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1.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 147-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection (SSI) presents a ubiquitous concern to surgical specialties, especially in the presence of prosthetic material. Antibiotic-impregnated beads present a novel and evolving means to combat this condition. This review aims to analyze the quality of evidence and methods of antibiotic bead use, particularly for application within vascular surgery. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted within Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Registry of Randomized Controlled Trials. Articles were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. Level of evidence was evaluated using the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Criteria and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for Randomized Controlled Trials. RESULTS: The search yielded 6951 papers, with 275 included for final analysis. Publications increased in frequency from 1978 to the present. The most common formulation was polymethyl methacrylate; however publications on biodegradable formulations, including calcium sulfate beads, have been published with increasing frequency. Most publications had positive conclusions (94.2%); however, the data was mainly subjective and may be prone to publication bias. Only 11 randomized controlled trials were identified and all but one was evaluated to be at a high risk of bias. The most common indication was for osteomyelitis (52%), orthopedic prosthetic infections (20%), and trauma (9%). Within vascular surgery, beads have been used primarily for the treatment of graft infection, with freedom from recurrence rates being reported from 41% to 87.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic-impregnated beads provide a means to deliver high doses of antibiotic directly to a surgical site, without the risks of parenteral therapy. There has yet to be significant high-level quality data published on their use. There is a large body of evidence that suggests antibiotic beads may be used in SSIs in high-risk patients, prosthetic infections, and other complex surgical infections. Important potential areas of application in vascular surgery include graft infection, prevention of wound infection in high-risk patients, and diabetic foot infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Portadores de Fármacos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 191-194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578128

RESUMO

Aortic graft infections are uncommon complications after endovascular aortic surgery. In the majority of cases, gram-positive and then gram-negative organisms are the causative agents leading to this condition. Atypical organisms are traditionally not responsible for graft infection unless the patient is immunocompromised. We are reporting a case of culture-confirmed mycobacterium avium complex infection of an aortic graft in a well-controlled patient with HIV who had an undetected viral load and a CD4 count of 324 while on highly active antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/patogenicidade , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Remoção de Dispositivo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/imunologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 343-351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880880

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for removing implants after breast reconstruction in the course of treatment of breast cancer. The study involved 428 patients, who underwent a total of 648 breast reconstruction procedures using artificial implants. 47 out of 648 cases (7.3%) were identified in which the implant had to be removed. Of the 47 cases, 57.4% had undergone deferred reconstruction, and 42.6% immediate reconstruction; 27.7% had undergone pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 27.7% pre-operative chemotherapy, and 2.1% pre-operative radiotherapy; 6.4% were diabetic, 4.3% active smokers, and more than 50.0% had BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. In 83.0% of the analyzed cases, the reason for removal of the implant was infection, in 8.5% it was local recurrence of breast cancer, in 4.3% it was damage (leakage) of the implant, and in 2.1% it was post-operative pain. About 87.0% of infections appeared within one year of implantation; however, less than a half developed within 90 days of the reconstructive surgery, and up to 30 days only about 13.0% had appeared. Among the etiological agents of infections were: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (31.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.4%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and other Gram-negative fermenting rods accounted for 6.2%. Infections were the most common reason for removing the implant after breast reconstruction. and occurred most often as late infections (>30 days after surgery). The time of observation for infectious complications should be at least 1 year.The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for removing implants after breast reconstruction in the course of treatment of breast cancer. The study involved 428 patients, who underwent a total of 648 breast reconstruction procedures using artificial implants. 47 out of 648 cases (7.3%) were identified in which the implant had to be removed. Of the 47 cases, 57.4% had undergone deferred reconstruction, and 42.6% immediate reconstruction; 27.7% had undergone pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 27.7% pre-operative chemotherapy, and 2.1% pre-operative radiotherapy; 6.4% were diabetic, 4.3% active smokers, and more than 50.0% had BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. In 83.0% of the analyzed cases, the reason for removal of the implant was infection, in 8.5% it was local recurrence of breast cancer, in 4.3% it was damage (leakage) of the implant, and in 2.1% it was post-operative pain. About 87.0% of infections appeared within one year of implantation; however, less than a half developed within 90 days of the reconstructive surgery, and up to 30 days only about 13.0% had appeared. Among the etiological agents of infections were: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (31.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.4%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and other Gram-negative fermenting rods accounted for 6.2%. Infections were the most common reason for removing the implant after breast reconstruction. and occurred most often as late infections (>30 days after surgery). The time of observation for infectious complications should be at least 1 year.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Adulto , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
4.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 46-50, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687948

