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1.
J Trauma Nurs ; 28(5): 290-297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a noted complication among geriatric hip fracture patients. This complication results in negative outcomes for both the patients and the institution providing care. Screening measures to identify predisposing factors, with early diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) present on admission, may lead to reduced rates of CAUTI. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of UTI on admission among geriatric hip fracture patients and whether routine screening for UTI or predisposing factors at presentation resulted in reduced rates of CAUTI. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of geriatric hip fracture patients from January 2017 to December 2018 at a Level I trauma center was performed. Rates of UTI on admission and CAUTI were calculated using routine admission urinalysis. RESULTS: Of the 183 patients in the sample, 36.1% had UTI on admission and 4.4% of patients developed CAUTI. There were no significant differences in patient demographics, comorbidities, and complications between those with UTI on admission and those without. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary tract infection on admission may be present among a large portion of geriatric hip fracture patients, leading to increased rates of CAUTI. Routine screening for UTI and its predisposing factors at admission can identify these patients earlier and lead to earlier treatments and prevention of CAUTI.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Infecção Hospitalar , Fraturas do Quadril , Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Cateteres , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
2.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(7): 645-651, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (Uti) are one of the most common infections that affec thumans throughout their lives and are a common healthproblem both at the community and at the nosocomial level. Knowing microbiological characteristics, sensitivity profile and risk factors allow to optimize the management of Utis minimizing the increase of antibiotic resistance (AR) and establishing early treatments to reduce the morbidity and severity of infection. This study aims to establish which microorganisms are responsible for urinary tract infections in our community and determine their AR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study of all patients with the first episode of UTI recorded at the Sanatorio Allende in the city of Cordoba, Argentina, who were requested to under go urine culture (URC), from January 2016 to December 2017. RESULTS: 3636 positive URC were analyzed, of which1740 met the inclusion criteria. Of the total analyzed 90.2 % (n=1570) were female. The average age was 37.8 years (SD=15.2). Escherichia coli was the microorganism most frequently isolated in 80.3% followed by S. saprophyticus in 8.0%. The age group of 18-30 years (40.1%) showed the highest proportion of microorganisms, where we observed the highest prevalence of E. coli and S. saprophyticus. The following acquired resistances were obtained from the total isolations: 47.6% of the microorganisms were resistant to ampicillin, 29.6% to cotrimoxazole, 15.2% to ciprofloxacin, 4.6% to first generation of cephalosporins, 3.4% to cefixime, 2.3% to amoxicillin-clavulanic, 1,2% to gentamicin and 1% to nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION: E. Coli was the most prevalent pathogenin our environment, with high rates of resistance to ampicillin, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, confirming the need for periodic studiesto determine the most optimal empirical antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050407, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in primary care. The yield of urine cultures in patients with UTI symptoms can be considerably different between high-income and low-income settings. This study aimed to explore possible causes of negative urine cultures in patients presenting with symptoms of UTI to primary health clinics in Harare. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nine primary health clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: Adults presenting with symptoms of UTIs between March and July 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine samples underwent dipstick testing, microscopy, culture, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using GeneXpert and for the presence of antibiotic residues using an antibiotic bioassay. The primary outcomes were the number and proportion of participants with evidence of STIs, prior antibiotic exposure, leucocyturia and UTIs. RESULTS: The study included 425 participants with a median age of 37.3 years, of whom 275 (64.7%) were women. Leucocyturia was detected in 130 (30.6%, 95% CI 26.2% to 35.2%) participants, and 96 (22.6%, 95% CI 18.7% to 26.9%) had a positive urine culture for a uropathogen. Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis were detected in 43/425 (10.1%, 95% CI 7.4% to 13.4%), 37/425 (8.7%, 95% CI 6.2% to 11.8%) and 14/175 (8.0%, 95% CI 4.4% to 13.1%) participants, respectively. Overall, 89 (20.9%, 95% CI 17.2% to 25.1%) participants reported either having taken prior antibiotics or having had a positive urine bioassay. In 170 (40.0%, 95% CI 35.3% to 44.8%) participants, all of the tests that were performed were negative. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a high prevalence of STIs and evidence of prior antimicrobial use as possible explanations for the low proportion of positive urine cultures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26172, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397789

