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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 799-813, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480560

RESUMO

Although parrot species are infrequently infected by hemoparasites in the wild, some fatal infections have been reported in captive individuals. Conversely birds of prey are frequently infected by hemoparasites. In this study, 193 captive birds from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) centers in Madrid, Spain, belonging to orders Psittaciformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes, were blood-sampled in search of parasite infections. Molecular and microscopic analyses were conducted to detect parasites of the following genera: Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Lankesterella. Infections by microfilariae and Coccidia were also searched in blood samples. Surprisingly, infections by Haemoproteus syrnii, a common parasite from owls, were detected in the cadavers of two species of parrots, Trichoglossus haematodus and Psittacula cyanocephala. The same haplotype was also detected in the cadavers of two owl species, Tyto alba and Strix rufipes. All these birds were housed and died in the same center. Infections by species of Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma were also found in different species of raptors. Nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes) show significantly higher prevalence of infection by blood parasites than diurnal raptors (Falconiformes and Accipitriformes). In conclusion, a potential fatal transmission of Haemoproteus syrnii, from Strigiformes to Psittaciformes species, is reported and several infections by different blood parasites were detected in birds of prey. These results emphasize the importance of increasing prevention measures to avoid or reduce the transmission of blood parasites among birds from different species housed in these types of centers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Haplótipos , Filogenia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3739-3753, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000433

RESUMO

Many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are present in wildlife. The objective of this study is to reveal the role of wild bears in maintaining TBPs. A total of 49 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) from Hokkaido, and 18 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Tochigi, and 66 Japanese black bears from Nagano were examined by two molecular methods, reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization, and nested PCR. A total of 5 TBPs (Hepatozoon ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like group, Cytauxzoon sp. UR1, Babesia sp. UR1, and Babesia microti) were detected from bear blood DNA samples. B. microti was detected from blood DNA samples of Japanese black bear for the first time, with the prevalence of 6.0% (5/84). Out of detected pathogens, H. ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like pathogens, and Cytauxzoon sp. UR1 were considered as three of the most prevalent TBPs in bears. The prevalence of H. ursi were significantly higher in Japanese black bear (0% vs 96.4%) while that of Babesia sp. UR2-like group was higher in Hokkaido brown bears (89.8% vs 40.5%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. UR1 were significantly higher in Japanese black bears from Tochigi (44.4%), comparing with those from Nagano (18.2%). The prevalence of the detected TBPs were significantly higher in adult bears, comparing with those in younger bears. The present study suggests that Japanese bear species contribute in the transmission of several TBPs in Japan. The expanding distribution of bears might cause the accidental transmission of TBPs to humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/parasitologia
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008717, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745123

RESUMO

Hepatocystis is a genus of single-celled parasites infecting, amongst other hosts, monkeys, bats and squirrels. Although thought to have descended from malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Hepatocystis spp. are thought not to undergo replication in the blood-the part of the Plasmodium life cycle which causes the symptoms of malaria. Furthermore, Hepatocystis is transmitted by biting midges, not mosquitoes. Comparative genomics of Hepatocystis and Plasmodium species therefore presents an opportunity to better understand some of the most important aspects of malaria parasite biology. We were able to generate a draft genome for Hepatocystis sp. using DNA sequencing reads from the blood of a naturally infected red colobus monkey. We provide robust phylogenetic support for Hepatocystis sp. as a sister group to Plasmodium parasites infecting rodents. We show transcriptomic support for a lack of replication in the blood and genomic support for a complete loss of a family of genes involved in red blood cell invasion. Our analyses highlight the rapid evolution of genes involved in parasite vector stages, revealing genes that may be critical for interactions between malaria parasites and mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Sangue/parasitologia , Colobus/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Malária/sangue , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Transcriptoma
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3549-3553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783071

RESUMO

From a longitudinal survey conducted on 30 Danish mink farms in 2016, 11.0% of faecal samples (456/4140) were positive for Cystoisospora laidlawi oocysts by microscopy, with 60% (189/315) of mink being positive at least once during the study period. Morphological analysis of sporulated oocysts identified Cystoisospora oocysts measuring 34.3 × 29.5 µm with an oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.2. The morphological features of the oocysts were identical to Isospora laidlawi previously morphological identified in farmed mink from Denmark and elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences (1221 bp) from three positive mink indicated that Cystoisospora from mink shared the highest genetic similarity to C. canis from a Canadian dog (99.6%). The phylogenetic analysis placed Cystoisospora from mink in a clade with other Cystoisospora isolates.


