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1.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(18): e793-e802, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898359

RESUMO

Projections indicate an increase in primary and revision total joint arthroplasties (TJAs). Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are one of the most common and devastating causes of failure after TJA. Perioperative administration of systemic and/or local antibiotics is used for both prophylaxis and treatment of PJI. Antibiotic stewardship is a term that has been met with clinical acceptance and success in other specialties of medicine. Identifying antibiotic best practice use in the fight against PJI is limited by studies that are extremely heterogeneous in their design. Variations in studies include antibiotic selection and duration, surgical débridement steps, type of antibiotic delivery (intra-articular, local, intravenous, and prolonged oral), mix of primary and revision surgery cohorts, both hip and knee cohorts, infecting organisms, and definitions of treatment success/failure. This review highlights the current challenges of antibiotic stewardship in TJA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia
2.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 2073-2076, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular assist devices driveline infections are common, recalcitrant, and carry high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reported a patient with driveline infection that was successfully treated with a combination of systemic antibiotics, surgical debridement, and instillation of absorbable antibiotic beads to the wound bed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 39-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent insertion of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device. Four years postoperatively, the patient presented with clinical, laboratory, and radiologic signs of driveline tract infection. He underwent extensive surgical debridement, installation of absorbable antibiotic beads that consisted of calcium sulfate, vancomycin, and tobramycin, into the wound bed, and systemic antibiotics. The patient was free of infection 9 month postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Absorbable calcium sulfate antibiotic beads may serve as a beneficial adjunct to surgical debridement and systemic antibiotics for the treatment of ventricular assist device driveline infection, and merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Adulto , Sulfato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cefadroxila/administração & dosagem , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Desbridamento , Formas de Dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6_Supple_A): 163-169, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475280

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine if the local delivery of vancomycin and tobramycin in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can achieve intra-articular concentrations exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration thresholds for bacteria causing acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). METHODS: Using a retrospective single-institution database of all primary TKAs performed between January 1 2014 and May 7 2019, we identified patients with acute PJI that were managed surgically within 90 days of the initial procedure. The organisms from positive cultures obtained at the time of revision were tested for susceptibility to gentamicin, tobramycin, and vancomycin. A prospective study was then performed to determine the intra-articular antibiotic concentration on postoperative day one after primary TKA using one of five local antibiotic delivery strategies with tobramycin and/or vancomycin mixed into the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or vancomycin powder. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients with acute PJI after TKA were identified and 29 unique bacterial isolates were recovered. The mean time to revision was 37 days (6 to 84). Nine isolates (31%) were resistant to gentamicin, ten (34%) were resistant to tobramycin, and seven (24%) were resistant to vancomycin. Excluding one Fusobacterium nucleatum, which was resistant to all three antibiotics, all isolates resistant to tobramycin or gentamicin were susceptible to vancomycin and vice versa. Overall, 2.4 g of tobramycin hand-mixed into 80 g of PMMA and 1 g of intra-articular vancomycin powder consistently achieved concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of susceptible organisms. CONCLUSION: One-third of bacteria causing acute PJI after primary TKA were resistant to the aminoglycosides commonly mixed into PMMA, and one-quarter were resistant to vancomycin. With one exception, all bacteria resistant to tobramycin were susceptible to vancomycin and vice versa. Based on these results, the optimal cover for organisms causing most cases of acute PJI after TKA can be achieved with a combination of tobramycin mixed in antibiotic cement, and vancomycin powder. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):163-169.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Cimentos para Ossos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polimetil Metacrilato , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
4.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6_Supple_A): 151-157, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475290