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There are needs to evaluate the risk factors for urinary infection after retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy, to provide insights into the management and nursing care of patients with retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy.Patients who received retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy with a Foley 20 urinary tube insertion from June 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020 in our hospital were selected. Patients were grouped urinary infection and no infection group according to the culture results of urine, and the clinical data of the 2 groups of patients were collected and compared. Single factor and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of urinary tract infection after retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy.Four hundred ten patients with retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy were included, of whom 62 patients had the urinary tract infection, the incidence of urinary tract infection was 15.12%. There were significant differences in the gender, age, diabetes, stone diameter, duration of urinary tube insertion and duration of surgery between infection and no-infection group (all P < .05). The Escherichia coli (62.90%) was the most commonly seen bacterial in patients with urinary tract infection. Female (odds ratio [OR]: 1.602, 95% confidence interval 95% [CI]: 1.132∼2.472), age >50 years (OR: 2.247, 95% CI: 1.346∼3.244), diabetes (OR: 2.228, 95% CI: 1.033∼3.451), stone diameter ≥2 cm (OR: 2.152, 95% CI: 1.395∼3.099), duration of urinary tube insertion ≥3 days (OR: 1.942, 95% CI:1.158∼2.632), duration of surgery ≥90 minutes (OR: 2.128, 95% CI: 1.104∼3.846) were the independent risk factors for the postoperative urinary tract infection in patients with retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy (all P < .05).The incidence of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing retrograde upper urinary lithotripsy was high, counteractive measures targeted on those risk factors are needed to prevent and reduce the postoperative urinary infection in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Litotripsia/métodos , Litotripsia/enfermagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Cateterismo Urinário
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 637, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cedecea neteri is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative bacillus, a rare pathogen. Few reports are emerging globally about its antimicrobial resistance pattern especially in immunocompromised individuals with comorbidities. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper, we report the first case of C. neteri causing urinary tract infection in a pregnant woman at a specialty care hospital in the Northern Emirates of Ras al Khaimah, UAE. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: C. neteri is a rare and unusual pathogen, unlike routine gram-negative urinary tract pathogens from the family of Enterobacteriaceae and therefore may be missed or misidentified by routine laboratories using conventional microbiology identification techniques. Hence, Cedecea infections may be under-reported. Physicians and microbiology technicians must be aware of such a rare pathogen, as most of the isolates are multi-drug-resistant and require combined antibiotic treatment with beta-lactamase inhibitors and hence pose a treatment challenge especially in immunocompromised patients with comorbidities. In recent years, it has been reported as an emerging opportunistic pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Poli-Hidrâmnios/fisiopatologia , Gestantes , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
6.
Maturitas ; 150: 30-36, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274073

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the age- and sex-specific risk of urogenital infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. A self-controlled case series was conducted using annual national patient sample datasets from 2016 and 2017. Patients who were treated with SGLT2 inhibitors and who received antimicrobials for urogenital infections were included in the study. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of urogenital infections during SGLT2 inhibitor exposure were compared with those in the non-exposure period. A total of 2,949 patients were included in the analysis, and 71.2% of the patients were women aged ≥ 50 years. Stratified analysis by age and sex showed that only women ≥ 50 years showed a significant increase in the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37) and genital infections (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.28-1.62). The highest risk of UTI risk was observed 8-14 days after initiating SGLT2 inhibitor therapy (IRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08), and after 15-28 days for genital infections (IRR 2.11, 95% CI 1.66-2.67) in women ≥ 50. SGLT2 inhibitors increase the risk of urogenital infections in T2DM patients, especially in women aged ≥ 50 years. Monitoring of urogenital infections in women aged ≥ 50 years, especially during the first month after starting SGLT2 inhibitors, is recommended.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Urinárias/induzido quimicamente
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20200813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors associated with urinary tract infection occurrence in institutionalized elderly. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional, analytical, quantitative study with 116 elderly people from a Nursing Home. Urinary tract infection diagnosis was carried out through urine culture and clinical assessment. Demographic data and associated factors were obtained from medical records. Statistical analysis included bivariate analysis and logistic regression models. RESULTS: the factors associated with urinary tract infection (p<0.05) were being female; wheelchair user; diaper use; diuretic use; urinary and bowel incontinence; type 1 diabetes; benign prostatic hyperplasia; dehydration. CONCLUSION: this study revealed that it is important to consider non-modifiable factors such as sex and clinical comorbidities; however, dehydration, a modifiable factor, increased the chances of developing urinary tract infections by 40 times among institutionalized elderly and demands greater attention from the health team.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Casas de Saúde , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 718-724, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226461