RESUMO

In the era of modern technology is becoming increasingly popular implantation. This method is one of the leading methods in prosthetics of dental patients. Implantation solves a number of problems both aesthetic and functional. However, the percentage of complications, such as peri-implantitis and mucositis, leading to a violation of the chewing function of the dentition, is steadily increasing. To date, the etiology and pathogenesis of post-implantation complications have not been definitively clarified. One of the leading predictors is psychoemotional stress. On the basis of the literature analysis method to study stress, its impact on the development of periimplantitis, is laser Doppler flowmetry, allows you to quickly assess the state of microcirculation of the oral cavity at the stage of diagnosis, prior to the commencement of pharmacotherapy and in the dynamics of treatment and to adjust treatment regimen to prevent postoperative complications. The obtained LDF-grams allow to reflect the state of the regulatory systems of the body, and therefore it is possible to use LDF for the diagnosis of psychological stress.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Mucosite/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Humanos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Microcirculação , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Mucosite/complicações , Peri-Implantite/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia
5.
Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi ; 30(3): 201-11, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) implantation on vascular graft infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and compare with antibiotic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy adult 56 Wistar rats (age, over 5 months; weighing, 300-350 g) were divided into eight groups. Group 1 was defined as the control group and group 2 was defined as the infected control group. Groups 3 and 4 were defined as Dacron grafted and MRSE infected groups, treated with tigecycline and MSCs, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were performed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and infected with MRSE. These groups were also administered tigecycline and MSC treatment, respectively. Groups 7 and 8 were infected with MRSE without graft administration and were also performed tigecycline and MSC treatment, respectively. Grafts and soft tissue specimens were collected at 13 days postoperatively. Colony counts of peri-graft tissue were performed. All samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the markers that determine stem cell activity. RESULTS: The overall success of the treatments was assessed by the number of rats with MRSE recurrence, regardless of graft used. The difference between the untreated group 2, tigecycline groups (3, 5 and 7) and MSCs groups (4, 6 and 8) were statistically significant. Success of MSC and tigecycline treatments was similar in Dacron, PTFE, and non-grafted groups. There was a resistance of MRSE infection in Dacron groups to MSC and tigecycline treatments. This was considered to be indicative of the susceptibility of the Dacron grafts to infection. However, there was no significant difference between group 2 and Dacron groups in terms of bacterial colonization. ELISA results were significant in three cytokines. CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cells can be considered as an alternative treatment option on its own or part of a combination therapy for control of vascular graft infections.


Assuntos
Prótese Vascular/microbiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Polietilenotereftalatos , Politetrafluoretileno , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Tigeciclina/farmacologia
6.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 68-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540659

RESUMO

The management of infection involving the abdominal aorta requires clinical decisions based on patient factors and the nature of the infectious process. Any infection occurring after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair or open aortic replacement grafting should be treated promptly with appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy. Once a vascular prosthesis becomes infected, surgical treatment is necessary. There should be a low threshold for graft excision and extra-anatomic bypass in the presence of fistula or abscess cavity, when feasible entire graft should be excised. In selected patients, graft excision with in situ aorta reconstruction is an appropriate option using an autogenous femoral vein, cryopreserved allograft, or a prosthetic graft impregnated with antibiotic. The replaced in situ aortic graft should be covered with an omental pedicle. For primary aortic graft infections, endovascular treatment may act as a bridge to more definitive treatment; or, in the absence of gross retroperitoneal infections, endovascular grafting alone with prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy is a viable option, particularly in patients not fit for open surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/microbiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/microbiologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 73-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540660

RESUMO

The use of autologous femoral veins for in situ reconstruction of the aortoiliac segment is an effective technique to treat native aorta or prosthetic graft infections. The indications, technical details, and outcomes of this procedure are detailed. Graft infection involving the aortic segment, while rare, remains one of the most challenging vascular surgery conditions to treat. The original technique of "neo-aortoiliac surgery" with in situ autologous vein grafts has evolved over the past 25 years and remains a worthwhile alternative for the treatment of aortic graft infections, with lower mortality rates compared with other extra-anatomic or in situ surgical options. Acceptance of this surgical option is due to low graft re-infection rates, rare graft disruption, and low long-term aneurysmal degeneration. Excision of the femoral veins is associated with acceptable rates of lower limb edema. The use of an autologous femoral vein graft can be considered the standard of care in selected patients for the management of aortic graft infections. Optimal management of patients with aortic graft infections requires consideration of all potential therapeutic options because no single modality can be used, and individualizing treatment according to the clinical condition will yield the best patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aorta/cirurgia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Veia Femoral/transplante , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/microbiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 81-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540661