RESUMO

AIMS: We propose a state-of-the-art temporary spacer, consisting of a cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral component and a gentamicin-eluting ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial insert, which can provide therapeutic delivery of gentamicin, while retaining excellent mechanical properties. The proposed implant is designed to replace conventional spacers made from bone cement. METHODS: Gentamicin-loaded UHMWPE was prepared using phase-separated compression moulding, and its drug elution kinetics, antibacterial, mechanical, and wear properties were compared with those of conventional gentamicin-loaded bone cement. RESULTS: Gentamicin-loaded UHMWPE tibial components not only eradicated planktonic Staphylococcus aureus, but also prevented colonization of both femoral and tibial components. The proposed spacer possesses far superior mechanical and wear properties when compared with conventional bone cement spacers. CONCLUSION: The proposed gentamicin-eluting UHMWPE spacer can provide antibacterial efficacy comparable with currently used bone cement spacers, while overcoming their drawbacks. The novel spacer proposed here has the potential to drastically reduce complications associated with currently used bone cement spacers and substantially improve patients' quality of life during the treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):151-157.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cimentos para Ossos , Portadores de Fármacos , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Polietilenos , Próteses e Implantes , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Tíbia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20834, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, rates of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) related infections have increased and been associated with increased morbidity, mortality and financial burden on healthcare systems. METHODS: To examine the effect of an antibacterial envelope in reducing major CIED related infections, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Google scholar and Clinicaltrials.gov for studies that examined the effect of an antibiotic envelope in reducing major related CIED infections, comprising of device-related endocarditis, systemic infection requiring systemic antibiotics and or device extraction, compared to control up till February 15th, 2020. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted by calculating risk ratios (RR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We include 6 studies that comprise of 11,897 patients, of which 5844 received an antibiotic envelope and 6053 did not. Compared with control, utilization of an antibiotic envelope at the time of procedure was associated with a significant 74% relative risk reduction in major CIED related infections among patients at high risk for infection (RR: 0.26 [95% CI, 0.08-0.85]; P = .03), while no significant reduction was observed among patients enrolled from studies with any risk for infection (RR: 0.53 [95% CI, 0.06-4.52]; P = .56). Additionally, no reduction in mortality among patients that received an envelope compared to control was observed (RR: 1.15 [95% CI, 0.53-2.50]; P = .72). CONCLUSION: The utilization of an antibiotic envelope at the time of device implantation or upgrade reduces major CIED infections, especially if used in patients perceived to be at higher risk for infection.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/instrumentação , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Card Surg ; 35(7): 1746-1748, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557822

RESUMO

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used in patients with advanced heart failure. Infections are common complications following device placement; however, the efficacy of chronic antimicrobial suppression therapy for deep-seated infections is not well characterized. We report the case of a 49-year-old male with a HeartMate II LVAD who presented with a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus pump pocket infection that was subsequently treated with antibiotics and HeartMate III pump exchange. A vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) pump pocket infection then developed and responded to surgical drainage followed by long-term suppression with daptomycin then linezolid for over 870 days. A second pump exchange was not required. To our knowledge, this represents the longest reported use of daptomycin (341 days) without symptomatic adverse events. Managing infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens presents a clinical challenge. This case demonstrates the potential for antimicrobial suppression therapy to allow for successful retention of a VRE-infected LVAD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Daptomicina/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/microbiologia , Linezolida/administração & dosagem , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Resistência a Vancomicina
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 253, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of targeted antibiotics for the treatment of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing results and (2) verify the accuracy and reliability of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for identifying pathogens related to culture-negative prosthetic joint infection. METHODS: Ninety-seven consecutive PJI patients, including 27 patients with culture-negative prosthetic joint infection, were treated surgically at our center. Thirteen of the 27 culture-negative prosthetic joint infection patients, who were admitted before June 2017 and treated with empirical antibiotics, comprised the empirical antibiotic group (EA group), and the other 14 patients, who were admitted after June 2017 and treated with targeted antibiotics according to their metagenomic next-generation sequencing results, were classified as the targeted antibiotic group (TA group). The short-term infection control rate, incidence of antibiotic-related complications and costs were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Two of the patients in the EA group experienced debridement and prolonged antimicrobial therapy due to wound infection after the initial revision surgery. No recurrent infections were observed in the TA group; however, no significant difference in the infection control rate was found between the two groups (83.33% vs 100%, P = 0.217). More cases of antibiotic-related complications were recorded in the EA group (6 cases) than in the TA group (1 case), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.0697). The cost of antibiotics obtained for the EA group was 20,168.37 Yuan (3236.38-45,297.16), which was higher than that found for the TA group (10,164.16 Yuan, 2959.54-16,661.04, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted antibiotic treatment for culture-negative prosthetic joint infection based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing results is associated with a favorable outcome, and metagenomic next-generation sequencing is a reliable tool for identifying pathogens related to culture-negative prosthetic joint infection.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Reoperação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(5): 332-336, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298552

