbreak of atypical pneumonia known as COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients are often in need for intensive chemotherapy to induce remission that will be complicated with prolonged period of cytopenias. They are often recalled to the hospital for treatment and disease surveillance. These patients may be immunocompromised due to the underlying malignancy or anti-cancer therapy. ALL patients are at higher risk of developing life-threatening infections. Several factors increase the risk of infection and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is common. Cancer patients had an estimated 2-fold increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. With the World Health Organization declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the impact of such pandemic on ALL patients. This include changes to resource allocation, clinical care, and the consent process during a pandemic. Currently and due to limited data, there are no international guidelines to address the optimal management of ALL patients in any infectious pandemic. In this review, we will address the potential challenges associated with managing ALL patients during the COVID-19 infection pandemic with suggestions of some practical approaches, focusing on screening asymptomatic ALL patients, diagnostic and response evaluation and choice of chemotherapy in different scenarios and setting and use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Clínicos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(5): 422-426, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis (APH) is rare in an immunocompetent patient. We report a case of APH diagnosed by culture of broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) in a patient presenting a pseudo-tumoral form with nodules progressing to cavitation. OBSERVATION: A 41 year-old male smoker was hospitalized with a persistent fever, dry cough and dyspnoea on exertion. The first CT scan showed a reticulo-nodular interstitial infiltrate with lymphadenopathy that progressed rapidly to multiple pulmonary nodules with central cavitation. Bronchial endoscopy, with BAL culture, provided the diagnosis of Histoplasma capsulatum, variety capsulatum. The infection may have occurred during work in a hangar in Guadeloupe that was scattered with bats' guano. After two months of treatment by itraconazole, the patient's condition improved clinically and radiologically with reduction of the nodules and their cavitation. CONCLUSION: This case presents an immunocompetent patient with pulmonary histoplasmosis and multiple, radiologically atypical, nodules. The diagnosis was established by BAL culture.


Assuntos
Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Imunocompetência , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Broncoscopia , Guadalupe , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1881-1888, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448961

RESUMO

Due to defects and drawbacks of most conventional diagnostic methods including serology for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis as a dangerous opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals, the accurate, rapid, and sensitive detection of infection in such patients is essential. In this study, the TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and, a relatively new nucleic acid amplification method, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was compared based on the repetitive elements (RE) sequence to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) DNA in blood samples of immunocompromised individuals. During this study, 119 blood samples from immunocompromised cancer patients with renal failure, undergoing dialysis were studied. After DNA extraction from blood samples using the salt extraction method, the molecular techniques of TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and LAMP were used to investigate the contamination of the samples with T. gondii, based on the 529 bp (RE) sequence of T. gondii. The analytical sensitivity of LAMP and real-time PCR was evaluated by duplicating the five-step serial dilutions of T. gondii tachyzoites from 0.25 to 5×105 spiked tachyzoites per milliliter of the Toxoplasma seronegative blood sample. The extracted DNA from other parasites and human chromosomal DNA were used to determine the specificity of the molecular methods. The obtained results were analyzed using Kappa statistical test and SPSS22 software. Out of 119 studied samples, 7 (5.8%) and 5 (4.2%) samples were positive for Toxoplasma by TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and LAMP, respectively. The limits of detection of TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and RE-LAMP in negative serum samples were one and five tachyzoites (CT 38), respectively. Both real-time PCR and LAMP methods were 100% specific for Toxoplasma detection. Positive results were obtained only with T. gondii DNA, while other DNA samples were negative. The TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR based on the RE sequence showed higher sensitivity to T. gondii DNA detection in blood samples of cancer patients and serial dilutions of parasitic tachyzoites. The results show that TaqMan probe-based real-time PRC is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals, as well as the LAMP assay, which can be used as a suitable alternative diagnostic method for the detection of toxoplasmosis in such patients, without need the for any expensive equipment.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Oportunistas/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
18.
Eur Urol ; 77(6): 742-747, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27850

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and lethal infectious disease, posing a threat to global health security. The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available. To present the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of KTx recipients infected with COVID-19, we report on a case series of five patients who were confirmed as having COVID-19 through nucleic acid testing (NAT) from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset. Four patients received a reduced dose of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy during hospitalization. As of March 4, 2020 NAT was negative for COVID-19 in three patients twice in succession, and their computed tomography scans showed improved images. Although greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed, our series demonstrates that mild COVID-19 infection in KTx recipients can be managed using symptomatic support therapy combined with adjusted maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Urol ; 77(6): 742-747, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249089

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and lethal infectious disease, posing a threat to global health security. The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available. To present the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of KTx recipients infected with COVID-19, we report on a case series of five patients who were confirmed as having COVID-19 through nucleic acid testing (NAT) from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset. Four patients received a reduced dose of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy during hospitalization. As of March 4, 2020 NAT was negative for COVID-19 in three patients twice in succession, and their computed tomography scans showed improved images. Although greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed, our series demonstrates that mild COVID-19 infection in KTx recipients can be managed using symptomatic support therapy combined with adjusted maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(4): 299-307, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative PCR to detect Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) is a new tool for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). The yield of this technique, in cases of low fungal burden, when the standard technique using immunofluorescence (IF) is negative, needs to be evaluated. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with a positive PCR but negative IF test (PCR+/IF-) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid performed over one year. We used an algorithm based on underlying immunosuppression, clinical picture, thoracic CT scan appearances, existence of an alternative diagnosis and the patient's outcome on treatment. Using this, each case was classified as probable PJP, possible PJP or colonization. RESULTS: Among the 416 BAL performed, 48 (12%) were PCR+/IF- and 43 patients were analyzed. Patients were mostly male (56%) with a median age of 60 years. Thirty-five (84%) were immunocompromised: 4 (9%) HIV-infected patients, 26 (60%) with hematologic or solid organ cancer, 3 (7%) were renal transplant recipients. Seven (16%) were classified as probable PPJ and 9 (21%) as possible PJP. Patients with a probable or possible PJP were more frequently admitted to the ICU (P<0.02) and had higher risk of death (P<0.01) when compared to those with colonization. Median PCR levels were very low and were not different between PJP or colonized patients (P=0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with a positive Pj PCR in BAL but with negative IF, only 37% had probable or possible PJP and PCR could not discriminate PJP from colonization.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Infecções por Pneumocystis/patologia , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos
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