Assuntos
Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Vison/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Isospora/classificação , Isospora/citologia , Isospora/genética , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2733-2740, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617726

RESUMO

Amebiasis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis, with symptoms of abdominal discomfort, indigestion, diarrhea, and even death. However, limited information about the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in experimental nonhuman primates (NHPs) in southwestern China is available. The objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and species identity of Entamoeba to evaluate potential zoonotic risk factors for Entamoeba spp. infection in experimental NHPs. A total of 505 fecal samples were collected from NHPs (macaques) and analyzed by PCR analysis the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Entamoeba spp. Forty-seven specimens were positive for Entamoeba spp., and the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. was 9.31% (47/505). Significant differences in the prevalence rates among the three breeds (P = 0.002 < 0.01, df = 2, χ2 = 12.33) and feed types (P = 0.001 < 0.01, df = 1, χ2 = 10.12) were observed. Altogether, four Entamoeba species, including E. dispar (57.44%), E. chattoni (29.78%), E. histolytica (6.38%), and E. coli (6.38%), were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The results suggested a low prevalence but high diversity of Entamoeba species in experimental NHPs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Entamoeba spp. in NHPs.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/transmissão , Fezes/parasitologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3005-3011, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677003

RESUMO

Cytauxzoonosis is described as an emerging tick-borne disease of domestic and wild felids caused by protozoans of the genus Cytauxzoon. While in the Americas the condition is described as a fatal disease, in Europe, reports on the clinical expression of the infection are scarce. This study describes the first case of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in Germany, in a domestic cat. A 6-year-old male domestic cat living in Saarlouis (Saarland) was presented with anorexia, lethargy and weight loss. The cat had an outdoor lifestyle and had not travelled abroad. Serum clinical chemistry analysis revealed azotaemia with markedly increased symmetric dimethylarginine, hypercreatinemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia. Moreover, a mild non-regenerative anaemia was present. Approximately 1 year prior to these findings, the domestic cat was diagnosed with a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. These results pointed toward a decreased glomerular filtration rate, presumably as a result of kidney dysfunction. Round to oval signet ring-shaped intraerythrocytic organisms, morphologically suggestive for a piroplasm, were revealed during blood smear evaluation with a degree of parasitaemia of 33.0%. PCR analyses and sequencing of a region of the 18S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a Cytauxzoon sp. infection, with 99-100% nucleotide sequence identity with previously published Cytauxzoon sp. isolates. As this is the first molecularly confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat in Germany, these findings suggest that cytauxzoonosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of anaemia in outdoor domestic cats, particularly in areas where wild felid populations are present.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Gatos , Alemanha , Masculino , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2975-2981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683557

RESUMO

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , França/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2679-2686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588173

RESUMO

Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus, M. musculus, Rattus rattus, and Crocidura russula) collected in Barcelona metropolitan area (NE Spain). In addition, PCR-RFLP and microsatellites were also used as tools for genotypic characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Specific DNA of T. gondii, N. caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. was detected in 0.3% (n = 1), 1.3% (n = 4), and 3.8% (n = 12) of the animals, respectively. No mixed infections were observed. Crocidura russula stood out as the main host for Sarcocystis spp. Toxoplasma gondii-specific DNA detected in a house rat was genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP, presenting type II and III alleles (SAG1 [II], SAG3 [II], GRA6 [II], c22-8 [III], Apico [III]). Also, unsuccessful DNA sequencing and microsatellite typing were attempted in N. caninum-positive samples, which suggested a lack of PCR specificity and open avenues to speculate the host competence of rodents for N. caninum. Likewise, Sarcocystis spp. identity was studied by alignment and phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 28S rRNA sequences from the 14 positive samples. It resulted in at least three unknown organisms closely similar (95.7-100% cox1-sequence homology) to Sarcocystis pantherophisi from the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) (KU891603), suggesting together with 28S rRNA sequences analyses, three Sarcocystis sp. with a life cycle conformed by rodents as intermediate host (IH) and snakes as definitive hosts (DH) infecting the periurban micromammals surveyed. Prevalence figures found in this first survey carried out in Spain agree with other international studies focused on periurban areas. Further surveys should be conducted in farms and their surroundings in order to unravel the role of wild micromammals in the epidemiology of such protozoan parasites affecting our livestock, and therefore human population.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Mamíferos/classificação , Encistamento de Parasitas , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2631-2640, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556500

