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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3739-3753, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000433

RESUMO

Many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are present in wildlife. The objective of this study is to reveal the role of wild bears in maintaining TBPs. A total of 49 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) from Hokkaido, and 18 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Tochigi, and 66 Japanese black bears from Nagano were examined by two molecular methods, reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization, and nested PCR. A total of 5 TBPs (Hepatozoon ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like group, Cytauxzoon sp. UR1, Babesia sp. UR1, and Babesia microti) were detected from bear blood DNA samples. B. microti was detected from blood DNA samples of Japanese black bear for the first time, with the prevalence of 6.0% (5/84). Out of detected pathogens, H. ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like pathogens, and Cytauxzoon sp. UR1 were considered as three of the most prevalent TBPs in bears. The prevalence of H. ursi were significantly higher in Japanese black bear (0% vs 96.4%) while that of Babesia sp. UR2-like group was higher in Hokkaido brown bears (89.8% vs 40.5%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. UR1 were significantly higher in Japanese black bears from Tochigi (44.4%), comparing with those from Nagano (18.2%). The prevalence of the detected TBPs were significantly higher in adult bears, comparing with those in younger bears. The present study suggests that Japanese bear species contribute in the transmission of several TBPs in Japan. The expanding distribution of bears might cause the accidental transmission of TBPs to humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/parasitologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2733-2740, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617726

RESUMO

Amebiasis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis, with symptoms of abdominal discomfort, indigestion, diarrhea, and even death. However, limited information about the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in experimental nonhuman primates (NHPs) in southwestern China is available. The objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and species identity of Entamoeba to evaluate potential zoonotic risk factors for Entamoeba spp. infection in experimental NHPs. A total of 505 fecal samples were collected from NHPs (macaques) and analyzed by PCR analysis the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Entamoeba spp. Forty-seven specimens were positive for Entamoeba spp., and the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. was 9.31% (47/505). Significant differences in the prevalence rates among the three breeds (P = 0.002 < 0.01, df = 2, χ2 = 12.33) and feed types (P = 0.001 < 0.01, df = 1, χ2 = 10.12) were observed. Altogether, four Entamoeba species, including E. dispar (57.44%), E. chattoni (29.78%), E. histolytica (6.38%), and E. coli (6.38%), were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The results suggested a low prevalence but high diversity of Entamoeba species in experimental NHPs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Entamoeba spp. in NHPs.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/transmissão , Fezes/parasitologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2975-2981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683557

RESUMO

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , França/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2679-2686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588173

RESUMO

Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus, M. musculus, Rattus rattus, and Crocidura russula) collected in Barcelona metropolitan area (NE Spain). In addition, PCR-RFLP and microsatellites were also used as tools for genotypic characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Specific DNA of T. gondii, N. caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. was detected in 0.3% (n = 1), 1.3% (n = 4), and 3.8% (n = 12) of the animals, respectively. No mixed infections were observed. Crocidura russula stood out as the main host for Sarcocystis spp. Toxoplasma gondii-specific DNA detected in a house rat was genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP, presenting type II and III alleles (SAG1 [II], SAG3 [II], GRA6 [II], c22-8 [III], Apico [III]). Also, unsuccessful DNA sequencing and microsatellite typing were attempted in N. caninum-positive samples, which suggested a lack of PCR specificity and open avenues to speculate the host competence of rodents for N. caninum. Likewise, Sarcocystis spp. identity was studied by alignment and phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 28S rRNA sequences from the 14 positive samples. It resulted in at least three unknown organisms closely similar (95.7-100% cox1-sequence homology) to Sarcocystis pantherophisi from the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) (KU891603), suggesting together with 28S rRNA sequences analyses, three Sarcocystis sp. with a life cycle conformed by rodents as intermediate host (IH) and snakes as definitive hosts (DH) infecting the periurban micromammals surveyed. Prevalence figures found in this first survey carried out in Spain agree with other international studies focused on periurban areas. Further surveys should be conducted in farms and their surroundings in order to unravel the role of wild micromammals in the epidemiology of such protozoan parasites affecting our livestock, and therefore human population.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Mamíferos/classificação , Encistamento de Parasitas , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2741-2745, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577820

