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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 37-42, dic.2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117898

RESUMO

Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento que poseen las madres sobre los signos de alarma de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en niños menores de 5 años que asistieron al Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga durante el mes de noviembre 2019, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 37 madres las cuales se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 29,2 ± 7,3 años, solteras (43,2%), con secundaria completa (27%) y empleadas (40,5%). El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue de 15,3 ± 6,2 meses, con predominio del sexo masculino (54%); durante el último año, 45,9% registraron entre 2-3 episodios de IRA. Sobre el nivel de conocimiento global de las madres en relación a los signos de alarma de las IRA se evidenció que en el 56,7% de las madres el nivel era regular. El nivel de conocimiento para las causas de las IRA fue insuficiente en el 48,6% de los casos. En relación a los signos de alarma de IRA identificadas por parte de las madres fueron, en orden de frecuencia, dificultad para respirar (91,8%), fiebre (81%), rechazo al alimento (78,3%) y respiración ruidosa (75,6%). En conclusión, es evidente que la mayoría de las madres conoce los principales signos de alarma de las IRA sin embargo se deben establecer estrategias de intervención destinadas a mejorar su conocimiento con el fin de que las madres reconozcan tempranamente los signos de alarma y por ende busquen atención en el momento oportuno(AU)


With the objective of determining the level of knowledge that mothers have about warning signs of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under 5 years of age who attended the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga (November, 2019), a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with 37 mothers with an average age of 29.2 ± 7.3 years, 43.2% were single, with completed secondary school (27%) and employed (40.5%). Average age of patients was 15.3 ± 6.2 months with male predominance (54%); during the previous year, 45.9% had between 2-3 episodes of ARI. Level of knowledge of mothers about global warning signs of ARI was regular in 56.76% of cases. Regarding causes of ARI, level of knowledge was insufficient in 48.6% of mothers. Warning signs of ARI identified by the mothers were, in order of frequency, difficulty in breathing (91.8%), fever (81%), food rejection (78.3%) and loud breathing loud (75.6%). In conclusion, it is clear that most mothers know the main warning signs of ARI however intervention strategies should be established to improve knowledge in order for mothers to recognize early warning signs and therefore seek attention in a timely manner(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Doenças Respiratórias , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Sinais e Sintomas , Hospitais Pediátricos , Pediatria , Doença Aguda , Febre
2.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 40-43, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140932

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to summarize data on modern antibiotic therapy for acute sinusitis, the role and place of topical antibacterial drugs, in particular Fluimucil-Antibiotic, in modern treatment strategies for this disease. METHODS: Search in the PUBMED electronic database (articles and related abstracts) for the keywords «acute sinusitis", «antibiotics¼, «thiamphenicol glycinate acetylcysteine¼ «biofilm¼, «respiratory tract infection¼, «N-acetylcysteine¼. RESULTS: The published research results indicate the high antibacterial activity of the Fluimucil-Antibiotic, in particular, for the topical drug use in the form of inhalations, applications, irrigation, and instillations. The published research results indicate a wide spectrum of antimicrobial action of Fluimucil-Antibiotic, its ability to destroy biofilms and prevent their formation, good pharmacokinetics, safety, which makes it possible to consider it as a potential treatment option for acute sinusitis in everyday practice.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Sinusite , Acetilcisteína , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 159-165, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel plays an important role in the prevention of acute respiratory infections in hospital settings. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to establish the level of knowledge about respiratory virus infections and the attitudes and practices among healthcare workers, leaders of infection control committees in hospitals of Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a self-administered questionnaire of 28 items during the monthly meeting sponsored by the local health authority. "Yes or no" and "true or false" questions were applied to measure knowledge. Attitudes and practices were measured with a Likert-type scale according to the agreement degree. RESULTS: We surveyed 70 healthcare workers. Respondents demonstrated a good level of knowledge as 80% of them answered correctly more than five questions. A total of 54.4% showed a low degree of agreement when asked if their institutions have the policy to stay home when they are sick with respiratory symptoms and 67.1% never or rarely remain at home under such conditions. CONCLUSION: Healthcare worker leaders of infection control committees in Bogotá's ospitals have adequate knowledge about the prevention of seasonal respiratory viruses. There is a need for implementing urgent sick leave policies as a measure to prevent the spread of potential coronavirus infections in hospitals.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Licença Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 57-60, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140935

RESUMO

Acute respiratory infections (ORI) consistently occupy one of the leading places among infectious and inflammatory diseases in children. Most often, antibacterial drugs are used to stop the inflammatory process in the pharynx. Cationic peptides have an extremely broad antimicrobial spectrum, rendering the effect not only in bacterial infections and mycoses, and protozoans. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To demonstrate that the test drug is effective and safe for the treatment of acute viral pharyngitis in childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from September 2019 to January 2020, 120 patients aged 6 to 18 years were treated with the drug «Doritricin¼ for viral pharyngitis. RESULTS: According to the research results it can be concluded that «Diretrizes¼ provides fast and high effect in pediatric practice.