RESUMO

Aortic graft infection remains one of the most complex clinical challenges faced by vascular specialists, and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality regardless of the approach used for management. The cryopreserved aortic allograft is now a commonly used in situ aortic replacement in the management of graft infection, and is preferred over rifampin-soaked prosthetic grafts. In the review, we summarize the indications for cryopreserved aortic allograft usage, as well as operative technique, clinical results, and alternative treatments. We propose the use of a novel term tertiary aortic fistula, to distinguish aortic fistulae in the setting of aortic endograft infection, a clinical entity whose natural history and best management are currently being characterized.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Vasos Sanguíneos/transplante , Criopreservação , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Aloenxertos , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/microbiologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548325

RESUMO

The ability of human neutrophils to clear newly attached Staphylococcus aureus bacteria from a serum-coated glass surface was examined in vitro using time-lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy. Quantitative image analysis was used to measure the temporal change in bacterial biomass, neutrophil motility, and fraction of the surface area policed by neutrophils. In control experiments in which the surface was inoculated with bacteria but no neutrophils were added, prolific bacterial growth was observed. Neutrophils were able to control bacterial growth but only consistently when the neutrophil/bacterium number ratio exceeded approximately 1. When preattached bacteria were given a head start and allowed to grow for 3 h prior to neutrophil addition, neutrophils were unable to maintain control of the nascent biofilm. In these head-start experiments, aggregates of bacterial biofilm with areas of 50 µm2 or larger formed, and the growth of such aggregates continued even when multiple neutrophils attacked a cluster. These results suggest a model for the initiation of a biofilm infection in which a delay in neutrophil recruitment to an abiotic surface allows surface-attached bacteria time to grow and form aggregates that become protected from neutrophil clearance. Results from a computational model of the neutrophil-biofilm surface contest supported this conceptual model and highlighted the stochastic nature of the interaction. Additionally, we observed that both neutrophil motility and clearance of bacteria were impaired when oxygen tension was reduced to 0% or 2% O2.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Próteses e Implantes/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Anaerobiose , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Microscopia Confocal , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 592-596, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the current clinical profile and outcomes of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To provide a contemporary and descriptive overview of IE in a representative SA tertiary centre. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of patients admitted to Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, between 2009 and 2016 fulfilling universal criteria for definite or possible IE, in search of demographic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, treatment and outcome information. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for IE. The median age of the cohort was 39 years (interquartile range (IQR) 29 - 51), with a male preponderance (61.9%). The majority of the patients (72.4%) had left-sided native valve endocarditis, 14.3% had right-sided disease, and 13.3% had prosthetic valve endocarditis. A third of the cohort had rheumatic heart disease. Although 41.1% of patients with left-sided disease had negative blood cultures, the three most common organisms cultured in this subgroup were Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Streptococcus spp. (16.7%) and Enterococcus spp. (6.7%). Participants with right-sided endocarditis were younger (29 years, IQR 27 - 37) and were mainly intravenous drug users (73.3%), and the majority cultured positive for S. aureus (73.3%) with frequent septic pulmonary complications (40.0%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 16.2%, with no deaths in the group with right-sided endocarditis. Predictors of death in our patients were heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 8.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77 - 37.70; p=0.007) and age >45 years (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.11 - 20.14; p=0.036). Valve surgery was associated with a reduction in mortality (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.43; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IE remains an important clinical problem in a typical teaching tertiary care centre in SA. In this setting, it continues to affect mainly young people with post-inflammatory valve disease and congenital heart disease. The in-hospital mortality associated with IE remains high. Intravenous drug-associated endocarditis caused by S. aureus is an important IE subset, comprising ~10% of all cases, which was not reported 15 years ago, and culture-negative endocarditis remains highly prevalent. Heart failure in IE carries a significant risk of death and needs a more intensive level of care in hospital. Finally, cardiac surgery was associated with reduced mortality, with the largest impact in patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Usuários de Drogas , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1507-1516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460858