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite frequently identified in the intestinal tract of humans and a vast variety of animals, worldwide. Here, we assessed the prevalence of Blastocystis and its subtypes in stool samples of raccoons. Stool samples from 30 raccoons were collected. Total DNA was extracted, and the barcoding region of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene was amplified and sequenced. Specific fragment for Blastocystis was successfully amplified in five samples (16.66%). Sequencing analysis revealed ST1, ST2, and ST3 among 1, 2, and 2 Blastocystis-positive samples. Our results documented the presence of Blastocystis subtypes 1-3 in raccoons. Subtype 1 showed higher similarity to the human isolates of Blastocystis. However, it seems that raccoons may emerge as reservoirs for Blastocystis and may be linked to zoonotic transmission of the protist.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Guaxinins/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 308-311, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330279

RESUMO

Cytauxzoon felis is a pathogen responsible for cytauxzoonosis, a highly fatal disease in domestic cats. Although most studies of C. felis have focused on this parasite in domestic cats, bobcats are the reservoir host. In stark contrast, there is little information relative to the progression of C. felis infections in bobcats. We studied bobcats in southern Illinois during 2014-2017 to evaluate which environmental factors (i.e., ambient temperature; number of daylight hours; trapping year, month, and day) influenced C. felis parasitemia levels. Mean ambient temperature at 1 wk and 2 wk prior to sampling was associated with increased parasitemia levels. Vector activity intensifies with higher temperatures, suggesting that increased parasitemia levels are an adaptation to facilitate transmission.


Assuntos
Lynx/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Piroplasmida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Estações do Ano
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294719

RESUMO

Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1563-1572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246260

RESUMO

In temperate regions, some avian haemosporidian parasites have evolved seasonal transmission strategies, with chronic infections relapsing during spring and transmission peaking during the hosts' breeding season. Because lineages with seasonal transmission strategies are unlikely to produce gametocytes in winter, we predicted that (1) resident birds living within wintering areas of Neotropical migrants would unlikely be infected with North American parasite lineages; and (2) if infected, wintering migratory birds would be more likely to harbor Plasmodium spp. rather than Parahaemoproteus spp. or Haemoproteus spp. parasites in their bloodstreams, as only Plasmodium produces life stages, other than gametocytes, that infect red blood cells. To test these predictions, we used molecular detection and microscopy to compare the diversity and prevalence of haemosporidian parasites among year-round residents and wintering migratory birds during February 2016, on three islands of The Bahamas archipelago, i.e., Andros, Grand Bahama, and Great Abaco. Infection prevalence was low and comparable between migratory (15/111) and resident (15/129) individuals, and it did not differ significantly among islands. Out of the 12 lineages detected infecting migratory birds, five were transmitted in North America; four lineages could have been transmitted during breeding, wintering, or migration; and three lineages were likely transmitted in The Bahamas. Resident birds mostly carried lineages endemic to the Caribbean region. All North American-transmitted parasite lineages detected among migratory birds were Plasmodium spp. Our findings suggest that haemosporidian parasites of migrants shift resource allocation seasonally, minimizing the production of gametocytes during winter, with low risk of infection spillover to resident birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bahamas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1547-1551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198626

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis are the common parasites that parasitize the intestinal tract of rabbits, which can seriously threaten the health of rabbits and lead to economic losses to the rabbit industry. However, information about the prevalence and transmission of these two parasites in rabbits is limited in China. The objective of this study was to survey the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province. A total of 616 rabbit fecal samples were collected from two cities (Rizhao and Weihai) in Shandong Province, eastern China, and Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis were identified by polymerase chain reaction based on species-specific markers. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 20% (123/616) and the Blastocystis prevalence was 0.97% (6/616). Five different Eimeria species (Eimeria intestinalis, E. perforans, E. magna, E. media, and E. irresidua) and the ST4 subtype of Blastocystis were identified in rabbits by sequence analysis. This is the first report of Blastocystis prevalence and subtype ST4 in rabbits in Shandong Province. The findings provide baseline data for the prevention and control of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province, China.