Assuntos
Faringite , Infecções Respiratórias , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Peptídeos , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringe , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The advent of genome amplification assays has allowed description of new respiratory viruses and to reconsider the role played by certain respiratory viruses in bronchiolitis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was initiated to clarify the prevalence of respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic era. METHODS: We performed an electronic search through Pubmed and Global Index Medicus databases. We included observational studies reporting the detection rate of common respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis using molecular assays. Data was extracted and the quality of the included articles was assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroups, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effect model. RESULTS: The final meta-analysis included 51 studies. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was largely the most commonly detected virus 59.2%; 95% CI [54.7; 63.6]). The second predominant virus was Rhinovirus (RV) 19.3%; 95% CI [16.7; 22.0]) followed by Human bocavirus (HBoV) 8.2%; 95% CI [5.7; 11.2]). Other reported viruses included Human Adenovirus (HAdV) 6.1%; 95% CI [4.4; 8.0]), Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) 5.4%; 95% CI [4.4; 6.4]), Human Parainfluenzavirus (HPIV) 5.4%; 95% CI [3.8; 7.3]), Influenza 3.2%; 95% CI [2.2; 4.3], Human Coronavirus (HCoV) 2.9%; 95% CI [2.0; 4.0]), and Enterovirus (EV) 2.9%; 95% CI [1.6; 4.5]). HRSV was the predominant virus involved in multiple detection and most codetections were HRSV + RV 7.1%, 95% CI [4.6; 9.9]) and HRSV + HBoV 4.5%, 95% CI [2.4; 7.3]). CONCLUSIONS: The present study has shown that HRSV is the main cause of bronchiolitis in children, we also have Rhinovirus, and Bocavirus which also play a significant role. Data on the role played by SARS-CoV-2 in children with acute bronchiolitis is needed. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018116067.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Feminino , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137167

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. Rapidly distinguishing COVID-19 from other respiratory infections is a challenge for first-line health care providers. This retrospective study was conducted at the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Patients who visited the outdoor epidemic prevention screening station for respiratory infection from February 19 to April 30, 2020, were evaluated for blood biomarkers to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. Monocyte distribution width (MDW) ≥ 20 (odds ratio [OR]: 8.39, p = 0.0110, area under curve [AUC]: 0.703) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) < 3.2 (OR: 4.23, p = 0.0494, AUC: 0.673) could independently distinguish COVID-19 from common upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Combining MDW ≥ 20 and NLR < 3.2 was more efficient in identifying COVID-19 (AUC: 0.840). Moreover, MDW ≥ 20 and NLR > 5 effectively identified influenza infection (AUC: 0.7055). Thus, MDW and NLR can distinguish COVID-19 from influenza and URIs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Curva ROC , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously published primers and probes of the TaqMan array card (TAC) for respiratory pathogens are not sensitive to Chinese clinical specimens. This study aimed to develop and improve the TAC assay to detect 28 respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens in a Chinese population. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity, we redesigned the primers and probes, and labeled the probes with minor groove binders. The amplification efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the primers and probes were determined using target-gene containing standard plasmids. The detection performance of the TAC was evaluated on 754 clinical specimens and the results were compared with those from conventional methods. RESULTS: The performance of the TAC assay was evaluated using 754 clinical throat swab samples and the results were compared with those from gold-standard methods. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.4 and 96.6%, respectively. The lowest detection limit of the TAC was 10 to 100 copies/µL. CONCLUSIONS: TAC is an efficient, accurate, and high-throughput approach to detecting multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously and is a promising tool for the identification of pathogen outbreaks.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Vírus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Primers do DNA , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses (RVs) is a common cause of illness in people of all ages, at present, different types of sampling methods are available for respiratory viral diagnosis. However, the diversity of available sampling methods and the limited direct comparisons in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) make decision-making difficult. We did a network meta-analysis, which accounted for both direct and indirect comparisons, to determine the detection rate of different sampling methods for RVs. METHODS: Relevant articles were retrieved comprehensively by searching the online databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane published before 25 March 2020. With the help of R V.3.6.3 software and 'GeMTC V.0.8.2' package, network meta-analysis was performed within a Bayesian framework. Node-splitting method and I 2 test combined leverage graphs and Gelman-Rubin-Brooks plots were conducted to evaluate the model's accuracy. The rank probabilities in direct and cumulative rank plots were also incorporated to rank the corresponding sampling methods for overall and specific virus. RESULTS: 16 sampling methods with 54 438 samples from 57 literatures were ultimately involved in this study. The model indicated good consistency and convergence but high heterogeneity, hence, random-effect analysis was applied. The top three sampling methods for RVs were nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), mid-turbinate swab (MTS) and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). Despite certain differences, the results of virus-specific subanalysis were basically consistent with RVs: MTS, NPW and NPS for influenza; MTS, NPS and NPW for influenza-a and b; saliva, NPW and NPS for rhinovirus and parainfluenza; NPW, MTS and nasopharyngeal aspirate for respiratory syncytial virus; saliva, NPW and MTS for adenovirus and sputum; MTS and NPS for coronavirus. CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis provides supporting evidences that NPW, MTS and NPS have higher diagnostic value regarding RVs infection, moreover, particular preferred methods should be considered in terms of specific virus pandemic. Of course, subsequent RCTs with larger samples are required to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede
10.
Clin Lab Med ; 40(4): 459-472, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121615

