Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 217
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8480, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439889

RESUMO

The use of a sensitive and accurate parasite detection methodology is crucial in studies exploring prevalence of parasites in host populations or communities, and uncertainty in identifying parasite genera and/or lineages may limit the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Here, we used a multistate occupancy approach that accounts for imperfect detection to assess whether sex and breeding season influenced the prevalence of a specific Haemoproteus lineage (TARUF02) in a white-lined tanager population. Likewise, we explored whether the probability of detecting the target parasite in an infected bird using PCR and sequencing analyses may be influenced by season and host sex. We found little evidence that sex influenced the probability of an individual host being infected by a haemosporidian parasite. Conversely, we found that the probability of infection by Haemoproteus TARUF02 was ~30% higher during the breeding season, reflecting a higher prevalence of this parasite in this season. The probability that PCR detects DNA of haemosporidian parasite was higher for female birds, suggesting that they are more prone to be parasitized with parasitemia levels that are more successfully detected by molecular analysis. Sequencing successfully determined the Haemoproteus TARUF02 lineage in 60% of samples collected during the breeding season and 84% of samples collected during the non-breeding season. Understanding the ecology of hosts and aspects of their physiology that may influence the parasite infection is essential to better understanding of hemoparasite infections and how parasites influence their native hosts, through decreasing reproductive success, lifespan, and/or survival.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294719

RESUMO

Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 125-143, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029179

RESUMO

Internal parasites are a major concern in livestock production because they can impact the health and well-being of animals clinically and subclinically, and ultimately cause significant production loss. Among these internal parasites are nematodes, tapeworms, flukes, and coccidian protozoans. This review focuses on the diagnostic tests that are routinely performed by veterinarians and diagnostic laboratories, but also highlights recently developed tools that may improve diagnostic capabilities, including molecular and immunodiagnostic tests. Overall, diagnostic tests for parasites of livestock are an integral part of health management practices, and for assessing individual animal and herd health.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Gado/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion is a major source of economic losses in cattle breeding. Abortion occurs due to a wide range of causes, but infections are the most frequently diagnosed. However, establishing an aetiological diagnosis remains challenging due to the large variety of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi that have been associated with abortion in cattle. Economic restraints limit the range of diagnostic methods available for routine diagnostics, and decomposition of the conceptus or lack of proper fetal and/or maternal samples further restrict the diagnostic success. In this study, we report recent diagnostic findings from bovine abortions in Denmark, a country that has a large dairy sector and is free from most infectious agents causing epizootic abortion in cattle. The aims of the study were: (i) to identify infectious causes of bovine abortion in Denmark, (ii) to categorise the diagnostic findings based on the level of diagnostic certainty, and (iii) to assess the diagnostic rate. Due to economic restraints, only a limited panel of routine diagnostic methods were available. Placentas and/or fetuses from mid- to late-term abortions and stillbirths (n = 162) were submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute between January 2015 and June 2017. The aborted materials were examined macroscopically, histologically, and by bacterial culture. Maternal blood samples were tested for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibodies. RESULTS: The likely aetiology of the abortion was diagnosed in 52 cases, resulting in a diagnostic rate of 33%. The most common cause was protozoal infection (19%) followed by infection with Trueperella pyogenes (3%), Staphylococcus aureus (2%), and non-haemolytic Escherichia coli (2%). Lesions in fetuses with a protozoal infection were consistent with neosporosis. In many cases (38%), inflammatory changes were found in the placenta and/or fetal organs but no specific aetiology was identified. Neither infection with Brucella spp. nor maternal BVDV antibodies were detected. The majority of submitting herds (92%) were each represented by fewer than three abortion cases over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Protozoal infection, most likely neosporosis, was the most commonly diagnosed cause of abortion and the only one associated with potential epizootic abortion events. Despite using a reduced number of diagnostic methods in comparison to other abortion studies, the diagnostic rate of this study was within the range reported in an earlier Danish study, as well as in recent international studies. The low number of submitted cases per herd and the sparse anamnestic information provided at submission hampered conclusions on the potential epizootic character of the abortion events in question.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Placenta , Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bovinos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Feto/microbiologia , Feto/parasitologia , Feto/virologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Placenta/virologia , Gravidez , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/complicações , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101626