RESUMO

The genus Plasmodium (Plasmodiidae) ranks among the most widespread intracellular protozoan parasites affecting a wide range of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Little information is available about lizard malaria parasites in South America, and the pathological features of the resulting parasitoses remain unknown or poorly understood. To partially fill in these gaps, we conducted blood smear analysis, molecular detection, and phylogenetic and pathological investigations in lizards inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in Paraiba, Brazil. From 104 striped forest whiptails (Kentropyx calcarata) screened for the presence of haemosporidian parasites, 67 (64.4%) were positive. Four of five Amazon lava lizards (Strobilurus torquatus) we collected from this same area were also positive. A total of 27 forest whiptails were infected with a new genetic lineage of Plasmodium kentropyxi and other Plasmodium lineages were also detected. Histopathological analysis in infected forest whiptails revealed systemic intraerythrocytic Plasmodium stages, mainly gametocytes, in the liver, lung, and heart. Also, the liver of infected lizards had mild to moderate levels of Kupffer cell and melanomacrophage hypertrophy/hyperplasia with sinusoid leukocytosis. Overall, our findings suggest that an endemic Plasmodium species causes histological alterations that are not related to major pathological processes in striped forest whiptails.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/patogenicidade , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Florestas , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/patologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2741-2745, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577820

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite frequently identified in the intestinal tract of humans and a vast variety of animals, worldwide. Here, we assessed the prevalence of Blastocystis and its subtypes in stool samples of raccoons. Stool samples from 30 raccoons were collected. Total DNA was extracted, and the barcoding region of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene was amplified and sequenced. Specific fragment for Blastocystis was successfully amplified in five samples (16.66%). Sequencing analysis revealed ST1, ST2, and ST3 among 1, 2, and 2 Blastocystis-positive samples. Our results documented the presence of Blastocystis subtypes 1-3 in raccoons. Subtype 1 showed higher similarity to the human isolates of Blastocystis. However, it seems that raccoons may emerge as reservoirs for Blastocystis and may be linked to zoonotic transmission of the protist.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Guaxinins/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8480, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439889

RESUMO

The use of a sensitive and accurate parasite detection methodology is crucial in studies exploring prevalence of parasites in host populations or communities, and uncertainty in identifying parasite genera and/or lineages may limit the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Here, we used a multistate occupancy approach that accounts for imperfect detection to assess whether sex and breeding season influenced the prevalence of a specific Haemoproteus lineage (TARUF02) in a white-lined tanager population. Likewise, we explored whether the probability of detecting the target parasite in an infected bird using PCR and sequencing analyses may be influenced by season and host sex. We found little evidence that sex influenced the probability of an individual host being infected by a haemosporidian parasite. Conversely, we found that the probability of infection by Haemoproteus TARUF02 was ~30% higher during the breeding season, reflecting a higher prevalence of this parasite in this season. The probability that PCR detects DNA of haemosporidian parasite was higher for female birds, suggesting that they are more prone to be parasitized with parasitemia levels that are more successfully detected by molecular analysis. Sequencing successfully determined the Haemoproteus TARUF02 lineage in 60% of samples collected during the breeding season and 84% of samples collected during the non-breeding season. Understanding the ecology of hosts and aspects of their physiology that may influence the parasite infection is essential to better understanding of hemoparasite infections and how parasites influence their native hosts, through decreasing reproductive success, lifespan, and/or survival.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 308-311, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330279

RESUMO

Cytauxzoon felis is a pathogen responsible for cytauxzoonosis, a highly fatal disease in domestic cats. Although most studies of C. felis have focused on this parasite in domestic cats, bobcats are the reservoir host. In stark contrast, there is little information relative to the progression of C. felis infections in bobcats. We studied bobcats in southern Illinois during 2014-2017 to evaluate which environmental factors (i.e., ambient temperature; number of daylight hours; trapping year, month, and day) influenced C. felis parasitemia levels. Mean ambient temperature at 1 wk and 2 wk prior to sampling was associated with increased parasitemia levels. Vector activity intensifies with higher temperatures, suggesting that increased parasitemia levels are an adaptation to facilitate transmission.


Assuntos
Lynx/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Piroplasmida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Estações do Ano
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1978-1982, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241479

RESUMO

Histomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis, is a disease to which turkeys are especially susceptible. Currently, no chemoprophylaxis compounds are available to mitigate this disease. Boric acid (BA) exhibits antifungal, antiseptic, and antiviral properties and has been used in the treatment of yeast infections. Based on these characteristics, an experiment was conducted to evaluate whether BA might be an efficacious prophylaxis against challenge with wild-type H. meleagridis (WTH). On day-of-hatch, poults were randomly assigned to either a basal control diet or a BA diet (basal diet + 0.2% BA). Groups consisted of a nonchallenged control (NC; basal diet), 0.2% BA + challenge (BA; 0.2% BA diet), and a positive-challenged control (PC; basal diet). On day 21, challenged groups were intracloacally inoculated with 2 × 105 WTH cells/turkey, and lesions were evaluated on day 14 postchallenge. Individual body weights were recorded on day 0, 21, and 35 to calculate the prechallenge and postchallenge body weight gain (BWG). The BA group resulted in lower prechallenge day 0 to day 21 BWG (P = 0.0001) than the NC group. Postchallenge day 21 to day 35, BWG was also lower (P = 0.0503) in the BA group than the PC group. No differences between the BA and PC groups were detected for mortalities associated with histomoniasis. Moreover, liver and cecal lesions were not statistically different between the BA and PC groups. Taken together, these data suggest that BA was not efficacious in the prevention or reduction of histomoniasis disease severity when provided at 0.2% dietary concentration under these experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ácidos Bóricos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Trichomonadida/efeitos dos fármacos , Perus , Animais , Quimioprevenção/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1983-1987, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241480