RESUMO

Endemic species of coronavirus (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract infections. Three highly pathogenic coronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks and epidemics and have challenged clinical microbiology laboratories to quickly develop assays for diagnosis. Their initial characterization was achieved by molecular methods. With the great advance in metagenomic whole-genome sequencing directly from clinical specimens, diagnosis of novel coronaviruses could be quickly implemented into the workflow of managing cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, which will markedly affect the time of the initial characterization and accelerate the initiation of outbreak control measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(700): 528-529, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122266
12.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105830

RESUMO

Inflammation is a biological response to the activation of the immune system by various infectious or non-infectious agents, which may lead to tissue damage and various diseases. Gut commensal bacteria maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host and display a critical function in the homeostasis of the host immune system. Disturbance to the gut microbiota leads to immune dysfunction both locally and at distant sites, which causes inflammatory conditions not only in the intestine but also in the other organs such as lungs and brain, and may induce a disease state. Probiotics are well known to reinforce immunity and counteract inflammation by restoring symbiosis within the gut microbiota. As a result, probiotics protect against various diseases, including respiratory infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. A growing body of research supports the beneficial role of probiotics in lung and mental health through modulating the gut-lung and gut-brain axes. In the current paper, we discuss the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of viral respiratory infections, including the COVID-19 disease, as major public health crisis in 2020, and influenza virus infection, as well as treatment of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22748, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080738

RESUMO

To compare clinical features and outcomes between early and late onset of neonatal bacterial meningitis (NBM).Patients were allocated in 2 groups: early onset neonatal bacterial meningitis (ENBM) and late onset neonatal bacterial meningitis (LNBM). Data analysis includes asphyxia at birth, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), amnionitis, amniotic fluid contamination, maternal age, clinical manifestations of the patients, laboratory findings, radiological results, complications related to meningitis, duration of hospitalization and therapeutic effect.There was no difference in gender, birth weight, gestational age, and incidence of asphyxia between 2 groups. The incidence of PROM, chorioamnionitis and amniotic fluid contamination, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia, and the protein level of cerebrospinal fluid in ENBM group were higher than that in LNBM group (P < .05); the proportion of fever, elevated C-reaction protein and the abnormal of platelet counts in LNBM group was higher than that in ENBM group (P < .05). There was no difference in the incidence of complications and hospitalization time between 2 groups. The rate of effective treatment in LNBM group was significantly higher than that in ENBM group (P < .05).Patients with conditions of amniotic fluid contamination, chorioamnionitis, small-for-gestational-age and PROM might be more prone to develop ENBM and ENBM had worse outcomes than LNBM.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteínas do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/análise , China/epidemiologia , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/terapia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo
14.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4270, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012885