RESUMO

Abstract Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Resumo Endoparasitoses estão associadas à morbidade em gatos. Este estudo objetivou investigar a ocorrência de endoparasitos em gatos de diversas faixas etárias, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. As amostras passaram por exploração macroscópica à procura de proglotes de cestódeos e analisadas individualmente por centrífugo-flutuação. Assim, amostras fecais foram obtidas de gatos domiciliados (n = 57) e de abrigos (n = 336). Endoparasitos foram detectados em 50,64% das amostras fecais. Nos gatos domiciliados e de abrigos, 21,05% e 55,66% estavam infectados por endoparasitos, respectivamente. Ancylostoma spp. (25%) e Strongyloides spp. (25%) foram os helmintos mais prevalentes encontrados nas amostras de fezes dos gatos domiciliados, seguido por Toxocara spp. (16,67%), Dypilidium caninum (16,67%), Cystoisospora spp. (8,33%) e a associação de Uncinaria spp. e Ancylostoma spp. (8,33%). Entre os gatos dos abrigos, Ancylostoma spp. estavam presentes em 29,41% das amostras, seguidos por Cystoisospora spp. (26,20%), Toxocara spp. (16,58%) e as associações de parasitos Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (8,02%), Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (11,76%), Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp (3,74%), Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocaraspp. + Ancylostoma spp. (3,21%) e Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (0,53%). Cystoisospora spp. foi o único protozoário encontrado. A presença de endoparasitos reforça a necessidade de cuidados veterinários preventivos e testes coproparasitológicos de rotina para evitar sua disseminação.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia
7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(12): 1892-1895, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685730

RESUMO

One captive musophagid bird at a zoological garden in Japan showed clinical symptoms and was found to be infected with avian haemosporidia. We subsequently collected blood from all musophagid birds kept in the garden and examined for avian haemosporidia using both microscopic and molecular examination. Only Haemoproteus gametocytes were observed in the blood of two Guinea turaco (Tauraco persa). Three genetic lineages of Haemoproteus were identified from three Guinea turacos and one genetic lineage of Leucocytozoon was identified from a grey plantain-eater (Crinifer piscator). Detected Haemoproteus lineages were all identical and completely different from those previously reported in Japan, suggesting that these birds were infected in their original habitat. This is the first record of Haemoproteus infection in Guinea turacos.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , DNA Mitocondrial , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 17-23, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442888

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus may cause severe diarrhea in cats all over the world. In order to evaluate the methodology in coprological molecular diagnosis of feline tritrichomonosis, we compared previously published ("old") and newly developed ("novel") loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) (targeted to the T. foetus ß-tubulin and the elf1α 1 gene, respectively) as well as an old conventional and an old and novel real-time PCR (all targeted to overlapping regions of T. foetus rDNA) assays regarding their diagnostic sensitivities and specificities. Here, the novel real-time PCR yielded the best methodical performance in that a sensitivity with a detection limit of <0.1 trophozoites (corresponding to ca.<0.13 trophozoites per mg feces) and a maximal specificity for diagnosis of Tritrichomonas spp. was achieved. The other test systems exhibited either an approximately 10-times lower sensitivity (<1 trophozoite corresponding to ca.<1.3 trophozoites per mg feces) (conventional PCR and both LAMP assays) or a lower specificity (old real-time PCR). Conversely, the diagnostic performance assessed with clinical fecal samples from cats demonstrated identical sensitivities (8 of 20 samples tested were positive) for the novel PCR and both LAMP assays. Diagnostic sensitivities were significantly higher than those found for the old real-time (5 positive samples) and conventional PCR (6 positive samples), respectively. Accordingly, our data suggested the novel PCR and both LAMP assays to be well suited molecular tools for direct (i.e. without including an in vitro cultivation step) coprological diagnosis of tritrichomonosis in cats. Interestingly, relative high (novel LAMP, 7 positive samples) to at least moderate (old LAMP, 6 positive samples and 1 sample with equivocal score) diagnostic sensitivities were also achieved by testing clinical samples upon simple visual inspection of colorimetric changes during the LAMP amplification reactions. Accordingly, both LAMP assays may serve as practical molecular tools to perform epidemiological studies on feline (and bovine as well as porcine) tritrichomonosis under simple laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Tritrichomonas foetus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 360, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perkinsosis, a disease caused by the protist Perkinsus, is responsible for mass mortalities of many molluscan species worldwide. The rapid, early and accurate detection of Perkinsus infection is necessary to react to outbreaks, and manage disease transmission. Current methods for diagnosis of Perkinsus spp. are time-consuming or require professional equipment and experienced personnel, rendering them unsuitable for field application. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay is a highly sensitive and selective isothermal amplification technique that operates at temperatures of 37-42 °C, requires minimal sample preparation, and is capable of amplifying as low as 1-10 target DNA copies in less than 20 minutes. METHODS: We report a novel RPA assay that amplifies the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region of P. beihaiensis, which, followed by rapid detection of amplicons using a lateral flow (LF) strip, enables easy visualization of results by the naked eye. RESULTS: The LF-RPA assay successfully amplified P. beihaiensis DNA using a set of primers of 20-25 bp in length. After incubation at 37 °C for 25 min, results were read within 5 min by the naked eye on a lateral flow strip. Our LF-RPA assay was comparably sensitive to qPCR assay, and capable of detecting as few as 26 copies of P. beihaiensis DNA. Cross-amplification occurred with other two Perkinsus species, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki, but not with other potential pathogen taxa in culture environments. We compared the performance of LF-RPA, conventional PCR and qPCR assays on 60 oyster samples. While LF-RPA assay results were 86.2% as sensitive, 77.4% as specific, and generally in agreement with those of conventional PCR results, they were more (93.3%) sensitive, (86.7%) specific, and agreed better with qPCR assay results. Future research should focus on developing simple DNA extraction methods that do not require professional laboratories and complicated extraction procedures, to facilitate application of this LF-RPA assay in the field. CONCLUSIONS: Our LF-RPA assay provides a rapid and efficient method for detecting species of Perkinsus. This novel assay has potential to be used in field applications.


