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1.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(9): 554-560, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe infection in companion animals with the zoonotic pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and to determine its prevalence in clinically-affected and healthy animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical presentation and treatment of three cases of C. ulcerans infection is described. Two studies to determine C. ulcerans prevalence rates were undertaken: (a) a prospective study of nasal samples from healthy animals, 479 dogs and 72 cats; (b) a retrospective analysis of records of nasal samples collected over a 10-year period from 189 dogs and 64 cats affected by respiratory signs. RESULTS: Toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from four cats with nasal discharge while concurrent C. ulcerans and mecC methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection was detected in a dog suffering from chronic nasal discharge. Clinical features were not distinctive and all cases recovered following antimicrobial treatment. Multilocus sequence typing supported a common source for isolates from the shelter cats. Carriage rates of C. ulcerans in healthy animals were 0.42% (2/479) in dogs and 0.00% (0/72) in cats whereas in animals with signs of upper respiratory tract infection prevalence rates were 0.53% (1/189) in dogs and 6.25% (4/64) in cats. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should be aware that dogs and cats can be infected with (or carriers of) toxigenic C. ulcerans Considering the potential zoonotic risk, assistance from medical and public health colleagues should be sought in confirmed cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Corynebacterium , Doenças do Cão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Corynebacterium , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 285: 109215, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862125

RESUMO

Feline lungworms such as Aerulostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-borne pathogens causing respiratory disease in domestic cats. Paratenic hosts such as rodents and reptiles have also been implicated in the epidemiology of these parasites. Although A. abstrusus has been recognized for a long time as the most prevalent lungworm among cats worldwide, T. brevior is of major concern in kittens. Bearing in mind that disease due to T. brevior occurs mainly in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age, the diagnosis of this parasite in two kittens presenting severe respiratory disease from the garden of one of the authors inspired us to investigate the potential routes of transmission for T. brevior in domestic cats. Of the three queens (A, B and C) that delivered kittens (n = 8), only cat A was positive for T. brevior, presenting her two kittens severe respiratory clinical signs, which lead to the exitus in one of them, 18 days of age. In addition, three kittens, the offspring of queen B, turned to be positive at the coprological examination after suckling from queen A, whereas those from queen C (that suckled only on their own mother) remained negative. A series of coprological, histological and molecular tests were conducted to confirm the presence of T. brevior in the patients as well as in the other cats cohabiting the same garden. Adult nematodes were retrieved from the trachea and bronchi of the dead kitten (kitten 1A), and larvae at the histology of the lung and liver parenchyma associated with bronco pneumonitis and lymphocytic pericholangitis, respectively. Cornu aspersum (n = 60), Eobania vermiculata (n = 30) snails (intermediate hosts) as well as lizards and rats (potential paratenic hosts) were collected from the same garden and processed through tissue digestion and molecular detection. Troglostrongylus brevior larvae were recovered through tissue digestion from two C. aspersum (3.33 %) and it was confirmed by PCR-sequencing approach, which also detected T. brevior DNA in the liver and lungs of one rat and in the coelomatic cavity of one gecko lizard. During the COVID-19 lockdown, when scientists spent more time at home, we grasp the opportunity to decipher T. brevior biology and ecology starting in a small ecological niche, such as the garden of our house. Data herein presented led us to suggest: i) the transmammary transmission of T. brevior in domestic cats; ii) the role of intermediate and paratenic hosts (including reptiles) in the epidemiology of the infection which they transmit; as well as iii) the importance of observational parasitology in studying any event that certainly occurs in small ecological niches, as it could be in our home gardens.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/parasitologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 2809-2816, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681447

RESUMO

Bovine coronaviruses are spread all over the world. They cause two types of clinical manifestations in cattle either an enteric, calf diarrhoea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, or respiratory in all age groups of cattle. The role of coronaviruses in respiratory infections is still a hot topic of discussion since they have been isolated from sick as well as healthy animals and replication of disease is rarely successful. Bovine coronavirus infection is characterised by high morbidity but low mortality. The laboratory diagnosis is typically based on serological or molecular methods. There is no registered drug for the treatment of virus infections in cattle and we are limited to supportive therapy and preventative measures. The prevention of infection is based on vaccination, biosecurity, management and hygiene. This paper will cover epidemiology, taxonomy, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, therapy, economic impact and prevention of coronavirus infections in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Bovino/fisiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/veterinária , Enterocolite Necrosante/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária
4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522830