RESUMO

Introduction. Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are challenging to treat therapeutically because the infectious agents often are resistant to antibiotics and capable of abundant growth in surface-attached biofilms. Though infection rates are low, ca. 1-2 %, the overall increase in the sheer number of joint replacement surgeries results in an increase in patients at risk.Aims. This study investigates the consensus of microbial species comprising PJI ecology, which is currently lacking.Methodology. In this study, PJI populations from seven patients were analysed using combined culturing and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGSS) to establish population profiles and compare WGSS and culture methods for detection and identification of the PJI microbiome.Results. WGSS detected strains when culture did not, notably dormant, culture-resistant and rare microbes. The CosmosID algorithm was used to predict micro-organisms present in the PJI and discriminate contaminants. However, culturing indicated the presence of microbes falling below the WGSS algorithm threshold. In these instances, microbes cultured are believed to be minor species. The two strategies were combined to build a population profile.Conclusions. Variability between and among PJIs showed that most infections were distinct and unique. Comparative analysis of populations revealed PJIs to form clusters that were related to, but separate from, vaginal, skin and gut microbiomes. Fungi and protists were detected by WGSS, but the role of fungi is just beginning to be understood and for protists it is unknown. These micro-organisms and their novel and strain-specific microbial interactions remain to be determined in current clinical tests.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Artropatias/microbiologia , Microbiota , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Articulações/microbiologia , Articulações/cirurgia , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Próteses e Implantes/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 37(1): 67-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424013

RESUMO

Background: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging cases that confront modern orthopaedics. Two-stage revision, which is the standard of care for PJI, is the preferred mode of treatment for these infections. Aims and Objectives: To study the microbiological profile of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) in the hip and to assess the efficacy of a two stage revision surgery for PJI. We also aimed to study the sensitivity and specificity of ESR and CRP in the diagnosis of PJI. Materials and Methods: The microbiological profile, clinical and radiological outcomes of 22 patients who had a two-stage revision for PJI of the hip between 2013 and 2017 were retrospectively analysed. PJI was defined using the criteria provided by the International Consensus Statement on PJI 2013. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism in PJI. Debridement was successful in removing the organism in 74% of PJI. At the time of re-implantation (second stage), six joints grew organisms that were different from that isolated at the index debridement - coagulase-negative staphylococci (3cases) and enterococci (3cases). Other infection parameters for these patients were negative. None of the patients who had two-stage revision surgery had clinical evidence of reinfection or radiological evidence of loosening at a mean of 2-year follow-up. An ESR cut off of >30mm/hr had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 88% in predicting PJI. A CRP >10mg/L had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 69%. The sensitivity and specificity of using both ESR and CRP cut-offs in the diagnosis of infection were 57% and 94%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 94% and negative predictive value was 56%. Conclusion: The outcomes of the study justify a two-stage revision arthroplasty for PJI of the hip. The use of ESR and CRP as screening tests for the success of debridement has value - but should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Desbridamento , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/cirurgia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1102-1105, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451847

RESUMO

A 46-year-old immunosuppressed patient presented with a breast implant-associated infection 10 years after breast augmentation in Southeast Asia. No pathogen was identified in the initial conventional microbiological workup. Subsequently, infection with Mycobacterium abscessus-a nontuberculous mycobacteria-was diagnosed using a special culture technique. Increased rates of such infections are reported after cosmetic surgery in foreign countries, presumably due to inoculation with these ubiquitous pathogens. This case highlights the fact that the differential diagnosis and thus the microbiological workup should be extended in cases without initial pathogen detection.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Corpos Estranhos/microbiologia , Mastodinia/etiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Implantes de Mama/microbiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia
14.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 596-600, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422629