RESUMO

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication in nephrotic children and leads to most morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Bangladesh. This case control study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Nephrology ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka from July 2016 to June 2018 to identify the risk factors of UTI in children with nephrotic syndrome. Total 90 patient of nephrotic children aged 2-12 years, who were fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as Group I (case) and Group II (control) according to urine culture report. Group I was UTI positive and Group II was UTI negative. The mean age of Group I was 5.26±3.18 years and Group II was 6.03±2.85 years. There was male predominance in both groups. No significant difference has been found regarding age and sex (p>0.05). No significant difference was also observed regarding economic status and educational level of mother among both groups (p>0.05). Fever, dysuria, abdominal pain, anasarca, vomiting and pallor were found as common presentations in Group I. Children with dysuria and abdominal pain were significantly higher in Group I than Group II (p value <0.001). UTI was found more in relapsed cases than initial attack. E. coli was the most common etiologic agent (37.8%). Mean Hb (gm/dl), serum total protein, serum albumin and serum IgG level were found significantly lower and spot urine protein creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group I, which implies that those biochemical factors were associated with development of UTI in nephrotic children. Younger age group (<6 years), Constipation and uncircumcised male were found as risk factors and has association with UTI in nephrotic children.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica , Infecções Urinárias , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Síndrome Nefrótica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 436, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use is associated with several antibiotic-related harms in vulnerable, older long-term care (LTC) residents. Suboptimal antibiotic use may also be associated with harms but has not yet been investigated. The aim of this work was to compare rates of poor clinical outcomes among LTC residents with UTI receiving suboptimal versus optimal antibiotic treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among residents with an incident urinary tract infection (UTI) treated in Veterans Affairs LTC units (2013-2018). Potentially suboptimal antibiotic treatment was defined as use of a suboptimal initial antibiotic drug choice, dose frequency, and/or excessive treatment duration. The primary outcome was time to a composite measure of poor clinical outcome, defined as UTI recurrence, acute care hospitalization/emergency department visit, adverse drug event, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), or death within 30 days of antibiotic discontinuation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare the time-to-event between suboptimal and optimal treatment. RESULTS: Among 19,701 LTC residents with an incident UTI, 64.6% received potentially suboptimal antibiotic treatment and 35.4% experienced a poor clinical outcome. In adjusted analyses, potentially suboptimal antibiotic treatment was associated with a small increased hazard of poor clinical outcome (aHR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11) as compared with optimal treatment, driven by an increased hazard of CDI (aHR 1.94, 95% CI 1.54-2.44). CONCLUSION: In this national cohort study, suboptimal antibiotic treatment was associated with a 6% increased risk of the composite measure of poor clinical outcomes, in particular, a 94% increased risk of CDI. Beyond the decision to use antibiotics, clinicians should also consider the potential harms of suboptimal treatment choices with regards to drug type, dose frequency, and duration used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
10.
J Infect ; 83(2): 175-181, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Community onset urinary tract infections (COUTIs) drew attention recently owing to their increased prevalence and associations with resistant pathogens. The study is aimed at investigating the etiology of COUTIs as well as prevalence and the related risk factors of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) in COUTIs in China. METHODS: The prospective study was performed in nineteen hospitals during November 1, 2017 and August 31, 2019. Non-duplicated isolates from COUTIs were included. The ESBL phenotypic confirmation test was performed and whole genomes were sequenced for all the ESBL-positive bacteria for further analysis. The risk factors for ESBL-producing bacterial infections were analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1760 COUTI cases were included in this study. Escherichia coli (1332, 75.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (110, 6.3%) and Enterococcus faecalis (52, 3.0%) were the top three common pathogens of COUTIs in China. The overall positive rate of ESBLs in Enterobacterales was 37.2% (562/1512). The age (OR=1.007, P = 0.041), solid malignant tumor (OR=1.668, P = 0.016), prostate diseases (OR=2.035, P = 0.010), history of lithotripsy for urinary calculi (OR=2.009, P = 0.030), history of urological surgery (OR=1.869, P = 0.009) and cephalosporin use within 3 months (OR=1.503, P = 0.025) were independent risk factors for ESBL-producing organisms causing COUTIs. The predominant ESBL types were CTX-Ms, among which CTX-M-14, CTX-M-55 and CTX-M-27 were the most common subtypes. ST131 and ST1193 were the predominant sequence types of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC). Most of the tested antimicrobial agents showed significantly higher non-susceptible rates in the ESBL positive group as compared with ESBL-negative group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Enterobacterales, especially E. coli, is the most common pathogen in COUTIs in China and ESBL-producers are highly prevalent. Thus, early prediction depending on risk factors seems to be crucial to determine the appropriate empirical therapy for infections caused by ESBL-producing pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(10)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections are common in children. The purpose of this study was to describe national resistance data from urinary isolates from children with a view to informing antibiotic use. METHOD: We conducted an observational study based on culture responses with resistance determination in urine from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance (NORM). All urinary isolates from children (0-17 years) in the period 2013-17 were included and compared with urinary isolates from adults. For cephalexin resistance, we used data from two Norwegian hospitals covering the period 2015-19. RESULTS: Of 13 211 urinary isolates included in the NORM register, 589 (4.5 %) were from children. Weighted by the number of data collection days, Escherichia coli accounted for 85.2 % of the isolates from children. For E. coli, there was a higher proportion of trimethoprim resistance in urine samples from children (27.0 %) compared to adults (22.9 %), p = 0.02. For ciprofloxacin, we found a lower resistance rate in E. coli in urine samples from children (5.7 %) compared to adults (8.7 %), p = 0.03. For other selected antibiotics, we found the following resistance rates in E. coli in children: nitrofurantoin (0.5 %), mecillinam (4.0 %), cephalexin (4.3 %), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (7.2 %) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.1 %). INTERPRETATION: Pivmecillinam, cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are relevant choices in the empirical treatment of upper urinary tract infections. Nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam are relevant for lower urinary tract infections. Trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should only be used after resistance determination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
12.
Nat Rev Urol ; 18(8): 468-486, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131331