RESUMO

Discovery of bats with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) raised the specter of potential future outbreaks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-like disease in humans, which largely went unheeded. Nevertheless, the novel SARS-CoV-2 of bat ancestral origin emerged to infect humans in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and then became a global pandemic. Less than 5 months after its emergence, millions of people worldwide have been infected asymptomatically or symptomatically and at least 360,000 have died. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severely affected patients includes atypical pneumonia characterized by a dry cough, persistent fever, and progressive dyspnea and hypoxia, sometimes accompanied by diarrhea and often followed by multiple organ failure, especially of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In this minireview, we focus on two endemic respiratory CoV infections of livestock: bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Both animal respiratory CoVs share some common features with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. BCoV has a broad host range including wild ruminants and a zoonotic potential. BCoV also has a dual tropism for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These aspects, their interspecies transmission, and certain factors that impact disease severity in cattle parallel related facets of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in humans. PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral coinfections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Coronavirus Respiratório Porcino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coronavirus Respiratório Porcino/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral
5.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414076

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , França/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Seleção Genética/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética
6.
Can Vet J ; 61(5): 517-520, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355351

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine if the administration of a modified live equine influenza virus vaccine (FluAvert) to foals would positively impact their health and reduce colonization of their upper airways with equine herpesviruses (EHV) during the weaning period. A single dose of FluAvert was given to 20 healthy foals 7 days prior to being weaned; 20 healthy foals served as unvaccinated controls. Nasal secretions and blood were collected before vaccination, the day of weaning, and weekly thereafter for 3 weeks. Nasal secretions were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for EHV-1, -2, -4 and -5. Whole blood was analyzed for a complete blood cell count and fibrinogen concentration. Physical assessments were made daily. The use of FluAvert was associated with a better clinical outcome. However, the equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine did not influence selected hematological parameters and kinetics of herpesviruses. The clinical benefit observed in vaccinates may explain the perception that the EIV vaccine induces cross-protection against respiratory agents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Cavalos
7.
J Comp Pathol ; 176: 86-108, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359641

RESUMO

The canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is an endemic worldwide syndrome involving multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Traditionally, Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) were considered the major causative agents. Lately, new pathogens have been implicated in the development of CIRDC, namely canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. To better understand the role of the different pathogens in the development of CIRDC and their epidemiological relevance in Europe, prevalence data were collected from peer-reviewed publications and summarized. Evidence of exposure to Bb is frequently found in healthy and diseased dogs and client-owned dogs are as likely to be infected as kennelled dogs. Co-infections with viral pathogens are common. The findings confirm that Bb is an important cause of CIRDC in Europe. CAV-2 and CDV recovery rates from healthy and diseased dogs are low and the most likely explanation for this is control through vaccination. Seroconversion to CHV can be demonstrated following CIRDC outbreaks and CHV has been detected in the lower respiratory tract of diseased dogs. There is some evidence that CHV is not a primary cause of CIRDC, but opportunistically re-activates at the time of infection and exacerbates the disease. The currently available data suggest that CIV is, at present, neither a prevalent nor a significant pathogen in Europe. CPiV remains an important pathogen in CIRDC and facilitates co-infection with other viral and bacterial pathogens. CnPnV and CRCoV are important new elements in the aetiology of CIRDC and spread particularly well in multi-dog establishments. M. cynos is common in Europe and is more likely to occur in younger and kennelled dogs. This organism is frequently found together with other CIRDC pathogens and is significantly associated with more severe respiratory signs. S. zooepidemicus infection is not common and appears to be a particular problem in kennels. Protective immunity against respiratory diseases is rarely complete, and generally only a reduction in clinical signs and excretion of pathogen can be achieved through vaccination. However, even vaccines that only reduce and do not prevent infection carry epidemiological advantages. They reduce spread, increase herd immunity and decrease usage of antimicrobials. Recommending vaccination of dogs against pathogens of CIRDC will directly provide epidemiological advantages to the population and the individual dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Prevalência
8.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 71: 101494, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434101