Assuntos
Alveolados/isolamento & purificação , Crassostrea/parasitologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Alveolados/genética , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Visualização de Dados , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Infecções por Protozoários , Recombinases/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 282, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian haemosporidian parasites can cause severe disease in their hosts due to excessive exo-erythrocytic merogony and anaemia caused by blood stages. Notably, the development of megalomeronts by species of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon has been associated with mortalities in birds. Diagnosis of lethal infections is currently accomplished by the detection of parasites' tissue stages in histological sections combined with PCR and sequencing. However, sequences frequently are not reliably obtained and the generic discrimination of exo-erythrocytic tissue stages based on morphological characters is challenging. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing specific molecular probes for the identification of Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. in histological sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization. METHODS: Parasite subgenus-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to target the 18S ribosomal RNA of Haemoproteus species (subgenus Parahaemoproteus) and Leucocytozoon spp. (subgenus Leucocytozoon) and were in situ hybridized to sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples determined positive for these parasites by PCR and histopathology. To confirm the presence of parasites at sites of probe hybridization, consecutive sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and examined. RESULTS: Parahaemoproteus- and Leucocytozoon-specific probes labelled erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic stages of Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp., respectively. Binding of probes to parasites was consistent with detection of the same exo-erythrocytic meronts in consecutive haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Cross-reactivity of the probes was ruled out by negative chromogenic in situ hybridization when applied to samples positive for a parasite of a genus different from the probes' target. CONCLUSIONS: Chromogenic in situ hybridization using 18S ribosomal RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes reliably identifies and discriminates Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites in tissue sections and enables unequivocal diagnosis of haemosporidioses.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Sondas Moleculares , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Compostos Cromogênicos/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização In Situ , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100285, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027601

RESUMO

As laws change around the United States, wildlife that were once kept as companion animals are now often confiscated by local authorities. They are then euthanized unless a home is found for them at a sanctuary. Wolf sanctuaries are, therefore, becoming increasingly important for their conservation and management. However, little data is available on best practices for the health management of captive wolves, including data on parasitic diseases. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of parasites of captive wolves combining classical coprological techniques and immunoassays based on the detection of coproantigen of selected canid parasites. Fecal samples of 39 animals were collected upon observation of individual animals defecating. All samples were processed using the Fecal Dx® tests, a suite of coproantigen ELISAs for detection of ascarid, hookworm, whipworm, and Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories Inc.). Out of the 39 samples, 38 were processed using the double-centrifugation sugar flotation (DCSF) and 34 using a modification of the Baermann technique. Twenty-eight samples (71.8%) were positive for hookworm, and none positive for the other parasites tested using coproantigen ELISA. Ancylostoma sp. (26, 68.4%), Eucoleus boehmi (13, 34.2%), and Trichuris sp. (2; 5.3%), and Sarcocystis sp. (13, 34.2%) were detected using DCSF. No metastrongyloid lungworm larvae were found. The Cohen's kappa index (0.97) showed excellent agreement between the hookworm coproantigen ELISA and the DCSF using feces preserved in ethanol for a short period of time. This study provides a baseline on the parasites of captive wolves, and shows that recent innovative diagnostics in veterinary parasitology, developed and optimized for dogs, may be used for assessing the health of wolves.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Lobos/parasitologia , Ancylostoma/imunologia , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/imunologia , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Centrifugação/métodos , Centrifugação/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Nematoides/imunologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Pennsylvania , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichuris/imunologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos
12.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(3): 690-693, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852178