RESUMO

Histomoniasis is currently a re-emerging disease of major significance for many commercial turkey and broiler breeder production companies because of the unavailability of drugs or vaccines. The protozoa Histomonas meleagridis (HM) requires the presence of enteric microflora to promote the disease. The objectives of this research note were to evaluate the effect of dietary administration of sodium chlorate (SC) and sodium nitrate (SN) in vitro and in vivo for HM prophylaxis in poults. A total of 128 day-of-hatch female poults obtained from a commercial hatchery were wing-tagged and randomly assigned into 1 of 4 experimental groups: negative control (NC), positive control, dietary inclusion of SC (3,200 ppm) and SN (500 ppm). Poults from groups SC and SN started on their respective diets on day 12. All groups, except the NC, were challenged with 2 × 105 HM on day 19. Controls were fed a basal diet, identical to the treatment diets but not supplemented with SC or SN. Body weight gain (BWG) was determined weekly, starting on day 1 until day 28, and postchallenge morbidity and mortality were recorded. On day 28 of age, all surviving poults were lesion scored for hepatic and cecal lesions. Ceca and distal ileum were collected on day 28 for bacterial recovery on selective media for total aerobic, lactic acid bacteria, or gram-negative bacteria. The addition of SC and SN in the in vitro growth of HM greatly reduced the growth of the protozoa after 20 h of incubation when compared with the control nontreated group (P < 0.05). However, dietary supplementation of SC and SN had no effect against HM in vivo, as was demonstrated by BWG, the severity of lesions in the liver and ceca or bacterial recovery of treated poults when compared with the positive control group.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/veterinária , Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Cloratos/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Perus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Cloratos/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294719

RESUMO

Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1563-1572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246260

RESUMO

In temperate regions, some avian haemosporidian parasites have evolved seasonal transmission strategies, with chronic infections relapsing during spring and transmission peaking during the hosts' breeding season. Because lineages with seasonal transmission strategies are unlikely to produce gametocytes in winter, we predicted that (1) resident birds living within wintering areas of Neotropical migrants would unlikely be infected with North American parasite lineages; and (2) if infected, wintering migratory birds would be more likely to harbor Plasmodium spp. rather than Parahaemoproteus spp. or Haemoproteus spp. parasites in their bloodstreams, as only Plasmodium produces life stages, other than gametocytes, that infect red blood cells. To test these predictions, we used molecular detection and microscopy to compare the diversity and prevalence of haemosporidian parasites among year-round residents and wintering migratory birds during February 2016, on three islands of The Bahamas archipelago, i.e., Andros, Grand Bahama, and Great Abaco. Infection prevalence was low and comparable between migratory (15/111) and resident (15/129) individuals, and it did not differ significantly among islands. Out of the 12 lineages detected infecting migratory birds, five were transmitted in North America; four lineages could have been transmitted during breeding, wintering, or migration; and three lineages were likely transmitted in The Bahamas. Resident birds mostly carried lineages endemic to the Caribbean region. All North American-transmitted parasite lineages detected among migratory birds were Plasmodium spp. Our findings suggest that haemosporidian parasites of migrants shift resource allocation seasonally, minimizing the production of gametocytes during winter, with low risk of infection spillover to resident birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bahamas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1547-1551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198626

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis are the common parasites that parasitize the intestinal tract of rabbits, which can seriously threaten the health of rabbits and lead to economic losses to the rabbit industry. However, information about the prevalence and transmission of these two parasites in rabbits is limited in China. The objective of this study was to survey the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province. A total of 616 rabbit fecal samples were collected from two cities (Rizhao and Weihai) in Shandong Province, eastern China, and Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis were identified by polymerase chain reaction based on species-specific markers. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 20% (123/616) and the Blastocystis prevalence was 0.97% (6/616). Five different Eimeria species (Eimeria intestinalis, E. perforans, E. magna, E. media, and E. irresidua) and the ST4 subtype of Blastocystis were identified in rabbits by sequence analysis. This is the first report of Blastocystis prevalence and subtype ST4 in rabbits in Shandong Province. The findings provide baseline data for the prevention and control of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province, China.


Assuntos
Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
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