RESUMO

The etiological agents involved in a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreak were investigated in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit from southern Brazil. A battery of PCR assays was performed to detect the most common viruses and bacteria associated with BRD, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from 21 heifer calves (symptomatic n = 15; asymptomatic n = 6) that, during the occurrence of the BDR outbreak, were aged between 6 and 90 days. At least one microorganism was detected in 85.7 % (18/21) of the BALF samples. Mixed infections were more frequent (72.2 %) than single infections (27.7 %). The interactions between viruses and bacteria were the most common in coinfections (55.5 %). The frequencies of BRD agents were 38.1 % for BRSV, 28.6 % for BVDV, 33.3 % for BCoV, 42.85 % for P. multocida, 33.3 % for M. bovis, and 19 % for H. somni. BoHV-1, BPIV-3, and M. haemolytica were not identified in any of the 21 BALF samples. Considering that BALF and not nasal swabs were analyzed, these results demonstrate the etiological multiplicity that may be involved in BRD outbreaks in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(6): 726-730, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269197

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an etiological agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide; thus, epidemiological surveys of BCoV are important. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of BCoV in respiratory-diseased and healthy cattle in Japan from 2016 to 2018. We found that 21.2% (58/273) of the respiratory-diseased cattle were infected with BCoV. The respiratory-diseased cattle had virus amounts 4.7 times higher than those in the asymptomatic cattle. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the BCoV identified in Japan after 2005 formed an individual lineage that was distinct from the strains found in other countries. These results suggest that BCoV is epidemic and has evolved uniquely in Japan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Japão , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
11.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 46, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209128

RESUMO

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a pathogen involved in canine infectious respiratory disease complex, can be confirmed using culture or qPCR. Studies about the canine lung microbiota (LM) are recent, sparse, and only one paper has been published in canine lung infection. In this study, we aimed to compare the LM between Bb infected and healthy dogs, and to correlate sequencing with culture and qPCR results. Twenty Bb infected dogs diagnosed either by qPCR and/or culture and 4 healthy dogs were included. qPCR for Mycoplasma cynos (Mc) were also available in 18 diseased and all healthy dogs. Sequencing results, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after DNA extraction, PCR targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing, showed the presence of Bb in all diseased dogs, about half being co-infected with Mc. In diseased compared with healthy dogs, the ß-diversity changed (P = 0.0024); bacterial richness and α-diversity were lower (P = 0.012 and 0.0061), and bacterial load higher (P = 0.004). Bb qPCR classes and culture results correlated with the abundance of Bb (r = 0.71, P < 0.001 and r = 0.70, P = 0.0022). Mc qPCR classes also correlated with the abundance of Mc (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Bb infection induced lung dysbiosis, characterized by high bacterial load, low richness and diversity and increased abundance of Bb, compared with healthy dogs. Sequencing results highly correlate with qPCR and culture results showing that sequencing can be reliable to identify microorganisms involved in lung infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Bordetella/veterinária , Bordetella bronchiseptica/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Bordetella/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cães , Microbiota , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
12.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 87-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145836

RESUMO

Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Asma/veterinária , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e30, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066511

RESUMO

The prevalence of many diseases in pigs displays seasonal distributions. Despite growing concerns about the impacts of climate change, we do not yet have a good understanding of the role that weather factors play in explaining such seasonal patterns. In this study, national and county-level aggregated abattoir inspection data were assessed for England and Wales during 2010-2015. Seasonally-adjusted relationships were characterised between weekly ambient maximum temperature and the prevalence of both respiratory conditions and tail biting detected at slaughter. The prevalence of respiratory conditions showed cyclical annual patterns with peaks in the summer months and troughs in the winter months each year. However, there were no obvious associations with either high or low temperatures. The prevalence of tail biting generally increased as temperatures decreased, but associations were not supported by statistical evidence: across all counties there was a relative risk of 1.028 (95% CI 0.776-1.363) for every 1 °C fall in temperature. Whilst the seasonal patterns observed in this study are similar to those reported in previous studies, the lack of statistical evidence for an explicit association with ambient temperature may possibly be explained by the lack of information on date of disease onset. There is also the possibility that other time-varying factors not investigated here may be driving some of the seasonal patterns.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Exposição Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos , Temperatura , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Medição de Risco , País de Gales/epidemiologia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2556-2566, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954585