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 disease pandemic is a health emergency. Older people and those with chronic noncommunicable diseases are more likely to develop serious illnesses, require ventilatory support, and die from complications. Objective: To establish deaths from respiratory infections and some chronic non-communicable diseases that occurred in Cali, before the SARS-CoV-2 disease pandemic. Methods: During the 2003-2019 period, 207,261 deaths were registered according to the general mortality database of the Municipal Secretary of Health of Cali. Deaths were coded with the International Classification of Diseases and causes of death were grouped according to WHO guidelines. Rates were standardized by age and are expressed per 100,000 people-year. Results: A direct relationship was observed between aging and mortality from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases. Age-specific mortality rates were highest in those older than 80 years for all diseases evaluated. Seasonal variation was evident in respiratory diseases in the elderly. Comments: Estimates of mortality rates from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases in Cali provide the baseline that will serve as a comparison to estimate the excess mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health authorities and decision makers should be guided by reliable estimates of mortality and of the proportion of infected people who die from SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 234-239, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087618

RESUMO

Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs) are among the top reasons for visiting a General Practitioner (GP) and the main cause of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. Reducing inappropriate use is essential to decrease antibiotic resistance and adverse events. The goal of the Eurostars project "Respiotic" is to develop a new point-of-care (POC) platform based on the centrifugal microfluidic LabDisk that will detect the main responsible viruses and bacteria for community-acquired RTIs, including associated resistances and host biomarkers. The diagnostic platform will use a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and an immunoassay cartridge on the same instrument and provide the combined analysis within less than 1 h. An electronic clinical algorithm will co-assess the test results and act as a decision support tool for the GPs' patient management and prescriptions.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Infecções Respiratórias , Algoritmos , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prescrições , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico
16.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092041

RESUMO

Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, reducing the impact of infections. Several vitamins and trace elements play an important role in supporting the cells of the immune system, thus increasing the resistance to infections. Other nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, help sustain optimal function of the immune system. The main aim of this manuscript is to discuss of the potential role of micronutrients supplementation in supporting immunity, particularly against respiratory virus infections. Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections. Supplementation should be in addition to a healthy diet and fall within recommended upper safety limits set by scientific expert bodies. Therefore, implementing an optimal nutrition, with micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, might be a cost-effective, underestimated strategy to help reduce the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 690, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From early 2009, the Dutch region of South Limburg experienced a massive outbreak of Q fever, overlapping with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic during the second half of the year and affecting approximately 2.9% of a 300,000 population. Acute Q fever shares clinical features with other respiratory conditions. Most symptomatic acute infections are characterized by mild symptoms, or an isolated febrile syndrome. Pneumonia was present in a majority of hospitalized patients during the Dutch 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic. Early empiric doxycycline, guided by signs and symptoms and patient history, should not be delayed awaiting laboratory confirmation, as it may shorten disease and prevent progression to focalized persistent Q fever. We assessed signs' and symptoms' association with acute Q fever to guide early empiric treatment in primary care patients. METHODS: In response to the outbreak, regional primary care physicians and hospital-based medical specialists tested a total of 1218 subjects for Q fever. Testing activity was bimodal, a first "wave" lasting from March to December 2009, followed by a second "wave" which lasted into 2010 and coincided with peak pandemic influenza activity. We approached all 253 notified acute Q fever cases and a random sample of 457 Q fever negative individuals for signs and symptoms of disease. Using data from 140/229(61.1%) Q fever positive and 194/391(49.6%) Q fever negative respondents from wave 1, we built symptom-based models predictive of Q-fever outcome, validated against subsets of data from wave 1 and wave 2. RESULTS: Our models had poor to moderate AUC scores (0.68 to 0.72%), with low positive (4.6-8.3%), but high negative predictive values (91.7-99.5%). Male sex, fever, and pneumonia were strong positive predictors, while cough was a strong negative predictor of acute Q fever in these models. CONCLUSION: Whereas signs and symptoms of disease do not appear to predict acute Q fever, they may help rule it out in favour of other respiratory conditions, prompting a delayed or non-prescribing approach instead of early empiric doxycycline in primary care patients with non-severe presentations. Signs and symptoms thus may help reduce the overuse of antibiotics in primary care during and following outbreaks of Q fever.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Febre Q/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Q/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. METHODS: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. RESULTS: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
20.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 478-483, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880558

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous countries worldwide declared national states of emergency and implemented interventions to minimise the risk of transmission among the public. Evidence was needed to inform strategies for limiting COVID-19 transmission on public transport. On 20 March 2020, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's database of 'Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)' to conduct a rapid review on interventions that reduce viral transmission on public ground transport. After screening 74 records, we identified 4 eligible studies. These studies suggest an increased risk of viral transmission with public transportation use that may be reduced with improved ventilation. International and national guidelines suggest the following strategies: keep the public informed, stay at home when sick, and minimise public transport use. Where use is unavoidable, environmental control, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene are recommended, while a risk-based approach needs to guide the use of non-medical masks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Transportes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Ventilação
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