RESUMO

The most common and lethal bacterial pathogens have co-evolved with the host. Pathogens are the aggressors, and the host immune system is responsible for the defence. However, immune responses can also become destructive, and excessive innate immune activation is a major cause of infection-associated morbidity, exemplified by symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are caused, in part, by excessive innate immune activation. Severe kidney infections (acute pyelonephritis) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and painful infections of the urinary bladder (acute cystitis) can become debilitating in susceptible patients. Disease severity is controlled at specific innate immune checkpoints, and a detailed understanding of their functions is crucial for strategies to counter microbial aggression with novel treatment and prevention measures. One approach is the use of bacterial molecules that reprogramme the innate immune system, accelerating or inhibiting disease processes. A very different outcome is asymptomatic bacteriuria, defined by low host immune responsiveness to bacteria with attenuated virulence. This observation provides the rationale for immunomodulation as a new therapeutic tool to deliberately modify host susceptibility, control the host response and avoid severe disease. The power of innate immunity as an arbitrator of health and disease is also highly relevant for emerging pathogens, including the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/imunologia
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(9): 1284-1287, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144904

RESUMO

Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a symptomatic urinary infection accompanied by functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male patients, and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) secondary to BPH can lead to UTIs in men. However, no evidence has clearly shown that UTI in the aging male population is associated with either post-void residual urine or BOO. Screening for the presence of bacteriuria is recommended prior to any procedure manipulating the urinary tract, and imaging studies of the upper urinary tract are recommended to identify underlying abnormalities. Recurrent or persistent UTI in men with BPH is an indication for surgical treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be screened for and treated before transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the risk of UTI in patients undergoing TURP. The choice of specific antimicrobial for prophylaxis should be based on local pathogen prevalence and individual antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with severe systemic infections require hospitalization, and empirical therapy should include an intravenous antimicrobial regimen. Further prospective studies are needed to refine the treatment process for complicated UTI in patients diagnosed with BPH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/epidemiologia , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 572, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria and represent a major healthcare burden. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacterales and non-lactose fermenting pathogens further complicate treatment approaches. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the US Premier Healthcare Database (2014-2019) in hospitalised adults with a UTI to estimate the healthcare burden of Gram-negative CR UTIs among patients with or without concurrent bacteraemia. RESULTS: Among the 47,496 patients with UTI analysed, CR infections were present in 2076 (4.4%). Bacteraemia was present in 24.5% of all UTI patients, and 1.7% of these were caused by a CR pathogen. The most frequent CR pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (49.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.2%). Patients with CR infections had a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS) (median [range] 8 [5-12] days vs 6 [4-10] days, P < 0.001), were less likely to be discharged home (38.4% vs 51.0%, P < 0.001), had a higher readmission rate (22.6% vs 13.5%, P < 0.001), and had greater LOS-associated charges (mean US$ 91,752 vs US$ 66,011, P < 0.001) than patients with carbapenem-susceptible (CS) infections, respectively. The impact of CR pathogens was greater in patients with bacteraemia (or urosepsis) and these CR urosepsis patients had a significantly higher rate of mortality than those with CS urosepsis (10.5% vs 6.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised patients with UTIs, the presence of a CR organism and bacteraemia increased the burden of disease, with worse outcomes and higher hospitalisation charges than disease associated with CS pathogens and those without bacteraemia.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Infecções Urinárias/economia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/economia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