RESUMO

Rangeliosis, caused by protozoan Rangelia vitalii, is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. The disease is characterized by hemolytic and hemorrhagic disorder and has been described in dogs and other wild canids. The aim of this study was to compare clinicopathological findings and laboratory results of a Rangelia infection in a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) with those of canine rangeliosis. The zoo of Universidade de Caxias do Sul, received a crab-eating fox with marked jaundice in mucous membranes, dark-colored stools and neurological signs. The animal underwent an ear tip smear examination and blood collection for complete blood counts, serum biochemistry and PCR. Free-living and intraerythrocytic pyriform structures consistent with R. vitalii were found in the blood smear of the ear tip. The erythrogram revealed normocytic normochromic anemia, moderate macrocytosis, polychromasia and metarubricytosis. The leukogram revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and monocytosis, as well as severe thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemistry showed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated levels of urea and creatinine. The treatment was performed with imidocarb hydrochloride and dexamethasone, however 24 h after initiation of treatment the animal died. Macroscopic examination revealed jaundice, subcutaneous edema, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, splenomegaly, and hemorrhage of internal organs. Histological sections of the cerebellum, lung, pancreas, intestine and heart were consistent with R. vitalii infection of the vascular endothelium. Pathological and hematological findings were similar to those found in infected dogs, with clinical presentation characterized by hemolytic anemia and hemorrhage. The description of this case showed that C. thous does not only serve as reservoir of R. vitalii but may also develop disease.


Assuntos
Raposas/parasitologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Brasil , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Testes Hematológicos , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(1): 1-11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892464

RESUMO

Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that has been definitively identified as an agent of trichomonosis, a disease characterized by chronic diarrhea. T. foetus colonizes portions of the feline large intestine, and manifests as chronic and recurrent diarrhea with mucus and fresh blood, which is often unresponsive to common drugs. Diagnosis of a trichomonad infection is made by either the demonstration of the trophozoite on a direct fecal smear, fecal culture and subsequent microscopic examination of the parasite, or extraction of DNA in feces and amplification by the use of molecular tools. T. foetus is commonly misidentified as other flagellate protozoa such as Giardia duodenalis and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Without proper treatment, the diarrhea may resolve spontaneously in months to years, but cats can remain carriers of the parasite. This paper intends to serve as a source of information for investigators and veterinarians, reviewing the most important aspects of feline trichomonosis, such as trichomonad history, biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, world distribution, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Diarreia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética
14.
Parasitology ; 146(9): 1184-1187, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859924

RESUMO

Bovine trichomoniasis is a notifiable, reproductive disease of cattle caused by the parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Culturing with modified Diamond's medium (MDM) is required to increase the low number of organisms received from a preputial sample, but is limited in application to remote areas as it requires continuous cold chain storage. This study utilized lyophilization to sustain the viability of MDM during transport in lieu of a continuous cold chain. All lyophilized MDM was able to sustain T. foetus after storage for 42 days at 24 °C, and the results demonstrated that lyophilized MDM was equally as viable as refrigerated liquid MDM. Storage of lyophilized MDM at room temperature for 1 and 7 days did not impact T. foetus yield, both with and without exposure to light. A limitation of the lyophilized MDM was demonstrated with a significant decrease in T. foetus yield when the media was stored at 37 and 58 °C. The lyophilization of MDM provides a robust method of transporting and storing medium prior to reconstitution and inoculation, for use in T. foetus diagnosis and surveillance in remote areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Meios de Cultura/química , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Tritrichomonas foetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Liofilização , Temperatura , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 1-11, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-990813