RESUMO

Periprosthetic infection (PPI) after arthroplasty of large joints is the third (among the main causes of unsatisfactory results of surgical treatment) a serious threat to the health of patients. The «gold standard¼ for the diagnosis of PPI is the bacteriological examination of samples of periprosthetic tissues and synovial fluid. In 10-30% of cases, it is impossible to isolate microorganisms, which is explained by the difficulty of cultivation and taking antibiotics before sampling. The purpose of study is to demonstrate the diagnostic value of PCR diagnostics for identifying the genetic material of an infectious pathogen of a culture-negative periprosthetic infection. Material of the study is a description of a clinical case of a culture-negative periprosthetic infection that caused a second two-stage revision of the hip joint prosthesis In the first episode of PPI that occurred 3 years after hip replacement, a microbiological examination of the puncture of the trochanteric zone of the operated joint revealed a massive increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). A two-stage revision joint replacement was performed. 5 years after the revision, the patient was hospitalized with clinical and radiological signs of PPI, while examining the puncture of the joint revealed characteristic PPI cytosis. Microbiological examination of punctate and intraoperative aspirate at the first stage of the repeated two-stage revision endoprosthesis replacement did not reveal aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. In PCR studies, the DNA of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was detected in washouts from the removed components of the endoprosthesis; no resistance marker (mecA gene) was found. Given the concomitant oncological disease, this result determined the appointment of pathogenetic antibiotic therapy, the effectiveness of which was confirmed after 8 weeks at the II stage of revision. The PCR study of joint and trochanteric punctures (before surgery), flushing from the removed spacer components (after ultrasound treatment) and intraoperative aspirate from the joint did not reveal Staphylococcus aureus DNA and resistance marker (mecA gene). In some cases of periprosthetic infection, traumatologists and orthopedists deal with culturally negative results of a microbiological study of the patient's biomaterial and swabs from the components of endoprostheses in the presence of clinical manifestations of PPI, confirmed by laboratory diagnostics and X-ray examination. According to the literature, such clinical situations are observed in 10-30% of cases and are caused by previous antibiotic therapy in the early stages of an infectious complication. After surgical treatment of PPI for the selection of adequate antibiotic therapy, such patients need to at least indirectly determine the type of infection pathogen, which is achieved by the use of additional diagnostic methods, such as a PRC study. In the case described by us, after a course of antibiotic therapy, prescribed according to the results of the first PCR study, the patient's body does not contain DNA traces of the desired infectious agent. Thus, the repeated PCR not only confirmed the accuracy of the initial diagnosis of the source of infection, but also further illustrated the success of the rehabilitation of the periprosthetic infection using a correctly selected antibacterial drug at the previous stage of the study. The use of the PCR method made it possible to diagnose the pathogen and prescribe adequate antibiotic therapy for culture-negative periprosthetic infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19735, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increase in the number of patients with prosthetic joints will entail a rise in the absolute number of infections associated with these procedures. Although less frequent, infections by Candida species are also expected to increase, and the clinical and surgical management of these cases is based on case reports and opinion of specialists. The objective of the present study was to review the available literature and describe the cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by Candida species in patients of the Institute of Orthopedics and Trauma of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine Clinics Hospital (IOT-HCFMUSP) between 2007 and 2014. PATIENT CONCERNS: Eleven patients were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection due to Candida with mean age of 65 years. The most frequent comorbidities were heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and the main personal antecedent was previous bacterial infection in the prosthetic joint. At least one risk factor for fungal infection was present in 73% of the patients. There was no difference between the prevalence of infections caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species, and there was bacterial co-infection in 55% of the cases. DIAGNOSIS: For building up the case series, patients with cultures of bone and joint specimens that were positive for Candida species and had a clinical diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection were included in the case series. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical debridement with removal of the prosthesis was the most frequently used surgical approach (45%). All patients were treated with monotherapy, and the most frequently used antifungal agent was fluconazole. The total duration of antifungal therapy was 6 months in 73% of the cases. OUTCOMES: After the initial management, 73% of the patients achieved clinical remission. CONCLUSION: The most indicated initial management was debridement with removal of the prosthesis, and the most used treatment regimen was fluconazole monotherapy. The most prevalent treatment duration was 6 months. The initial management led to a favorable outcome in 73% of the cases. DESCRIPTORS: Prosthetic joint infection, Candida, treatment, and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Prótese Articular/microbiologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/cirurgia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/cirurgia , Osteoartrite/complicações , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 9, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate in vitro susceptibility to ceftobiprole of clinical strains identified from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) compared to that of the associations currently recommended for post-operative empirical antibiotic therapy (PEAT) (vancomycin with either cefepime, third-generation cephalosporin or piperacillin-tazobactam). METHODS: We performed a 1-year retrospective study on all the surgical procedures performed in our hospital for PJI. Susceptibility profiles of all the strains cultured from surgical samples were reviewed to compare ceftobiprole to current used associations. RESULTS: During the study period (from January 2018 to December 2018), we identified 106 patients managed for PJI and a total of 216 surgical interventions. One hundred-fifty strains were identified from intraoperative samples, excluding redundant strains. Staphylococcus spp. represented 52.7% of all strains and Enterobacteriales 13.3%. Twenty-three patients had polymicrobial infection (22%). Among 149 surgical procedures with positive culture results, ceftobiprole covered the bacterial strains in 138 (92.6%) cases. In comparison, this percentage was 94.6% for vancomycin plus cefepime (p = 0.64), 92.6% for vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin in 138 cases (p = 1) and 94.6% for vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam) (p = 0.64). CONCLUSION: Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, our results suggest that ceftobiprole could be an interesting option for PEAT in PJIs, allowing the use of a single agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
11.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(3): 336-344, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114816