RESUMO

Respiratory tract infections (bovine respiratory disease) are a major concern in calf rearing. The objective of this study was to identify pathogen-specific risk factors associated with epidemic respiratory disease in calves. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 128 outbreaks (29 dairy, 58 dairy-mixed, and 41 beef) in Belgium (2016-2018). A semiquantitative PCR for 7 respiratory pathogens was done on a pooled nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage sample for each herd. Potential risk factors were collected by questionnaire and derived from the national cattle registration databank. Most outbreaks occurred between October and March, and single and multiple viral infections were detected in 58.6% (75/128) and 13.3% (17/128), respectively. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) was the most frequently isolated virus (38.4%), followed by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV; 29.4%) and parainfluenzavirus type 3 (PI-3; 8.1%). Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni were detected in 33.3, 41.2, 89.1, and 36.4% of the herds, respectively. Specific risk factors for BCV detection were detection of M. haemolytica [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-7.5)], increasing herd size [OR = 1.3 (1.0-1.8) for each increase with 100 animals] and detection of BCV by antigen ELISA on feces in calves in the last year [OR = 3.6 (1.2-11.1)]. A seasonal effect was shown for bRSV only {more in winter compared with autumn [OR = 10.3 (2.8-37.5)]}. Other factors associated with bRSV were PI-3 detection [OR = 13.4 (2.1-86.0)], prevalence of calves with respiratory disease [OR = 1.02 (1.00-1.04) per 1% increase], and number of days with respiratory signs before sampling [OR = 0.99 (0.98-0.99) per day increase]. Next to its association with BCV, M. haemolytica was more frequently detected in herds with 5 to 10 animals per pen [OR = 8.0 (1.4-46.9)] compared with <5 animals, and in herds with sawdust as bedding [OR = 18.3 (1.8-191.6)]. Also, for H. somni, housing on sawdust was a risk factor [OR = 5.2 (1.2-23.0)]. Purchase of cattle [OR = 2.9 (1.0-8.0)] and housing of recently purchased animals in the same airspace [OR = 5.0 (1.5-16.5)] were risk factors for M. bovis. This study identified pathogen-specific risk factors that might be useful for the development of customized control and prevention and for the design of decision support tools to justify antimicrobial use by predicting the most likely pathogen before sampling results are available.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Comp Pathol ; 174: 1-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955794

RESUMO

Pulmonary mycosis secondary to enterocolitis is an uncommon diagnosis in equine medicine, but is thought to result from mucosal compromise and translocation of enteric fungi. The aetiological agent associated with translocation is often identified based on fungal culture or hyphal features in histological sections. In order to understand better the aetiological agents involved, six horses diagnosed with Salmonella enteritis and concurrent pulmonary mycosis were identified retrospectively through a database search of veterinary teaching hospital records. Samples from these cases were subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) located between the 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes to identify the aetiological agent involved. Sequencing identified Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Curvularia spp. A single case had a dual infection with Fusarium spp. and A. fumigatus.


