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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904319

RESUMO

In recent years, Serratia marcescens has emerged as an important agent of hospital-acquired infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and meningitis, particularly in vulnerable patients. Compared to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, S. marcescens is less commonly associated with bla KPC genes, yet few cases of plasmid transmission at the gastrointestinal level from K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales to S. marcescens have been described. Here we report a case of in vivo acquisition, during a 3-month period of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, of a bla KPC-3 gene carried by a pKpQIL-IT plasmid, and its probable transmission at the bronchial level among different species of Enterobacterales, including K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens. By using whole genome sequence analyses we were able provide insight into the dynamics of carbapenem-resistance determinants acquisition in the lower respiratory tract, a novel anatomical region for such plasmid transmission events, that usually involve the gastrointestinal tract. The co-presence at the same time of both wild-type and resistant Enterobacterales could have been the critical factor leading to the spread of plasmids harbouring carbapenem-resistance genes, of particular importance during surveillance screenings. The possibility of such an event may have significant consequences in terms of antimicrobial treatment, with a potential limitation of therapeutic options, thereby further complicating the clinical management of high-risk critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos , Serratia marcescens/enzimologia , Serratia marcescens/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1012-1015, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926539

RESUMO

Adenoviruses have been reported to affect a broad range of host species, tend to be species specific, and often affect the respiratory system. This report describes the isolation of an adenovirus from deep nasal swabs of two wild North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) with respiratory diseases that presented to a wildlife hospital. Partial sequences of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase gene of the isolated virus were identical to skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), also known as pygmy marmoset adenovirus. Both porcupines survived and were released back to the wild after successful medical treatment and rehabilitation. The significance of the adenovirus isolated from these porcupines is unknown; however, this is the first report of an adenovirus in porcupines, and the first report of SkAdV-1 in a rodent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenoviridae/classificação , Porcos-Espinhos , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(53): 1201-1205, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945036

RESUMO

Control of communicable diseases in children, including respiratory and diarrheal illnesses that affect U.S. school-aged children, might require public health preventive efforts both in the home and at school, a primary setting for transmission. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on school absenteeism and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in the United States during 2010-2016 were analyzed to examine their associations with income. Prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (queried for the 2 weeks preceding the survey) increased as income decreased. The likelihood of missing any school days during the past year decreased with reduced income. However, among children who missed school, those from low-income households missed more days of school than did children from higher income households. Although the reason for absenteeism cannot be ascertained from this analysis, these data underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g. hand hygiene promotion and education) and the opportunity for both homes and schools to serve as important points for implementation of public health preventive measures, including improved hand hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18584, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977849

RESUMO

To evaluate epidemiology and risk factors of severe adenovirus respiratory infection in hospitalized children in Guangzhou, China.A retrospective review study was conducted, and 542 children hospitalized for adenovirus respiratory infection, were included from January 2011 to December 2014. Patients were younger than 14 years. Disease severity was classified into severe and mild. Laboratory tests and clinical characteristics were analyzed for risk factors of adenovirus respiratory infection by multivariable logistic regression.Among these 542 children, 92.1% were aged < 6 years. Clinical diagnoses were upper respiratory infections in 11.6%, bronchiolitis in 16%, and mild pneumonia in 62.0% of children. Severe pneumonia rate was 10.3% (56/542) with a mortality rate of 0.9% (5/542). The cohort comprised 542 patients; 486 patients with mild adenovirus respiratory infection and 56 patients with severe adenovirus respiratory infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to confirm associations between variables and adenovirus respiratory infection, after age and gender adjustment. Hospital stay, still significantly associated with adenovirus respiratory infection. Patients with longer hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.28, P < .001), lower LYMPH (OR = 0.73 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, P = .039), and increased LDH (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 1.001-1.003, P =  .001) had a higher risk of severe adenovirus respiratory infection.Adenovirus is a major pathogen in hospitalized children with respiratory infection. High serum LDH level and low lymphocyte count could be used as predictors of adenovirus respiratory infection severity in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/mortalidade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/genética
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18714, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914082

