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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1906-1911, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058575

RESUMO

Cephalosporins belong to the betalactam group and are frequently prescribed in both out and inpatient settings. Their broad spectrum of activity allows a varied use in most medical specialties, ranging from preoperative prophylaxis to treatment of febrile agranulocytosis. There are currently five generations of cephalosporins, mainly differentiated according to their structure, spectrum of activity and side-effect profile. So-called siderophore cephalosporins are active against many multiresistant bacteria, especially in cases of complicated urinary tract infections or ventilator-associated pneumonia. This article intends to review some general clinical principles in prescription and monitoring of patients treated with cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Prescrições , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 673, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. Understanding the characteristics of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a particular setting can provide evidence for the appropriate management of cases. This study aimed to assess the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factors among clinically suspected children attending at Felege-Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February-April, 2019. A systematic sampling technique was employed. A mid-stream urine sample was inoculated on cystine lactose electrolyte deficient media and incubated for 24-48 h. Sub-culturing was done on Mac-Conkey and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on Muller-Hinton agar. A binary logistic regression model was used to see the association between dependent and independent factors. A p-value< 0.05 at 95% CI was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 16.7% (95% CI 12.4-21.1). Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered with a rate of 44/50 (88%) and 6/50 (12%) respectively. Among Gram-negative isolates, E. coli 28/44(63.6%) was predominant while S. saprophyticus 2/6(33.3%) was prevalent among Gram-positive bacterial isolates. Overall, a high level of resistance to ampicillin, augmentin, and tetracycline was shown by Gram-negative bacteria with a rate of 44/44(100%), 39/44(88.6%), and36/44 (81.8%) respectively. About 33/50(66%) of overall multidrug resistance was observed (95% CI 52-78). About six Gram-negative bacterial isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Having a history of urinary tract infection (P-0.003, AOR 1.86-22.15) and male uncircumcision (p-0.00, AOR 5.5-65.35) were the independent variables that associate for urinary tract infections. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the prevalence of urinary tract infection among children was high and considerably a high proportion of multidrug resistance was observed. This result will have a significant impact on the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents for the treatment of urinary tract infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000856, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941420