RESUMO

Abstract Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that has been definitively identified as an agent of trichomonosis, a disease characterized by chronic diarrhea. T. foetus colonizes portions of the feline large intestine, and manifests as chronic and recurrent diarrhea with mucus and fresh blood, which is often unresponsive to common drugs. Diagnosis of a trichomonad infection is made by either the demonstration of the trophozoite on a direct fecal smear, fecal culture and subsequent microscopic examination of the parasite, or extraction of DNA in feces and amplification by the use of molecular tools. T. foetus is commonly misidentified as other flagellate protozoa such as Giardia duodenalis and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Without proper treatment, the diarrhea may resolve spontaneously in months to years, but cats can remain carriers of the parasite. This paper intends to serve as a source of information for investigators and veterinarians, reviewing the most important aspects of feline trichomonosis, such as trichomonad history, biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, world distribution, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.


Resumo Tritrichomonas foetus é um parasito que foi identificado definitivamente como agente de tricomoníase, caracterizada por diarreia crônica. T. foetus coloniza porções do intestino grosso dos felinos e se manifesta como uma diarreia crônica e recorrente, com muco e sangue, geralmente irresponsiva às drogas comumente usadas no tratamento. O diagnóstico da infecção por tricomonadídeos é feito pela demonstração de trofozoítos no exame direto de fezes frescas, cultura fecal e subsequente exame microscópico ou extração do DNA do parasito na amostra fecal e amplificação, utilizando-se técnicas moleculares. T. foetus é comumente confundido com outros protozoários flagelados, como Giardia duodenalis e Pentatrichomonas hominis. Sem tratamento adequado, a diarreia pode cessar espontaneamente em meses ou anos, porém os gatos podem permanecer portadores do parasito. Esse artigo pretende servir como fonte de informação para pesquisadores e veterinários, revisando os mais importantes aspectos da tricomoníase felina, como histórico, biologia, manifestações clínicas, patogênese, distribuição mundial, fatores de risco, diagnóstico e tratamento.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212028, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794588

RESUMO

Noble pen shell or fan mussel, Pinna nobilis Linnaeus (1758), protected since 1992, was incorporated into the Spanish Catalogue of Threatened Species (Category: Vulnerable, Royal Decree 139/2011). The status is presently in the process of being catalogued as critically endangered, pending approval by Spanish Government (https://www.mapama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/participacion-publica/Borrador_OM_situacion_critica.aspx). The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) alerted the countries of the Mediterranean basin to the "emergent situation" due to serious mortality events suffered by the fan mussel, putting it in serious risk of extinction. Thus, emergency actions have been implemented by Spanish authorities in which several research institutes from all over the country are involved. The parasite, Haplosporidium pinnae, was recently characterized by histology, TEM, SEM and molecular biology techniques and it was considered responsible for the mass mortality of P. nobilis in the Mediterranean Sea. In this context, the aim of this study has been to develop species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol carrying out a fast, specific and effective molecular diagnose of H. pinnae. In this sense, the detection limit for qPCR was equal to 30 copies of SSU rDNA / ng of DNA using plasmid alone and when 100ng DNA of non-infected oyster were added. The qPCR assay revealed that 94% of the 32 analysed mantle tissues of fan mussel were infected by H. pinnae, showing a high sensitivity and specificity for its detection (100% if we don't consider negative and too much degraded samples). This technique will allow us to make quicker follow-ups of the disease, allowing us to get a better understanding of its evolution in order to help in the rescue of P. nobilis populations.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Haplosporídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Haplosporídios/genética , Região do Mediterrâneo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2725, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804364

RESUMO

Disease is an increasing threat for marine bivalves worldwide. Recently, a mass mortality event (MME) impacting the bivalve Pinna nobilis was detected across a wide geographical area of the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and linked to a haplosporidian parasite. In 2017-2018, mass mortality events affecting the pen shell Pinna nobilis were recorded in two different regions of Italy, Campania and Sicily, in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Histopathological and molecular examinations of specimens showed the presence of Haplosporidium sp. in only one specimen in one area. Conversely, in all of the surveyed moribund animals, strong inflammatory lesions at the level of connective tissue surrounding the digestive system and gonads and linked to the presence of intracellular Zhiel-Neelsen-positive bacteria were observed. Molecular analysis of all of the diseased specimens (13) confirmed the presence of a Mycobacterium. Blast analysis of the sequences from all of the areas revealed that they were grouped together with the human mycobacterium M. sherrisii close to the group including M. shigaense, M. lentiflavum and M. simiae. Based on pathological and molecular findings, it is proposed that a mycobacterial disease is associated with the mortality episodes of Pinna nobilis, indicating that, at this time, Haplosporidium sp. is not responsible for these events in Campanian and Sicilian waters.