RESUMO

To investigate the situation of antibiotic consumption and to assess the inappropriate use on pediatric inpatients of different types hospitals in Sichuan, China.A cross-sectional survey of antibiotic prescriptions among hospitalized children aged 1month -14years were conducted from April 2018 to June 2018 in southwestern China. Antibiotic prescriptions were extracted from electronic records during hospitalization of each inpatient in five different types hospitals.In this study, the antibiotic prescription rate of hospitalized children was 66.9% (1176/1758). Compared with tertiary children hospital (TC) (46.1%), general hospitals and non-tertiary children hospitals has higher rate of antibiotic prescription (almost 85%) (P < .001). 93.4% of inpatients received parenteral antibiotic. Overall, the most common antibiotics were Cefoperazone and enzyme inhibitor, Cefixime and Azithromycin. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was the leading reason for antibiotic consumption in pediatric wards (56.8%), followed by upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (22.2%). For children with LRTI, Cephalosporins were heavy prescribed, especially broad-spectrum third-generation Cephalosporins (60.3%). The antibiotic prescription proportion of URTI in general hospitals and non-tertiary children hospitals (more than 18%) was higher than TC (8.1%) (P < .001).There was inappropriate use of antibiotic in hospitalized children including overuse of parenteral administration, overprescribing of antibiotic on URTI and misuse of third-generation Cephalosporins in pediatric inpatients with LRTI. Compared with tertiary freestanding children hospital, the irrational antibiotic prescription of general hospitals and non-tertiary children hospitals were more serious. Management strategy should be implementer on quality improvement of antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
BMJ ; 368: l6768, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924664

RESUMO

The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Motivação , Pais , Atenção Primária à Saúde
9.
Clin Biochem ; 75: 30-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the auxiliary diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and anti-citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 (CEP-1) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 99 in-patients with LRTIs [62 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 14 acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD), 23 other diseases] and 50 healthy subjects. NGAL, CEP-1 and IL-6 were measured and compared. IL-6 was tested by electrochemiluminescence assay kit on Roche E601 immunology analyzer, CEP-1 was assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and NGAL was detected by latex immunoturbidimetric assay kit on Beckman Coulter AU2700. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, NGAL and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the patients with LRTIs, the area under the curves (AUC) was 0.97 and 0.88 respectively (P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of NGAL at a cut-off of 86 ng/ml were 93.0% and 96.0%, respectively, in which the sensitivity was consistent with IL-6 (P = 0.21) and the specificity was better than IL-6 (P < 0.01). CEP-1 slightly increases in the patient group, however the difference was not significant (P = 0.41). The levels of NGAL and IL-6 was no differences in different diseases, the P-value was 0.50 and 0.29, respectively. LRTIs with and without underlying diseases have similar NGAL and IL-6 values. CONCLUSIONS: NGAL, rather than CEP-1, may be appealing adjuncts for diagnosis of LRTIs. NGAL proved to be a better biomarker than IL-6.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico
10.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4699, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524294