RESUMO

AIMS: In the absence of an identified organism, single-stage revision is contraindicated in prosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, no studies have examined the use of intra-articular antibiotics in combination with single-stage revision in these cases. In this study, we present the results of single-stage revision using intra-articular antibiotic infusion for treating culture-negative (CN) PJI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis between 2009 and 2016 included 51 patients with CN PJI who underwent single-stage revision using intra-articular antibiotic infusion; these were compared with 192 culture-positive (CP) patients. CN patients were treated according to a protocol including intravenous vancomycin and a direct intra-articular infusion of imipenem and vancomycin alternately used in the morning and afternoon. In the CP patients, pathogen-sensitive intravenous (IV) antibiotics were administered for a mean of 16 days (12 to 21), and for resistant cases, additional intra-articular antibiotics were used. The infection healing rate, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score were compared between CN and CP groups. RESULTS: Of 51 CN patients, 46 (90.2%) required no additional medical treatment for recurrent infection at a mean of 53.2 months (24 to 72) of follow-up. Impaired kidney function occurred in two patients, and one patient had a local skin rash. No significant difference in the infection control rate was observed between CN and CP PJIs (90.2% (46/51) versus 94.3% (181/192); p = 0.297). The HHS of the CN group showed no substantial difference from that of CP cases (79 versus 81; p = 0.359). However, the CN group showed a mean HSS inferior to that of the CP group (76 versus 80; p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Single-stage revision with direct intra-articular antibiotic infusion can be effective in treating CN PJI, and can achieve an infection control rate similar to that in CP patients. However, in view of systemic toxicity, local adverse reactions, and higher costs, additional strong evidence is needed to verify these treatment regimens. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(3):336-344.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Imipenem/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(3): 245-252, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098518

RESUMO

Introduction: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most dreaded and challenging complications in adult reconstruction. While primary total joint arthroplasty is one of the most successful surgeries in medicine, revisions secondary to infections do not hold as well. As the number of primary procedures increases, so will infections. In North America, two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the standard of care for patients with PJI, especially when the presentation is greater than 4 weeks after the index procedure. However, it is not necessarily the best option for all patients, particularly when compared to one-stage arthroplasty.Areas covered: The aim of this review is to analyze the indications, safety, and efficacy of two-stage exchange arthroplasty for the treatment of PJI and to compare the results reported 10 years ago with the ones of recent publications and those of one-stage arthroplasty.Expert opinion: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is a safe and efficacious treatment particularly suited for recalcitrant infections, resistant organisms, and patients with certain host factors that make it more difficult to eradicate infection. However, one-stage arthroplasty might be well suited as well for infections caused by susceptible organisms and patients with minimal or no comorbidities or those unable to undergo two surgeries.