Assuntos
Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 211-220, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164026

RESUMO

Biogeography is known to have shaped the diversity and evolutionary history of avian haemosporidian parasites across the Neotropics. However, a paucity of information exists for the temperate Neotropics and especially from nonpasserine hosts. To understand the effect of biogeography in the temperate Neotropics on haemosporidians of nonpasserine hosts we screened ducks (Anseriformes) from central Chile for the presence of these parasites. Forty-two individuals of 4 duck species (Anas flavirostris, Anas georgica, Mareca sibilatrix, Spatula cyanoptera cyanoptera) were collected and assessed for haemosporidian parasite infections by real-time polymerase chain reaction screening and subsequent sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemoproteus (subgenus Haemoproteus) and Plasmodium were detected in 2 host species, A. georgica and S. c. cyanoptera, with no Leucocytozoon found. Overall haemosporidian prevalence was low (14.2%), with the prevalence of Plasmodium (11.9%) being substantially greater than that of Haemoproteus (4.8%). Six haemosporidian cytochrome b lineages were recovered, 2 Haemoproteus and 4 Plasmodium, with all 6 lineages identified for the first time. In phylogenetic reconstruction, the Chilean Plasmodium lineages were more closely related to South American lineages from passerine birds than to known lineages from anseriforms. The subgenus Haemoproteus known from nonpasseriformes has never been identified from any anseriform host; however, we recovered 2 lineages from this subgenus, one from each A. georgica and S. c. cyanoptera. Further work is needed to determine if this presents true parasitism in ducks or only a spillover infection. The results of phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrate a unique evolutionary history of these Chilean parasites, differing from what is known for this host group. The unique geography of Chile, with a large part of the country being relatively isolated by the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes in the east and south, would present opportunities for parasite diversification. Further work is needed to investigate how strongly the biogeographical isolation has shaped the haemosporidian parasites of this area. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that nonpasserine hosts support unique lineages of haemosporidian parasites, while also demonstrating the role of biogeography in haemosporidian parasite diversity in the temperate Neotropics.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Patos/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Chile/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Fígado/parasitologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 12, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several Tritrichomonas species have been found in mammalian hosts. Among these trichomonads T. foetus is often found in the urogenital tract of cattle and the gastrointestinal tract of the domestic cat, resulting in sexually transmitted bovine trichomonosis and fecal-orally transmitted feline trichomonosis, respectively. The aims of the current study were to molecularly characterize clinical isolates of T. foetus in cattle populations in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Montana of the United States of America and to phylogenetically analyze Tritrichomonas species of mammalian hosts. RESULTS: DNA sequencing of rRNA genes showed over 99% identity of the newly described isolates to other bovine isolates. Further, T. foetus isolates of various mammalian hosts originated in different geographic regions worldwide were clustered into two well-defined clades by phylogenetic analysis of rRNA and cysteine protease 2 genes. Clade I consisted of isolates originated from cattle, pig, and human whereas clade II contained isolates of cat and dog. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that all mammalian Tritrichomonas spp. apparently belong to T. foetus. Analysis of more sequences is warranted to support this conclusion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisteína Proteases/genética , Genes de RNAr , Masculino , Montana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Tritrichomonas foetus/classificação , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Wyoming/epidemiologia
13.
Integr Zool ; 15(4): 262-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912636

RESUMO

Testosterone secretion may regulate the reproductive effort and the development of sexual traits, but it may also involve costs at the immunological and metabolic levels. However, the evidence for this trade-off in wild populations is scarce. Cortisol also plays an important role in mediating the reproductive and immune functions. In this study, we analyzed whether the endoparasite burden relates to hormonal levels (fecal testosterone and cortisol metabolites) and/or morphological sexual traits (size of the dark ventral patch, a trait that indicates reproductive effort in males) in male Iberian red deer. For this purpose, we sampled male red deer harvested during hunting actions in 2 types of populations in south western Spain that differed in structure, affecting the level of male-male competition for mates. We used coprological analyses to estimate the parasite burden mainly of gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes and of protozoa, and assessed testosterone and cortisol metabolite levels from fecal pellets. We found a positive relationship of host parasitation with both testosterone levels and the size of the dark ventral patch, but these relationships depended on the intensity of male-male competition in the population, being only found under the high-competition scenario. These results are discussed under the hypothesis of the testosterone immunocompetence handicap, suggesting a cost at the immunological level, and, therefore, higher susceptibility to parasite infection in males that make a greater reproductive effort. However, this effect seems to be modulated by the social environment (male-male competition) that might lead to different optima in testosterone production and sexual trait development.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Parasitology ; 147(1): 87-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455438