RESUMO

In this study, we developed and validated two reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the qualitative detection of six oral ß-lactams, which are commonly used in pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Two distinct reverse-phase chromatographic separations of six ß-lactams were obtained. Four ß-lactams (cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefaclor and cefixime) in urine were separated using a gradient program with a mobile phase consisting of K2 HPO4 buffer (20 mm, pH 2.8) and acetonitrile on a LichroCART 250 × 4.6 mm, Purospher STAR C18 end-capped (5 µm) column. Two remained ß-lactams (amoxicillin and cefuroxime) were analyzed using a gradient elution with the mobile phase containing K2 HPO4 buffer (20 mm, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile on a LichroCart® Purospher Star C8 end-capped column (5 µm, 125 × 4.6 mm). Good linearity within the range of 0.3-30 µg/ml for cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefaclor and cefixime, and 0.2-20 µg/ml for amoxicillin and cefuroxime, was attained. The precisions were <14%. The accuracies ranged from 85.87 to 102.8%. The two validated methods were then applied to determine these six antibiotics in 553 urine samples of pediatric patients with ARIs. As a result, 32.2% were positive with one or more of six tested ß-lactams. Cefixime was the most commonly detected agent, accounting for 9.8% of enrolled patients.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Lactamas/urina , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
11.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The identification of rare sources of laryngeal infection in immunocompetent patients. Recovered organisms were Mycobacterium tuberculosis (laryngeal tuberculosis [LTB]), Mycobacterium fortuitum (laryngeal Mycobacterium fortuitum [LMF]), and Blastomyces dermatiditis (laryngeal blastomycosis [LB]). METHOD: Single institution retrospective case series of three patients over a 2.5-year period and review of the literature on laryngeal infections by three atypical organisms. RESULTS: Three patients presented with hoarseness and cough; one additionally had throat pain (LTB). Indirect laryngoscopy demonstrated diffuse laryngeal ulceration (LTB, LMF) and an exophytic, contiguous glottic mass (LB). Direct microlaryngoscopic biopsies and cultures established the diagnoses, including a frozen section in one case (LB), which prevented a simultaneously planned surgical resection. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy yielded dramatic laryngeal and corresponding vocal improvement, for which we provide unique photo and audio documentation. In the last 10 years, fewer than 500 cases of LTB have been reported in the English language medical literature, principally outside the United States. To date, there have been reports of only 34 LB and no cases of LMF. CONCLUSION: Atypical infections of the larynx may be localized and mimic laryngeal cancer on endoscopy. Tissue examination as well as microbiologic samples are diagnostic and complementary.


Assuntos
Blastomicose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Laringoscopia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Laríngea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biópsia , Blastomyces , Blastomicose/complicações , Blastomicose/patologia , Tosse/etiologia , Técnicas de Cultura , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Rouquidão/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/complicações , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/patologia , Mycobacterium fortuitum , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Tuberculose Laríngea/complicações , Tuberculose Laríngea/patologia
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(2): e112-e121, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy is typically the standard of care for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia; however, infectious and hematologic toxic effects are problematic. Acalabrutinib is a selective, potent Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the activity and safety of acalabrutinib in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. METHODS: This single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 19 European academic centres in France, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, and the UK, and eight academic centres in the USA. Eligible patients were 18 years or older and had treatment naive (declined or not eligible for chemoimmunotherapy) or relapsed or refractory (at least one previous therapy) Waldenström macroglobulinemia that required treatment, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and received no previous Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy. Patients received 100 mg oral acalabrutinib twice per day in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response (at least a minor response) according to the 6th International Workshop for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (IWWM) and the modified 3rd IWWM workshop criteria. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02180724, and is ongoing, but no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Sept 8, 2014, and Dec 24, 2015, 122 patients were assessed for eligibility, of which 106 (87%) patients were given acalabrutinib (14 were treatment naive and 92 had relapsed or refractory disease). With a median follow-up of 27·4 months (IQR 26·0-29·7), 13 (93% [95% CI 66-100]) of 14 treatment naive patients achieved an overall response and 86 (93% [86-98]) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients per both the modified 3rd and 6th IWWM criteria. Seven (50%) of 14 treatment naive patients and 23 (25%) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients discontinued treatment on study. Grade 3-4 adverse events occurring in more than 5% of patients were neutropenia (17 [16%] of 106 patients) and pneumonia (7 [7%]). Grade 3-4 atrial fibrillation occurred in one (1%) patient and grade 3-4 bleeding occurred in three (3%) patients. The most common serious adverse events were lower respiratory tract infection (n=7 [7%]), pneumonia (n=7 [7%]), pyrexia (n=4 [4%]), cellulitis (n=3 [3%]), fall (n=3 [3%]), and sepsis (n=3 [3%]). Pneumonia (n=5 [5%]) and lower respiratory tract infection (n=4 [4%]) were considered treatment related. One treatment-related death was reported (intracranial hematoma). INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence that acalabrutinib is active as single-agent therapy with a manageable safety profile in patients with treatment-naive, or relapse or refractory Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Further studies are needed to establish its efficacy against current standard treatments and to investigate whether outcomes can be improved with combination therapies. FUNDING: Acerta Pharma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/enzimologia , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética
13.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 84(5): 61-67, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793529