Assuntos
Enterocolite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/complicações , Animais , Enterocolite/complicações , Cavalos , Micoses/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108478, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902491

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown an increase in antimicrobial-resistant bovine respiratory disease (BRD) pathogens. To investigate the origin of antimicrobial resistance in the respiratory microbiota of beef cattle, three groups (A, B, or C) of 40 calves sourced from different calf-ranches were sampled by deep nasopharyngeal swab (DNS) at the time of first on-ranch vaccination (Time point 1, T1), feedlot entry (Time point 2, T2), and 40 days after feedlot entry (Time point 3, T3; feedlots differed by group). Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni were isolated from DNS samples, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial resistance genes [tet(H), tet(W), and sul2] were also quantified in DNS metagenomic DNA using PCR. Prevalence of calves positive for BRD pathogens differed among groups and time-points but P. multocida was the most prevalent (61% of calves positive, at least, at one timepoint), followed by M. haemolytica (48%) and H. somni (26%). Most M. haemolytica were susceptible to all antimicrobials (88.6%; n = 70). For P. multocida, the dominant resistance phenotype was against oxytetracycline and neomycin (35.8%). Resistant P. multocida isolates were mainly detected in group C at T3 and had the same PFGE profile. For H. somni, the dominant resistance phenotype was against neomycin (63.3%) and was only observed at T3. The abundance of tet(W) did not change significantly over time (P > 0.05). Abundances of tet(H) and sul2 only increased for group C at T3 (P < 0.05). Overall, this study showed that resistance in the respiratory microbiota of beef calves can increase from calf-ranch to feedlot however, the results can vary by calf-ranch and feedlot.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Canadá/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Gado/microbiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Metagenômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Manejo de Espécimes
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1012-1015, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926539

RESUMO

Adenoviruses have been reported to affect a broad range of host species, tend to be species specific, and often affect the respiratory system. This report describes the isolation of an adenovirus from deep nasal swabs of two wild North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) with respiratory diseases that presented to a wildlife hospital. Partial sequences of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase gene of the isolated virus were identical to skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), also known as pygmy marmoset adenovirus. Both porcupines survived and were released back to the wild after successful medical treatment and rehabilitation. The significance of the adenovirus isolated from these porcupines is unknown; however, this is the first report of an adenovirus in porcupines, and the first report of SkAdV-1 in a rodent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenoviridae/classificação , Porcos-Espinhos , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enterobacter hormaechei from foxes and piglets. Here, the Enterobacter hormaechei was first found to be associated with respiratory disease in unweaned calves in China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-month-old calf was severely sick and diagnosed with respiratory infection by a rural veterinarian, and it died 5 days after treatment with penicillin G. The lung sample was then run through histopathological analysis and pathogen isolation. The sequence analysis and biochemical tests results showed the isolated bacterium strain to be Enterobacter hormaechei, and drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to all ß-lactam antimicrobials and sensitivity to quinolones. Thickened alveoli septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythrocyte diapedesis around the pulmonary alveoli septum were visible in lung histopathological sections. One week later, at the same farm, another calf showed similar clinical signs, and the Enterobacter hormaechei strain was isolated from its nasal discharge; after a week of treatment with enrofloxacin, as suggested by the results of drug sensitivity tests, this calf fully recovered. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of calves with respiratory disease that was associated with E. hormaechei, and multi-drug resistance was observed in isolates.


Assuntos
Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , China , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
20.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 74-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545656

RESUMO

Infection of wild red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica by Cryptosporidium baileyi was first diagnosed in 2010. Within three years, signs of infection were reported from grouse on half of all grouse moors in northern England, bringing severe concerns of economic losses to grouse shooting. A total of 45,914 red grouse shot from 10 moors in northern England between 2013 and 2018 were visually screened for signs of respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Prevalence varied with age, being twice as high in juveniles (4.5%) as in adults (2.4%). It also varied nine-fold between moors and three-fold between years. Prevalence was highest in grouse shot later in the shooting season. Our results are consistent with the concept that disease incidence is highest in naïve juveniles that have previously not been exposed to infection, with prevalence dropping as birds develop immunity. We found no evidence of increased prevalence over time, and fears of escalated disease prevalence, bringing with it increased mortality and lowered productivity, that may have significant impacts on the economic viability of shoots, have not yet been realized. We recommend continued annual screening for clinical signs amongst shot birds, better hygiene associated with potential reservoirs of infection, and practices that both improve the detection and selective culling of diseased individuals and generally reduce overall grouse densities.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/parasitologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
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