RESUMO

Avian malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.) and avian malaria-like infections (caused by Haemoproteus spp.) are widespread and can seriously affect the health of their bird hosts, especially of immunologically naïve individuals. Therefore, these parasites have long been in the focus of bird-parasite studies. However, the species richness and diversity of these protozoan species have only been revealed since the use of molecular techniques. Diversity and prevalence of these parasites among different bird species and even between populations of a species show a large variation. Here, we investigated prevalence of avian malaria and avian malaria-like parasites in two distant populations of a non-migratory wetland specialist passerine, the bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus). While previous studies have shown that reed-dwelling bird species often carry various blood parasite lineages and the presence of the vectors transmitting Plasmodium and Haemoproteus species has been confirmed from our study sites, prevalence of these parasites was extremely low in our populations. This may either suggest that bearded reedlings may avoid or quickly clear these infections, or these parasites cause high mortality in this species. The remarkably low prevalence of infection in this species is consistent with earlier studies and makes bearded reedlings a possible model organism for investigating the genetic or behavioural adaptations of parasite resistance.


Assuntos
Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Haemosporida , Plasmodium , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Parasitology ; 147(2): 225-230, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559930

RESUMO

We investigated intestinal trichomonads in western lowland gorillas, central chimpanzees and humans cohabiting the forest ecosystem of Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area in Central African Republic, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and SSU rRNA gene sequences. Trichomonads belonging to the genus Tetratrichomonas were detected in 23% of the faecal samples and in all host species. Different hosts were infected with different genotypes of Tetratrichomonas. In chimpanzees, we detected tetratrichomonads from 'novel lineage 2', which was previously reported mostly in captive and wild chimpanzees. In gorillas, we found two different genotypes of Tetratrichomonas. The ITS region sequences of the more frequent genotype were identical to the sequence found in a faecal sample of a wild western lowland gorilla from Cameroon. Sequences of the second genotype from gorillas were almost identical to sequences previously obtained from an anorexic French woman. We provide the first report of the presence of intestinal tetratrichomonads in asymptomatic, apparently healthy humans. Human tetratrichomonads belonged to the lineage 7, which was previously reported in domestic and wild pigs and a domestic horse. Our findings suggest that the ecology and spatial overlap among hominids in the tropical forest ecosystem has not resulted in exchange of intestinal trichomonads among these hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/parasitologia , Gorilla gorilla/parasitologia , Pan troglodytes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Filogenia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 233-242, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745635

RESUMO

The trichomonads form part of the phylum Parabasalia, a complex assemblage of diverse species of flagellated protists, with some members recognized as pathogens of men and/or animals. Associations, probably as commensals, between the species Tetratrichomonas ovis and sheep were reported in North America during the 1960s based on morphological and cultural characteristics. Intriguingly, no subsequent studies of this topic have been published. Feces, collected from sheep (n = 55) and goats (n = 14), reared on small-scale, production facilities in Southeastern Brazil, were examined for parabasalids. Protozoa, demonstrating morphologies and motility characteristic of trichomonads, were detected by direct microscopy in 64% of sheep and 43% of goat samples. In contrast to T. ovis, none of the samples could be cultured in Diamond's medium; however, cultures were obtained for three goat and seventeen sheep samples in peptonized broth. Based on morphological analyses, all isolates were classified as members of the genus Tetratrichomonas. Sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region revealed three highly similar genotypes that were essentially identical to sequences reported for Tetratrichomonas spp. isolated from the preputial cavity of cattle in the USA and Southern Brazil. The findings of this study extend and enhance our knowledge of parasitism in small ruminants by parabasalids.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Trichomonadida/classificação , Trichomonadida/citologia , Trichomonadida/genética
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 447-463, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883048