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the microbiological test, antibiotic sensitivity and surgical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection(PJI) cases in post total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on 318 patients who underwent THA or TKA in 9 clinical centers in Beijing from January 2014 to December 2016.The data of microbiology, antibiotic sensitivity and surgical treatment were collected.The average age of patients was (62.3±13.1) years old (range: 21-86 years old), including 145 males and 173 females.The body mass index was (25.6±3.8) kg/m (2) (range: 15.6-38.1 kg/m(2)). Results: In total, 318 patients had microorganisms detected by periprosthetic tissue culture or synovial fluid culture, 209 cases (65.7%) had Gram-positive bacteria, 29 cases (9.1%) had Gram-negative bacteria, 10 cases (3.1%) had fungi, 3 cases (0.9%) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria, 72 cases (22.6%) were negative, 69 cases (21.7%) had methicillin-resistant bacteria. The antibiotic sensitivity results showed that the overall resistance rate of penicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid was 79.9%, 69.9%, and 68.1%, respectively; meropenem, vancomycin, and linezolid resistance rate was 0. For the treatment methods of hip and knee PJI, two-stage revision surgery acounted for 72.9% (108/148) and 64.1% (109/170), respectively. One-stage revision surgery accounted for 21.6% (32/148) and 7.6% (13/170), and open debridement surgery accounted for 4.7%(7/148) and 26.4% (45/170). Conclusions: Gram-positive bacteria was still the main pathogen of PJI.The methicillin-resistant bacteria and rare bacteria should be payed attention to. The Majority of hip and knee PJI cases were treated by two-stage revision surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 218, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal aureus (S. aureus) has become the leading causative pathogen of Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI), which is the most devastating complication after arthroplasty surgeries. Due to the biofilm formation ability and emergence of multiple-drugs resistance strains of S. aureus, it has become an urgency to find new anti-staphylococcal agents to establish effective prophylaxis and treatment strategy for PJI. Extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, berberine is proved active in inhibiting S. aureus, while whether it exerts the same effect on PJI-related S. aureus remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity of berbrine against clinical derived PJI-related S. aureus and whether its inhibiting efficacy is associated with subtypes of S. aureus. METHODS: Eighteen PJI-associated S. aureus were collected and their Multi-locus Sequence Types (MLST) and susceptibility to berberine both in planktonic and biofilm form were investigated. Additionally, one S. aureus strain (ST1792) was selected from the group and its transcriptomic profiling in berberine incubation was performed. The statistical analyses were conducted using Student's t-test with SPSS 24.0(SPSS, IBM, USA). The data were expressed as the means ± standard deviation. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: It was found out that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values of PJI-related S. aureus varied in a broad range (from 64 to 512 µg/ml) among different MLST subtypes and the bacteria were able to regain growth after 24 h in berberine of MIC value or higher concentrations. In addition, sub-inhibitory concentrations of berberine surprisingly enhanced biofilm formation in some S. aureus strains. CONCLUSION: Traditional medicine is utilised by a large number of individuals, which provides abundant resources for modern medical science. In our study, berberine was found bactericidal against PJI related S. aureus, however, its antibacterial property was impacted by the MLST subtypes of the bacteria, both in planktonic and biofilm growth forms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
16.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 157(5): 510-514, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key factor in the successful treatment of periprosthetic joint infection is the consistent antimicrobial therapy. Depending on the pathogen antimicrobial susceptibility, intravenous (i. v.) antibiotics may not be switched to oral medication at patient discharge, without risking a treatment failure. The implementation of an outpatient i. v. therapy using peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) allows for early discharge with continuation of adequate antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the systematic use of PICC in 11 patients with periprosthetic joint infection. Inclusion criterion was the detection of a pathogen that cannot be optimally treated with oral antibiotics according to the current treatment concept (Trampuz et al.). RESULTS: A total of 12 PICCs in 11 patients were analysed. An error or mechanical nerve irritation was not observed. The occurrence of a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) was not recorded. None of our patients had PICC-associated infections, thrombophlebitis or thrombosis. One patient stopped therapy due to a lack of compliance. Ten patients successfully completed their treatment. At a mean follow-up of 29 months, successful infection eradication as measured by the Delphi criteria was achieved in 100%. CONCLUSION: Although the number of patients included in the study was small, our short-term results suggest a good applicability of PICCs in the outpatient i. v. antimicrobial therapy for treatment of periprosthetic joint infection. Catheter-associated complications could not be observed in our collective. The successful infection control in all cases despite proven difficult-to-treat infection is promising.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cateterismo Periférico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 166-169, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374343

RESUMO

We report here the case of a Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) associated with Coxiella burnetii in a 62-year-old man with a revised total hip arthroplasty. The diagnosis was performed first by 16S rDNA sequencing on hip fluid aspirate, and confirmed by specific qPCR. Q fever has been reported in few cases of Prosthetic Joint Infections, often associated with chronic evolution and iterative surgeries. This case report alerts about such an unexpected diagnosis in a patient with no known risk factors.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Artropatias/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próteses e Implantes/microbiologia , Febre Q/diagnóstico
19.
Foot Ankle Int ; 40(1_suppl): 12S-14S, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322928

RESUMO

RECOMMENDATION: Though one study supporting topically applied vancomycin has shown it to reduce the rate of deep infection in diabetic patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery, there is insufficient evidence to show benefits or to show any risks associated with the use of vancomycin powder during total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) or other foot and ankle procedures in a general population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Consensus. DELEGATE VOTE: Agree: 100%, Disagree: 0%, Abstain: 0% (Unanimous, Strongest Consensus).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pós/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Tornozelo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo , Consenso , Pé/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
20.
Foot Ankle Int ; 40(1_suppl): 4S-6S, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322934

RESUMO

RECOMMENDATION: Unknown. The role of screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and decolonization prior to total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) remains unclear. Further data are needed to support this practice in TAA, which can be costly and logistically difficult to implement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Consensus. DELEGATE VOTE: Agree: 100%, Disagree: 0%, Abstain: 0% (Unanimous, Strongest Consensus).


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo , Programas de Rastreamento , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Humanos
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