Assuntos
Bivalves/microbiologia , Bivalves/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Haplosporídios/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Sicília , Espanha
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 266: 12-17, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736943

RESUMO

Giardia intestinalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are frequent enteric protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal track of domestic cats. Because of different treatment options for the parasites, confirmation of presence of one or both pathogens is necessary. The PCR based assays are suitable for differential diagnosis. We evaluated the performance of Small Animal Diarrhoea panel, a multiplexed-tandem real-time PCR (MT-PCR) assay, that detects DNA of both G. intestinalis and T. foetus. The sensitivity and specificity were compared to reference real-time PCR assays using 105 faecal samples, 39.05% (n = 41) positive for G. intestinalis and 30.48% (n = 32) were positive for T. foetus. The faecal samples positive for T. foetus had a high proportion of late amplifiers, determined by an arbitrary threshold of Ct-values > 35. On the other hand, only one G. intestinalis positive sample was considered a late amplifier. For G. intestinalis DNA, the MT-PCR assay had 95.1% sensitivity and 92.1% specificity. For T. foetus DNA, the MT-PCR assay had 41.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity. To evaluate the interlaboratory reproducibility of the MT-PCR assay, results were compared in two different laboratories and found to be in a very good agreement (Kappa = 0.9). Further analysis of the DNA using conventional PCR determined presence of G. intestinalis Assemblage F and T. foetus genotype 'feline'. In conclusion, the MT-PCR Small Animal Diarrhoea panel had a good and poor performance against reference assays for G. intestinalis and T. foetus, respectively. The assay is suitable for detection and differential diagnosis of G. intestinalis and moderate to high burdens of T. foetus in small animal clinical practice.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Fish Dis ; 42(1): 63-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324720

RESUMO

Bonamia spp. parasites threaten flat oyster (Ostrea spp.) farming worldwide. Understanding test performance is important for designing surveillance and interpreting diagnostic results. Following a pilot survey which found low Bonamia sp. intensity in farmed Ostrea angasi, we tested further oysters (n = 100-150) from each of three farms for Bonamia sp. using heart smear, histology and qPCR. We used a Bayesian Latent Class Model to assess diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of these tests individually or in combination, and to assess prevalence. Histology was the best individual test (DSe 0.76, DSp 0.93) compared to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (DSe 0.69, DSp 0.93) and heart smear (DSe 0.61, DSp 0.60). Histology combined with qPCR and defining a positive from either test as an infected case maximized test performance (DSe 0.91, DSp 0.88). Prevalence was higher at two farms in a high-density oyster growing region than at a farm cultivating oysters at lower density. Parasite intensities were lower than in New Zealand and European studies, and this is probably contributed to differences in the performance of test when compared to other studies. Understanding diagnostic test performance in different populations can support the development of improved Bonamia surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Haplosporídios , Ostrea/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Coração/parasitologia , Técnicas Histológicas/veterinária , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(1): 191-201, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536121

RESUMO

Accurate detection and identification are essential components for epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary surveys of avian haemosporidian parasites. Microscopy has been used for more than 100 years to detect and identify these parasites; however, this technique requires considerable training and high-level expertise. Several PCR methods with highly sensitive and specific detection capabilities have now been developed in addition to microscopic examination. However, recent studies have shown that these molecular protocols are insufficient at detecting mixed infections of different haemosporidian parasite species and genetic lineages. In this study, we developed a simple, sensitive, and specific multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and discrimination of parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in single and mixed infections. Relative quantification of parasite DNA using qPCR showed that the multiplex PCR can amplify parasite DNA ranging in concentration over several orders of magnitude. The detection specificity and sensitivity of this new multiplex PCR assay were also tested in two different laboratories using previously screened natural single and mixed infections. These findings show that the multiplex PCR designed here is highly effective at identifying both single and mixed infections from all three genera of avian haemosporidian parasites. We predict that this one-step multiplex PCR assay, being convenient and inexpensive, will become a widely used method for molecular screening of avian haemosporidian parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...