Assuntos
Artroplastia/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 96(4): 114967, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057521

RESUMO

The local use of analgesics and antibiotics is common during the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The effect of nonantimicrobial drugs on antibacterial activity is underappreciated in clinical practice. This study focuses on the novel assessment of the combined antibacterial effects of commonly used analgesics and antibiotics against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)-pathogen associated with most PJIs. We identified that bupivacaine/lidocaine and ketorolac/gentamicin combinations yielded fractional inhibitory concentration indices below 0.4, indicative of synergistic antibacterial effect. Time-kill curves were used for in-depth characterization of the synergy, and the obtained results demonstrated pronounced synergistic effects of bupivacaine/lidocaine and ketorolac/gentamicin combinations against MSSA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2985, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076089

RESUMO

Identification of bacteria causing tissue infections can be comprehensive and, in the cases of non- or slow-growing bacteria, near impossible with conventional methods. Performing shotgun metagenomic sequencing on bacterial DNA extracted directly from the infected tissue may improve time to diagnosis and targeted treatment considerably. However, infected tissue consists mainly of human DNA (hDNA) which hampers bacterial identification. In this proof of concept study, we present a modified version of the Ultra-Deep Microbiome Prep kit for DNA extraction procedure, removing additional human DNA. Tissue biopsies from 3 patients with orthopedic implant-related infections containing varying degrees of Staphylococcus aureus were included. Subsequent DNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing using Oxford Nanopore Technologies' (ONT) MinION platform and ONTs EPI2ME WIMP and ARMA bioinformatic workflows for microbe and antibiotic resistance genes identification, respectively. The modified DNA extraction protocol led to an additional ~10-fold reduction of human DNA while preserving S. aureus DNA. Including the DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses, the presented protocol has the potential of identifying the infection-causing pathogen in infected tissue within 7 hours after biopsy. However, due to low number of S. aureus reads, positive identification of antibiotic resistance genes was not possible.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Metagenômica/instrumentação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The data on infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is scarce and limited to case reports and case series in the literature. It is the need of the hour to analyze the available data on post-TAVI infective endocarditis from the available literature. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the incidence of infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, its microbiological profile and clinical outcomes. It will help us to improve the antibiotic prophylaxis strategies and treatment options for infective endocarditis in the context of TAVI. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline and the CENTRAL trials registry of the Cochrane Collaboration were searched for articles on infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients till October 2018. Eleven articles were included in the systematic review. The outcomes assessed werethe incidence of infective endocarditis, its microbiological profile andclinical outcomes including major adverse cardiac event (MACE), net adverse clinical event (NACE), surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure. RESULTS: The incidence of infective endocarditis varied from 0%-14.3% in the included studies, the mean was3.25%. The average duration of follow-up was 474 days (1.3 years). Enterococci were the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (14.7%). The mean in-hospital mortality and mortality at follow-up was 29.5% and 29.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of heart failure, stroke and major bleeding were 37.1%, 5.3% and 11.3%,respectively. Only a single study by Martinez-Selles et al. reported arrhythmias in 20% cases. The septic shock occurred in 10% and 27.7% post-TAVI infective endocarditis patients according to 2 studies. The surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure were reported in 11.4% and 6.4% cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of post-TAVI infective endocarditis is low being 3.25% but it is associated with high mortality and complications. The most common complication is heart failure with a cumulative incidence of 37.1%. Enterococciare the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 16.1% of cases. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients including adequate antibiotics prophylaxis directed specifically against these organisms. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018115943.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite/patologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/microbiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18891, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977899

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether the infection control rate of a modified debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) protocol (DAIR with antibiotic-impregnated cement beads) is comparable to that of 2-stage revision for acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We also aimed to determine whether this modified DAIR technique produced better clinical results than those obtained using 2-stage revision in terms of functional outcome, range of motion (ROM), and patient satisfaction at 2 years after surgery.This retrospective comparative study included patients who underwent modified DAIR (7 patients, 9 knees) or 2-stage revision (8 patients, 9 knees) for acute PJI of the knee joint. Infection control rate, functional outcome measured using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, ROM and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups.There was no difference in infection control rates between the modified DAIR and 2-stage revision groups (78% vs 78%, respectively). In contrast, surgical outcome in the modified DAIR group was tended to be better than 2-stage revision group, but it did not reach statistical significance. Median maximal range of flexion was 103° in the modified DAIR group and it was 90° in the 2-stage group (P = .191). In addition, the median WOMAC function score was 24 in the modified DAIR group and it was 30 in the 2-stage group (P = .076). Median patient satisfaction measured using visual analogue scale was 8 in the modified DAIR group and 5 in the 2-stage group (P = .069).The infection control rates of the modified DAIR protocol and 2-stage revision protocol were similar for the treatment of acute PJI of the knee joint. However, the modified DAIR protocol could not provide substantially increased functional outcomes and patient satisfaction compared to 2-stage revision. Therefore, the modified DAIR technique should be considered to be of limited use in patients with high surgical morbidity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Cimentos para Ossos/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 28(1): 2309499019899572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994966