RESUMO

Antibiotic combination therapies are important for the efficient treatment of many types of infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Combination treatment strategies are typically used under the assumption that synergies are conserved across species and strains, even though recent results show that the combined treatment effect is determined by specific drug-strain interactions that can vary extensively and unpredictably, both between and within bacterial species. To address this problem, we present a new method in which antibiotic synergy is rapidly quantified on a case-by-case basis, allowing for improved combination therapy. The novel CombiANT methodology consists of a 3D-printed agar plate insert that produces defined diffusion landscapes of 3 antibiotics, permitting synergy quantification between all 3 antibiotic pairs with a single test. Automated image analysis yields fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICis) with high accuracy and precision. A technical validation with 3 major pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, showed equivalent performance to checkerboard methodology, with the advantage of strongly reduced assay complexity and costs for CombiANT. A synergy screening of 10 antibiotic combinations for 12 E. coli urinary tract infection (UTI) clinical isolates illustrates the need for refined combination treatment strategies. For example, combinations of trimethoprim (TMP) + nitrofurantoin (NIT) and TMP + mecillinam (MEC) showed synergy, but only for certain individual isolates, whereas MEC + NIT combinations showed antagonistic interactions across all tested strains. These data suggest that the CombiANT methodology could allow personalized clinical synergy testing and large-scale screening. We anticipate that CombiANT will greatly facilitate clinical and basic research of antibiotic synergy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Algoritmos , Andinocilina/administração & dosagem , Andinocilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Nitrofurantoína/administração & dosagem , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Trimetoprima/administração & dosagem , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
6.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(7): 634-642, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) is the current standard choice of treatment for both ureteral and adequate renal stones. Although it is known to be a safe procedure, postoperative febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) is not rare. Especially in diabetic patients, rate of urinary tract infection is higher. Therefore, we aimed to describe the risk factors for UTI following URS in diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2017and April 2019, 546 patients who under went ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral and/or renal stones were included. A matched-pair analysis was performed to compare postoperative UTI rates between diabetics and nondiabetics. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records including age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, UTI history, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), operating time, stone size and hounsfield unit (HU), preoperative hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic methods and ureteral stenting. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the risk factors for postoperative UTI in diabetics. RESULTS: In diabetic patients rate of postoperative UTI was 29% (13/45). After matched-pair analysis within the group of non-diabetics, incidence was 11% (5/44) (p=0.04). In univariate analysis, preoperative ureteral stent, UTI history and HbA1c level were the risk factors for UTI after URS in diabetics. UTI history and HbA1clevel were the independent risk factors for developing postoperative UTI in diabetic patients. HbA1c threshold 6.9% afforded 75% sensitivity and 67% specificity for predicting postoperative UTI in diabetics. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients are under greater risk to develop postoperative UTI following URS. Those patients with UTI history and HbA1c level higher than 6.9% must be followed carefully.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscopia
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003336, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has questioned the safety of delaying or withholding antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in older patients. We evaluated the association between antibiotic treatment for lower UTI and risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) in adults aged ≥65 years in primary care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed primary care records from patients aged ≥65 years in England with community-onset UTI using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2007-2015) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and census data. The primary outcome was BSI within 60 days, comparing patients treated immediately with antibiotics and those not treated immediately. Crude and adjusted associations between exposure and outcome were estimated using generalized estimating equations. A total of 147,334 patients were included representing 280,462 episodes of lower UTI. BSI occurred in 0.4% (1,025/244,963) of UTI episodes with immediate antibiotics versus 0.6% (228/35,499) of episodes without immediate antibiotics. After adjusting for patient demographics, year of consultation, comorbidities, smoking status, recent hospitalizations, recent accident and emergency (A&E) attendances, recent antibiotic prescribing, and home visits, the odds of BSI were equivalent in patients who were not treated with antibiotics immediately and those who were treated on the date of their UTI consultation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32, p-value = 0.105). Delaying or withholding antibiotics was associated with increased odds of death in the subsequent 60 days (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26, p-value < 0.001), but there was limited evidence that increased deaths were attributable to urinary-source BSI. Limitations include overlap between the categories of immediate and delayed antibiotic prescribing, residual confounding underlying differences between patients who were/were not treated with antibiotics, and lack of microbiological diagnosis for BSI. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that delaying or withholding antibiotics in older adults with suspected UTI did not increase patients' risk of BSI, in contrast with a previous study that analyzed the same dataset, but mortality was increased. Our findings highlight uncertainty around the risks of delaying or withholding antibiotic treatment, which is exacerbated by systematic differences between patients who were and were not treated immediately with antibiotics. Overall, our findings emphasize the need for improved diagnostic/risk prediction strategies to guide antibiotic prescribing for suspected UTI in older adults.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009185, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children with urinary tract infection (UTI), only those with pyelonephritis (and not cystitis) are at risk for developing long-term renal sequelae. If non-invasive biomarkers could accurately differentiate children with cystitis from children with pyelonephritis, treatment and follow-up could potentially be individualized. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to 1) determine whether procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can replace the acute DMSA scan in the diagnostic evaluation of children with UTI; 2) assess the influence of patient and study characteristics on the diagnostic accuracy of these tests, and 3) compare the performance of the three tests to each other. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, Web of Science, and BIOSIS Previews through to 17th December 2019 for this review. The reference lists of all included articles and relevant systematic reviews were searched to identify additional studies not found through the electronic search. SELECTION CRITERIA: We only considered published studies that evaluated the results of an index test (PCT, CRP, ESR) against the results of an acute-phase 99Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan (conducted within 30 days of the UTI) in children aged 0 to 18 years with a culture-confirmed episode of UTI. The following cut-off values were used for the primary analysis: 0.5 ng/mL for procalcitonin, 20 mg/L for CRP and 30 mm/hour for ESR. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently applied the selection criteria to all citations and independently abstracted data. We used the bivariate model to calculate pooled random-effects pooled sensitivity and specificity values. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 36 studies met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-five studies provided data for the primary analysis: 12 studies (1000 children) included data on PCT, 16 studies (1895 children) included data on CRP, and eight studies (1910 children) included data on ESR (some studies had data on more than one test). The summary sensitivity estimates (95% CI) for the PCT, CRP, ESR tests at the aforementioned cut-offs were 0.81 (0.67 to 0.90), 0.93 (0.86 to 0.96), and 0.83 (0.71 to 0.91), respectively. The summary specificity values for PCT, CRP, and ESR tests at these cut-offs were 0.76 (0.66 to 0.84), 0.37 (0.24 to 0.53), and 0.57 (0.41 to 0.72), respectively. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The ESR test does not appear to be sufficiently accurate to be helpful in differentiating children with cystitis from children with pyelonephritis. A low CRP value (< 20 mg/L) appears to be somewhat useful in ruling out pyelonephritis (decreasing the probability of pyelonephritis to < 20%), but unexplained heterogeneity in the data prevents us from making recommendations at this time. The procalcitonin test seems better suited for ruling in pyelonephritis, but the limited number of studies and the marked heterogeneity between studies prevents us from reaching definitive conclusions. Thus, at present, we do not find any compelling evidence to recommend the routine use of any of these tests in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina/sangue , Cistite/diagnóstico , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Pielonefrite/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Cistite/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pielonefrite/sangue , Pielonefrite/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Urinárias/sangue
9.
Maturitas ; 140: 8-13, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and vaginal atrophy (VA) in 518 women across the menopausal age span (40-55 years of age). STUDY DESIGN: Multicentre, cross-sectional study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VA was evaluated by the contemporaneous presence of a pH > 5, vaginal dryness and at least one objective sign of VA (mucosal pallor, dryness, thinning, fragility or with petechiae)., LUTS were evaluated by the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6). Sexuality was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS: Women were categorized by age: group 1, 40-45 years; group 2, 46-48 years; group 3, 49-51 years; and group 4, 52-55 years. Similar rates of recurrent urinary infection (RUI) were present in different age groups. RUI rate was related to VA (OR 1.703, 95 %CI 1.037, 2.799) and dyspareunia (OR 2.060, 95 %CI 1.199, 3.539). The rates of LUTS were also similar in the different age groups or in the presence of VA. The LUTS rate was related to dyspareunia (OR 1.971, 95 %CI 1.020, 3.808). Distress from LUTS was similar among different age groups and in the presence of VA. It was related to RUI (CR 7.187, 95 %CI 3.532, 10.841; p < 0.0001) and being an ex-smoker (CR 5.189, 95 %CI 1.425. 6.952; p < 0.007), and was inversely related to FSFI score (CR -0.314, 95 %CI -0.478, -0.149; p < 0.0002), CONCLUSIONS: In women across the menopausal age span, RUI, but not LUTS, is related to VA. The presence of LUTS is related to dyspareunia, and distress from LUTS is inversely related to sexuality. These results obtained in women across the menopausal age span are not applicable to older postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Vaginais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Atrofia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vagina/patologia
10.
Urologiia ; (4): 124-130, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897026