RESUMO

In this study, we explore blood parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and co-infection levels in an urban population of feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town. We analyze the effect of blood parasites on host body condition and the association between melanin expression in the host's plumage and parasite infection intensity and co-infection levels. Relating to the haemosporidian parasite itself, we study their genetic diversity by means of DNA barcoding (cytochrome b) and show the geographic and host distribution of related parasite lineages in pigeons worldwide. Blood from 195 C. livia individuals was collected from April to June 2018. Morphometric measurements and plumage melanism were recorded from every captured bird. Haemosporidian prevalence and infection intensity were determined by screening blood smears and parasite lineages by DNA sequencing. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. was high at 96.9%. The body condition of the hosts was negatively associated with infection intensity. However, infection intensity was unrelated to plumage melanism. The cytochrome b sequences revealed the presence of four Haemoproteus lineages in our population of pigeons, which show high levels of co-occurrence within individual birds. Three lineages (HAECOL1, COLIV03, COQUI05) belong to Haemoproteus columbae and differ only by 0.1% to 0.8% in the cytochrome b gene. Another lineage (COLIV06) differs by 8.3% from the latter ones and is not linked to a morphospecies, yet. No parasites of the genera Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium were detected.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 637-647, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823007

RESUMO

The trichomonad species Tetratrichomonas buttreyi and Pentatrichomonas hominis have been reported in the bovine digestive tract in only a few studies, and the prevalence and pathogenicity of these two protists in cattle herds remain unknown. In this study, the prevalence of T. buttreyi and P. hominis in yellow cattle, dairy cattle, and water buffalo in Anhui Province, China, was determined with a PCR analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The overall infection rates for T. buttreyi and P. hominis were 8.1% and 5.4%, respectively. Double infections were found in 15 (1.6%) samples from four farms. The prevalence of P. hominis in cattle with abnormal feces was significantly higher than that in cattle with normal feces (χ2 = 13.0, p < 0.01), and the prevalence of T. buttreyi in the northern region of Anhui Province was also significantly higher than that in the mid region (χ2 = 16.6, p < 0.01). Minor allelic variations were detected in the T. buttreyi isolates from cattle in this study, as in other hosts in previous studies. Morphological observations, together with the PCR analysis, demonstrated that the trichomonads isolated in this study were P. hominis. The presence of T. buttreyi and P. hominis indicated that cattle are natural hosts of these two trichomonads and could be a potential source of P. hominis infections in humans and other animal hosts.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Trichomonadida/genética , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Trichomonadida/classificação , Trichomonadida/isolamento & purificação
19.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 47-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486682

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian trichomonosis are being reported worldwide; meanwhile, the genetic and virulence variations are under investigation. In this study, the occurrence and genetic variability of oral or faecal trichomonads among various avian species were investigated. Samples obtained from either the oropharyngeal cavity, crop/oesophagus, droppings/cloaca, or conjunctival swabs of avian species were inspected for flagellates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of the isolates. Investigation of 737 birds revealed an infection rate of 15.7% in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 7.3% in the faecal samples, and 0.7% involvement of the conjunctiva. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples, identified genotypes A and B of Trichomonas gallinae and genogroups A-C and E of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. A novel ITS genotype of intestinal trichomonads was also detected in hooded crow (Corvus cornix) and common mynah (Acridotheres tristis). In the present study, in addition to Columbiformes and Falconiformes, trichomonads were detected in Passeriformes and Galliformes with the involvement of organs other than the gastrointestinal tract. Genotype A T. gallinae was detected in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), a laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), a common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates), and a canary (Serinus canaria). Distinct genotype B was detected in a common mynah and a budgerigar. Genogroups A-C of T. gallinarum were also demonstrated in Galliformes and Anseriformes. Furthermore, two novel trichomonad ITS genotypes were detected in hooded crows and a common mynah warranting detailed multi-locus molecular analysis.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSITS diversity of trichomonads was shown in various avian species.Diversity of the parasites' target organ and clinical manifestations was demonstrated.Two novel ITS genotype trichomonads from common mynah and hooded crow were identified.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/genética , Animais , Anseriformes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Canários/parasitologia , Columbiformes/parasitologia , Corvos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Melopsittacus/parasitologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Estorninhos/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Trichomonas/genética
20.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 1-4, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393162

RESUMO

Histomonosis, or blackhead disease, is a well-known disease in turkeys that can cause high mortality, but outbreaks with lower losses are also observed. The disease is less fatal in chickens but is economically important due to reduced performance and its co-appearance with colibacillosis. The lack of specific prophylactic and therapeutic interventions has led to a re-emergence of the disease in recent years, mainly in turkeys, free-range layers and chicken parent stock.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Perus , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/patologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/prevenção & controle
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