RESUMO

The aim of the study was proof of efficacy and safety of the drug Frinozol nasal spray in patients with acute respiratory infection (acute rhinitis). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized open-label study with active control included 134 ambulatory patients: men and women aged 18 to 65 years with acute upper respiratory tract infection (acute rhinitis) lasting no more than 48 hours before inclusion into the study. Patients were randomized in two groups: group 1 took Frinozol nasal spray 2 sprays per each nostril three times a day for 7 days, subjects randomized to the group 2 took Vibrocil at the same dose and treatment regimen. The primary efficacy endpoint in the study was assessment of the dynamics of symptoms such as nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, itching in the nose and hyposmia using 10 cm VAS in 1 day after the start of treatment compared to the baseline. Secondary endpoints included assessment of the dynamics of nasal symptoms after 7 days of treatment, changes in the values of the Congestion Quantifier 5, CQ-5 questionnaire and evaluation of the effectiveness by the investigator. Safety analysis was carried out throughout the study and included the assessment of adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, ECG assessment. RESULTS: According to the results of the study and comparative analysis of the primary (assessment of the dynamics of nasal symptoms on a 10 cm visual analogue scale 1 day after the start of treatment) and secondary efficacy endpoints as well as a comprehensive safety analysis, it can be concluded that the study drug is not inferior to the reference drug. Thus, the new combination Frinozol nasal spray is an effective and safe treatment for patients with acute respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Sprays Nasais , Fenilefrina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med. infant ; 26(4): 364-367, dic. 2019. ilus, Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047049

RESUMO

Introducción: La Oxigenoterapia de Alto Flujo (OAF) es una técnica de soporte respiratorio no invasiva, que ofrece un flujo de aire y oxígeno, caliente y humidificado, por encima del flujo pico inspiratorio del paciente, a través de una cánula nasal. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia con OAF en una sala de pediatría de mediana y baja complejidad para el tratamiento de bronquiolitis/ infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB). Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un protocolo para la implementación de OAF. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes cursando bronquiolitis/ IRAB con: Score de Tal modificado ≥6, Sat O2 < 92% y/o mala mecánica ventilatoria, a pesar de recibir más de 2 lt/ min de O2 por cánula nasal ó FiO2 >40%. Criterios de exclusión, pCO2 ≥55 mmHg; pH: < 7,20; Apneas ≥20 segundos; Glasgow ≤10; Peso >15 kg. Inestabilidad hemodinámica; Alteraciones craneofaciales. Resultados: En el periodo 2017- 2018 se internaron 441 pacientes con infección respiratoria aguda baja. Se administró OAF a 54 pacientes (12%). La mediana de edad mediana 7,4 meses (r: 27 días-36 meses). Los pacientes ingresados no presentaban comorbilidades asociadas. El 22,2% (12/54) fueron trasladados a UTIP (2,7% del total de los internados). El 64.8% de los pacientes que permanecieron en sala de internación, mostró mejoría en FC y FR a las 4 hs. Por el contrario, en el 75% de los pacientes que requirieron UTIP no se evidenció mejoría en estos parámetros. Conclusiones: La OAF es una alternativa terapéutica que podría disminuir el ingreso a UTIP en pacientes con dificultad respiratoria moderada. En nuestra experiencia resultó fácil de implementar, sin efectos adversos graves (AU)