RESUMO

The review describes large-scale microbiological studies performed in Russia over the past 20 years to study urinary tract infections (UTIs). The article analyzes data on the structure of UTI pathogens, as well as on the antibiotic resistance of the main uropathogens, compares the data with similar foreign studies. From 1999 year, 7 large multicenter microbiological studies were carried out in Russia to obtain the data of the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens caused community-acquired UTIs. An analysis of the data allows described trends in antimicrobial resistance - high level of resistance of uropathogens to aminopenicillins, co-trimoxazole, fluoroquinolones, an increase antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin / clavulanate, and third generation cephalosporins. In review discussed a critical assessment of various approaches to the use of data on the sensitivity of uropathogens to antimicrobial drugs when antimicrobial therapy is provided. The necessity of comparing not only microbiological data obtained from different sources, but also clinical data, characteristics of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial drugs is discussed. The review discusses the difficulties associated with the clinical interpretation of data on the sensitivity of microorganisms, primarily in the limited objective information describing the correlation of in vitro data with the clinical efficacy of therapy. The publication substantiates the need for a wider conduct of not only microbiological, but also clinical studies to obtain data on the comparative efficacy of the used antimicrobial drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Federação Russa
11.
Urologiia ; (4): 131-138, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897027

RESUMO

Non-antibacterial methods of prevention and treatment of lower urinary tract infection are described in the article. The current view on the mechanism of treatment effect of D-mannose is presented, which contributes to the prevention of bacterial invasion. Pathogenetic concepts for using D-mannose as specific antiadhesin or a competitive blocker of bacterial invasion is provided. In addition, we discussed the results of basic and clinical studies, proving the efficiency of D-mannose for prevention and treatment of lower urinary tract infection.


Assuntos
Cistite , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Manose
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 203-220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949402

RESUMO

Human genital infections are one of the most concerning issues worldwide and can be categorized into sexually transmitted, urinary tract and vaginal infections. These infections, if left untreated, can disseminate to the other parts of the body and cause more complicated illnesses such as pelvic inflammatory disease, urethritis, and anogenital cancers. The effective treatment against these infections is further complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the genital infection causing pathogens. Furthermore, the development and applications of single-cell sequencing technologies have open new possibilities to study the drug resistant clones, cell to cell variations, the discovery of acquired drug resistance mutations, transcriptional diversity of a pathogen across different infection stages, to identify rare cell types and investigate different cellular states of genital infection causing pathogens, and to develop novel therapeutical strategies. In this chapter, I will provide a complete review of the applications of single-cell sequencing in human genital infections before discussing their limitations and challenges.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Infecções Urinárias/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) can often be diagnosed based solely on symptoms and should be treated with a short course of narrow spectrum antibiotics. However, clinicians often order urine analyses and prescribe long courses of broad spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study are: 1) Understand how primary care providers and residents clinically approach UTIs and 2) to understand specific opportunities, based on provider type, to target future antibiotic stewardship interventions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews of community primary care providers (n = 15) and internal medicine residents (n = 15) in St. Louis, Missouri from 2018-2019. A 5-point Likert scale was used to evaluate participant preferences for possible interventions. Interviews were transcribed, de-identified, and coded by two independent researchers using a combination inductive and deductive approach. KEY RESULTS: Several common themes emerged. Both providers and residents ordered urine tests to "confirm" presence of urinary tract infections. Antibiotic prescription decisions were often based on historical practice and anecdotal experience rather than local susceptibility data or clinical practice guidelines. Community providers were more comfortable treating patients over the phone than residents and tended to prescribe longer courses of antibiotics. Both community providers and residents voiced frustrations with guidelines being difficult to easily incorporate due to length and extraneous information. Preferences for receiving and incorporating guidelines into practice varied. Both groups felt benchmarking would improve prescribing practices but had reservations about implementation. Community providers preferred pragmatic clinical decision support systems and nurse triage algorithms. Residents preferred order sets. CONCLUSIONS: Significant opportunities exist to optimize urinary tract infection management among residents and community providers. Multifaceted interventions that include provider education, synthesis of guidelines, and pragmatic clinical decision support systems are needed to improve antibiotic prescribing and diagnostic testing; optimal interventions to improve UTI management may vary based on provider training level.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/tendências , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri , Casas de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a leading cause of health care-associated infection. Catheter insertion bundles (IBs) and maintenance bundles (MBs) have been developed to prevent CAUTIs but have not been extensively validated for use in pediatric populations. We report the CAUTI prevention efforts of a large network of children's hospitals. METHODS: Children's hospitals joined the Children's Hospitals' Solutions for Patient Safety engagement network from 2011 to 2017, using an open start time engagement approach, and elected to participate in CAUTI prevention efforts, with 26 submitting data initially and 128 at the end. CAUTI prevention recommendations were first released in May 2012, and IBs and MBs were released in May 2014. Hospitals reported on CAUTIs, patient-days, and urinary catheter-line days and tracked reliability to each bundle. For the network, run charts or control charts were used to plot CAUTI rates, urinary catheter use, and reliability to each bundle component. RESULTS: After the introduction of the pediatric CAUTI IBs and MBs, CAUTI rates across the network decreased 61.6%, from 2.55 to 0.98 infections per 1000 catheter-line days. Centerline shifts occurred both before and after the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CAUTI definition change. Urinary catheter use rates did not decline during the intervention period. Network reliability to the IBs and MBs increased to 95.4% and 86.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IBs and MBs aimed at preventing CAUTIs were introduced across a large network of children's hospitals. Across the network, the rate of urinary tract infections among hospitalized children with indwelling urinary catheters decreased 61.6%.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
15.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(3): 111-117, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191033