RESUMO

Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with retrograde nail is a widely used treatment option for severe ankle arthropathy. With inherent biomechanical benefits in axial loading and strong bending stiffness, high union rate and good clinical outcomes have been reported in the literature. However, some undesired complications, such as osteomyelitis or implant failure, can develop after this procedure. Herein, we report the case of an 86-year-old man with right ankle osteomyelitis after TTC arthrodesis with retrograde nail. After removing the previous implants and extensive debridement, we used an antibiotic cement nail with multiple screws fixation as a salvage procedure in the same operation. The patient fully recovered without further surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/terapia , Artrite/cirurgia , Artrodese/métodos , Osteomielite/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artrite/etiologia , Artrodese/efeitos adversos , Artrodese/instrumentação , Cimentos para Ossos , Pinos Ortopédicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Desbridamento , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Masculino , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Articulação Talocalcânea/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia
19.
Infection ; 48(2): 165-171, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extrapulmonary infections due to M. xenopi, particularly osteoarticular localizations, are rare. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of prosthetic hip infection and to review the published literature on cases of M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. METHODS: Literature search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Central (the Cochrane Library 2019, Issue 1), LILACS (BIREME) (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database) and Clinical Trials databases (14th August 2018). We included all case reports and case series on adult patients diagnosed with bone or joint infection by M. xenopi for whom the treatment and outcome were specified. RESULTS: We retrieved 30 cases published between 1982 and 2012, among which 25 (83.3%) were reported from Europe. The two most common infection sites were spine (12/30, 40%) and knee (9/30, 30%). Risk factors for infection were previous invasive procedures (11/30, 36.7%), autoimmune disease (8/30, 26.7%), AIDS (4/30, 13.3%) and other comorbidities (2/30, 6.7%); five patients had no past medical history. All patients were treated with antibiotic combinations, but composition and duration of regimens hugely varied. Surgical intervention was performed in 16 patients (53.3%). Only 11 patients obtained full recovery of articular mobility after treatment. CONCLUSION: This work highlights the difficulties in diagnosing and treating M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. Globally, evidence supporting the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of this infection is scanty.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium xenopi/fisiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(1): 247-254, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-stage positive cultures in 2-stage revision arthroplasty are a matter of concern, as their influence in outcomes is not clearly defined. We sought to study reimplantation microbiology when using vancomycin-gentamicin prefabricated cement spacers in hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection. The associations of second-stage positive cultures with treatment failures and patient-associated factors were analyzed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, examining patients managed with 2-stage revision arthroplasty due to knee or hip chronic periprosthetic joint infection between 2010 and 2017. Prefabricated vancomycin-gentamicin cement spacers were used during the spacer stage. Intraoperative microbiological culture results after the first and second stages were evaluated. The primary end point was infection eradication or relapse. RESULTS: A total of 108 cases were included (61 hips and 47 knees). And 22.2% of patients had ≥1 second-stage positive culture, while 9.3% had ≥2 positive samples. Overall success, at an average follow-up of 46.4 months, was 77.8%. Treatment failure was higher among cases with positive cultures (15.5% vs 45.8%, P < .01) regardless of the number of positive samples. Diabetes was identified as a risk factor for second-stage positive cultures (P = .03); use of cement loaded with extra antibiotics for spacer fixation showed a protective effect (P < .01). CONCLUSION: Second-stage positive cultures were related to a higher failure rate when using vancomycin-gentamicin cement spacers. Diabetes increased the likelihood of second-stage positive cultures. The use of extra-antibiotic-loaded cement for spacer fixation during the first stage showed a protective effect.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Cimentos para Ossos , Gentamicinas , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Reoperação , Reimplante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina
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