Introduction: High-flow oxygen (HFO) therapy is a non-invasive oxygen support technique that provides hot and humidified air and oxygen flow above the peak inspiratory flow of the patient through a nasal cannula. In this study we present our experience with HFO on a intermediate and low complexity ward for the treatment of bronchiolitis/acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Material and methods: A protocol for the implementation of HFO was designed. Inclusion criteria: Patients with bronchiolitis/ALRI with: Modified Tal score ≥6, Sat O2 < 92%, and/or poor ventilatory mechanism, in spite of receiving more than 2 L/ min O2 by nasal cannula or FiO2 >40%. Exclusion criteria: pCO2 ≥55 mmHg; pH: < 7.20; Apnea ≥20 seconds; Glasgow score ≤10; Peso >15 kg. Hemodynamic instability; Craniofacial abnormalities. Results: During 2017- 2018, 441 patients were admitted with LRTI. HFO was administered to 54 patients (12%). Median age was 7.4 months (r: 27 days-36 months). The patients that were included in the study did not have associated morbidities. Overall, 22.2% (12/54) were transferred to the PICU (2.7% of all hospitalized patients). Of the patients who remained on the ward, 64.8% improved FC and FR after 4 hours. On the other hand, in 75% of the patients that required PICU admission these parameters did not improve. Conclusions: HFO is a therapeutic option to decrease PICU admission of patients with moderate respiratory difficulties. The protocol was easy to implement and was not associated with severe adverse effects (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Bronquiolite/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cânula
15.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20170498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(12): 1177-1181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of interferon-λ1 (IFN-λ1) in respiratory epithelial cells in children with human rhinovirus (HRV) infection. METHODS: Sputum samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the children who were hospitalized due to acute respiratory infection from February to October, 2017. Bacterial culture was performed, and nucleic acid test was performed for 11 respiratory pathogens. A total of 90 children with positive HRV alone were enrolled as the HRV infection group, and 95 children with positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) alone were enrolled as the RSV infection group. A total of 50 healthy children who underwent outpatient physical examination during the same period of time and had negative results for all pathogen tests were enrolled as the healthy control group. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from all groups, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure viral load and the mRNA expression of IFN-λ1. RESULTS: In the HRV infection group, there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression of IFN-λ1 between boys and girls and across all age groups (P>0.05). In the HRV infection group, there was no correlation between the mRNA expression of IFN-λ1 and HRV load (P>0.05). The mRNA expression of IFN-λ1 in the HRV infection group was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (P<0.05), but significantly lower than that in the RSV infection group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HRV can induce the expression of IFN-λ1 in respiratory epithelial cells, suggesting that IFN-λ1 may play an important role in anti-HRV infection in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Antivirais , Criança , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons , Masculino , Rhinovirus
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(12): 1182-1187, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the bacteriologic profile and drug resistance of respiratory infection in children, and to provide a basis for etiological diagnosis and rational use of antimicrobial agents. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for 15 047 children who attended the hospital due to respiratory infection from January 2016 to December 2018. Their sputum samples were collected, and the Phoenix-100 automatic microbial identification system was used for the identification and drug sensitivity analysis of the isolated pathogenic bacteria. RESULTS: Of all 17 174 sputum samples detected, there were 2 395 positive samples, with a positive rate of 13.95%; a total of 2 584 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, among which there were 1 577 (61.03%) Gram-negative strains, 967 (37.42%) Gram-positive strains, and 40 (1.55%) fungal strains. The most common pathogen was Haemophilus influenzae (33.90%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (33.55%), Moraxella catarrhalis (19.20%), and Staphylococcus aureus (3.64%). Among the 2 331 children with positive infection, 251 had mixed infection, most commonly with Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The detection rate of pathogenic bacteria was higher in winter and spring and lower in summer and autumn. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of pathogenic bacteria between different age groups (P<0.05), with the highest detection rate in infants aged 1 month to <1 year. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus had a sensitivity rate of 100% to vancomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin, and Haemophilus influenzae had a lower sensitivity rate to ampicillin, compound sulfamethoxazole and cefuroxime and a higher sensitivity rate to other drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the main pathogenic bacteria of respiratory infection in children, and mixed infection is the most common type of infection. The detection rate of pathogenic bacteria varies across seasons and ages. Different pathogenic bacteria have different features of drug resistance, and antibiotics should be selected based on drug sensitivity results.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Antibacterianos , Criança , Resistência a Medicamentos , Haemophilus influenzae , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4379-4386, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872622