RESUMO

La actual pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-coronavirus tipo 2 ha generado, en pocas semanas, cambios importantes en el funcionamiento del sistema sanitario y la forma en cómo se realiza la atención a las pacientes. La patología uroginecológica afecta a la calidad de vida, pero sin riesgo vital en la mayoría de casos, por lo que suele ser demorable. Además, afecta a un alto porcentaje de mujeres > 65 años (población de riesgo ante la infección por COVID-19). En este manuscrito se resume la evidencia que existe sobre la efectividad de la telemedicina aplicada en las disfunciones de suelo pélvico, así como recomendaciones de las sociedades científicas uroginecológicas durante el estado de alarma. Describimos el abordaje de las disfunciones de suelo pélvico durante la pandemia por COVID-19 y una propuesta de cómo organizar las agendas para el diagnóstico (visitas y pruebas diagnósticas) y tratamiento (conservador, farmacológico y la cirugía) en el período interpandemia y en el futuro


The current SARS-coronavirus type 2 pandemic caused, in few weeks, important changes in the health system organization and in the way we attend the patients. Urogynaecological diseases affect quality of life, but without life risk in most cases, so it is possible to delay. Moreover, urogynaecological diseases affect mostly women over 65 years old (a high risk population for contracting COVID-19). In this manuscript we summarise the current evidence about telemedicine efectivity to manage to pelvic floor dysfunctions and, in addition, the recommendations of Urogynaecological scientific societies during state of alarm. We describe the management of the different pelvic floor dysfunctions during COVID-19 pandemic and a proposal to organize the urogynaecological services to diagnose (visits and diagnostic investigations) and to treat (conservative, pharmacological or surgery) in the interpandemic period and in the future


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/patologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Espanha/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Prolapso
16.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 909-923, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792123

RESUMO

Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings of fever, flank pain, and urinary tract infection. Computed tomography findings include renal enlargement with wedge-shaped heterogeneous areas of decreased enhancement, known as a "striated nephrogram." Imaging is primarily used to diagnose complications such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, renal abscess, and pyonephrosis. Chronic pyelonephritis can have varying appearances on imaging ranging from xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis or, in extreme cases, renal replacement lipomatosis.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pielonefrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Infecções/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1360-1364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the prevalence of ABR among children with UTI over the past 10 years, with an assessment of the sensitivity of E. Coli to common antibiotics in dynamics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study involved 1,044 children with UTI aged from 1 month to 18 years. Examination of patients and interpretation of the results was performed in accordance with the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki of Human Rights. According to the design, the study included 3 comparison groups: Group 1 - children of the 2009 follow-up year (n = 337), Group 2 - of 2014 (n = 328) and Group 3 - of 2019 (n = 379). RESULTS: Results: Escherichia coli is recognized as the leading uropathogen in all study groups: its percentage in Group 1 was 47 % (158/337), in Group 2 - 64 % (210/328) and in Group 3 - 66.5 % (252/379). The prevalence of antibacterial resistance of E. coli strains and the high dynamics of its growth are shown. So the level of resistance of E. Coli in 2019 was 70 ± 4.06 % (176/252). This was 11 % more compared to 2014 and 18.8 % more compared to 2009. The percentage of multiresistant strains tended to increase and amounted to 28 ± 9.97 % (70/252) among patients with UTI and 40 ± 9.12 % (70/176) in the structure of resistance in 2019. The relative risk of ABR increased by 1.6 times in 2019 compared to 2014 (RR2019 = 2.208 ± 0.207 [1.473;3.310], р < 0.05 vs RR2014 = 1.375 ± 0.209 [0.913;2.063]) and by 3 times compared to 2009 (RR2009 = 0.727 ± 0.209 [0.483;1.095]). Ampicillin and amoxicillin showed an equally low sensitivity level (3.5 ± 32.14 % (9/252)). Only every second child confirmed sensitivity to cefuroxime (53.6 ± 5.76 (135/252)). Ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin showed a relatively high sensitivity level - 77.4 ± 3.34 (195/252) and 83 ± 2.81 (209/252), and at the same time the rapidly growing resistance rates - almost twice as high over the past 5 years. Furazidin K showed a high sensitivity level of 85.7 ± 2.53% (216/252), the lowest level of overall resistance of 14.3 ± 15.15 % (36/252) and a slow rate of its formation. An unfavourable prognosis of an increase in the relative risk of ABR by 2.9-3.7 times in the next 5-10 years was determined among patients with UTI, provided that the existing diagnostic and treatment approaches are maintained. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The study results are important for understanding the clinical decision on the benefits of antibacterial therapy and optimizing its empirical choice for a patient with UTI.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nefrologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
18.
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008856, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845936