RESUMO

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Yupingfeng Granules in the treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infection.Six Chinese and English databases were retrieved,namely CNKI,Wan Fang,VIP,CBM,PubMed and Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials of Yupingfeng Granules in the treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infection were collected and screened. According to the evaluation criteria and tools of Cochrane,the heterogeneity among the studies was analyzed,and the Meta-analysis was carried out by Rev Man 5.3 software. A total of 16 studies were included in this study,with a total sample size of 1 788 cases,including 901 cases in the experimental group and 887 cases in the control group. Among them,11 intervention measures were Yupingfeng Granules combined with Western medicine routine vs routine Western medicine,and 5 research interventions were Yupingfeng Granules combined with pidomod vs pidomod based on routine therapy. Meta-analysis showed that the total effective rate of Yupingfeng Granules combined with Western medicine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infection was better than that of Western medicine( RR= 1. 27,95%CI[1. 21,1. 34],P<0. 000 01). Based on the routine therapy,the total effective rate of Yupingfeng Granules combined with pidomod in the treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infection was better than that of pidomod( RR = 1. 23,95% CI[1. 13,1. 35],P<0. 000 01). A total of 21 cases of adverse events were reported in this study,including 6 cases in the experimental groups combined with traditional Yupingfeng Granules therapy and conventional Western medicine therapy and 15 in the control group. The adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal reactions,such as fatigue,nausea and diarrhea,which can tolerate or disappear with no impact on treatment. The incidence of adverse events in the two groups was not statistically significant( RR = 0. 44,95% CI[0. 19,1. 03],P = 0. 06). The results showed no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups during treatment. Based on the routine therapy,no adverse event was reported in Yupingfeng Granules pidomod vs pidomod,indicating that both groups were safe. The analysis showed that Yupingfeng Granules combined with routine Western medicine therapy or combined with pidomod could increase the level of immunoglobulin and T lymphocytes in children. Based on the existing data and methods,Yupingfeng Granules combined with routine Western medicine therapy for recurrent respiratory tract infection can improve the total effective rate,immune function and body immunity,with no serious adverse reaction. However,because of the low quality of the literatures included in this study,it is still necessary to adopt well-designed large-sample clinical trials in conformity to international standards to improve the quality of evidence.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 975, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current evidence of extra length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) scarcely takes time-dependent bias into consideration. Plus, limited evidences were from developing countries. We aim to estimate the extra LOS and risk factors of mortality attributable to HCAI for inpatients. METHODS: Multi-state model (MSM) was adopted to estimate the extra LOS attributable to HCAI of each type and subgroup. COX regression model was used to examine the risk of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 51,691 inpatients were included and 1709 (3.31%) among them developed HCAI. Lower respiratory tract infection and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most prevalent HCAI and causative pathogen in surveyed institute. Generally, the expected extra LOS attributable to HCAI was 2.56 days (95% confidence interval: 2.54-2.61). Patients below 65 had extra LOS attributable to HCAI longer about 2 days than those above. The extra LOS attributable to HCAI of male patients was 1.33 days longer than female. Meanwhile, age above 65 years old and HCAI were the risk factors of mortality for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: HCAI contributes to an increase in extra LOS of inpatients in China. The effect of HCAI on extra LOS is different among subgroups, with the age below 65, male and medicine department more sensitive.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Tempo de Internação , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 976, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing pneumonia can be challenging in general practice but is essential to distinguish from other respiratory tract infections because of treatment choice and outcome prediction. We determined predictive signs, symptoms and biomarkers for the presence of pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory tract infection in primary care. METHODS: From March 2012 until May 2016 we did a prospective observational cohort study in three radiology departments in the Leiden-The Hague area, The Netherlands. From adult patients we collected clinical characteristics and biomarkers, chest X ray results and outcome. To assess the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin and midregional pro-adrenomedullin for pneumonia, univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were used to determine risk factors and to develop a prediction model. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were included of whom 30 (12%) displayed a consolidation on chest X ray. Absence of runny nose and whether or not a patient felt ill were independent predictors for pneumonia. CRP predicts pneumonia better than the other biomarkers but adding CRP to the clinical model did not improve classification (- 4%); however, CRP helped guidance of the decision which patients should be given antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Adding CRP measurements to a clinical model in selected patients with an acute respiratory infection does not improve prediction of pneumonia, but does help in giving guidance on which patients to treat with antibiotics. Our findings put the use of biomarkers and chest X ray in diagnosing pneumonia and for treatment decisions into some perspective for general practitioners.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
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