RESUMO

Copper and superoxide are used by the phagocytes to kill bacteria. Copper is a host effector encountered by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) during urinary tract infection in a non-human primate model, and in humans. UPEC is exposed to higher levels of copper in the gut prior to entering the urinary tract. Effects of pre-exposure to copper on bacterial killing by superoxide has not been reported. We hypothesized that copper-replete E. coli is more sensitive to killing by superoxide in vitro, and in activated macrophages. We utilized wild-type UPEC strain CFT073, and its isogenic mutants lacking copper efflux systems, superoxide dismutases (SODs), regulators of a superoxide dismutase, and complemented mutants to address this question. Surprisingly, our results reveal that copper protects UPEC against killing by superoxide in vitro. This copper-dependent protection was amplified in the mutants lacking copper efflux systems. Increased levels of copper and manganese were detected in UPEC exposed to sublethal concentration of copper. Copper activated the transcription of sodA in a SoxR- and SoxS-dependent manner resulting in enhanced levels of SodA activity. Importantly, pre-exposure to copper increased the survival of UPEC within RAW264.7 and bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. Loss of SodA, but not SodB or SodC, in UPEC obliterated copper-dependent protection from superoxide in vitro, and from killing within macrophages. Collectively, our results suggest a model in which sublethal levels of copper trigger the activation of SodA and SodC through independent mechanisms that converge to promote the survival of UPEC from killing by superoxide. A major implication of our findings is that bacteria colonizing copper-rich milieus are primed for efficient detoxification of superoxide.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/toxicidade , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Infecções Urinárias/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008707, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780778

RESUMO

Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative uropathogen, is a major causative agent in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Mannose-resistant Proteus-like fimbriae (MR/P) are crucially important for P. mirabilis infectivity and are required for biofilm formation and auto-aggregation, as well as for bladder and kidney colonization. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of the MR/P tip adhesin, MrpH, is reported. The structure has a fold not previously described and contains a transition metal center with Zn2+ coordinated by three conserved histidine residues and a ligand. Using biofilm assays, chelation, metal complementation, and site-directed mutagenesis of the three histidines, we show that an intact metal binding site occupied by zinc is essential for MR/P fimbria-mediated biofilm formation, and furthermore, that P. mirabilis biofilm formation is reversible in a zinc-dependent manner. Zinc is also required for MR/P-dependent agglutination of erythrocytes, and mutation of the metal binding site renders P. mirabilis unfit in a mouse model of UTI. The studies presented here provide important clues as to the mechanism of MR/P-mediated biofilm formation and serve as a starting point for identifying the physiological MR/P fimbrial receptor.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Proteus mirabilis/metabolismo , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Adesinas Bacterianas/química , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Fímbrias/química , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Proteus/metabolismo , Infecções por Proteus/microbiologia , Proteus mirabilis/química , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Infecções Urinárias/metabolismo , Zinco/química
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