15.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(5): 503-510, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of current study was to evaluate prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTI) following flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS) and to determine predictive factors for those UTIs. METHODS: A total of 420 patients with urolithiasis that underwent f-URS between August 2018 and August 2019 were enrolled in the study. Peri-operative characteristics of patients with and without postoperative UTIs were compared using univariate analyses. Predictive factors for UTIs following f-URS were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-one (9.8%) out of 420 patients had postoperative urinary infection after f-URS and those patients were classified as group 1. Group 2 consisted of 379 patients that did not develop postoperative UTIs. The percentage of female gender was 58.5% vs 42% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.042). The preoperative UTI history rate was 51.2% vs 20.8% (p<0.001) and preoperative double J stent (DJS) insertion rate 39% vs 17.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Univariate regression analyses showed that the female gender (OR=1.98), history of UTI (OR=3.99), and preoperative DJS insertion (OR=2.98) significantly increased the possibility of postoperative UTI (p<0.05). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that history of UTI (OR=3.41, 95%CI:1.73-6.72, p<0.001) and preoperative DJS insertion (OR=2.30, 95%CI:1.13-4.68, p=0.021) were independent risk factors for infectious complications following f-URS. If both factors are present, the probability of infection is 55.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Even if f-URS is considered a safe procedure, the risk of postoperative infectious complications is far from negligible. We found that the presence of UTI history and preoperative DJS were independent risk factors for UTI after f-URS.


Assuntos
Litotripsia , Infecções Urinárias , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscópios , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 349, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetic mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to their altered immunological integrity. These patients are similarly prone to developing frailty, a state of cumulative health deficits involving multiple domains and leading to adverse outcomes. Whether frailty predisposes affected individuals to UTI among patients with DM and CKD remains unclear. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with DM and CKD (n = 79,887) were assembled from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients, with their baseline frailty status measured by a  modified FRAIL scale. We analyzed their risk of developing UTI depending on their severity of frailty, after accounting demographic profiles, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, concurrent medications, and major interventions. A secondary analysis focused on the risk of urosepsis related to frailty. RESULTS: Among all participants, 36.1 %, 50.3 %, 12.8 %, and 0.8 % did not have or had 1, 2, and ≥ 3 FRAIL items, respectively, at baseline. After 3.51 years, 11,175 UTI events occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that participants with DM, CKD and an increasing number of FRAIL items had successively higher incidence of UTI than those without any FRAIL items (log rank p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard modeling revealed that after accounting for all confounders, those with more severe frailty exhibited a significantly higher risk of incident UTI (for groups of 1, 2, and ≥ 3 FRAIL items, hazard ratio 1.19, 1.24, and 1.43, respectively; all p < 0.001) than those without. An 11 % risk elevation for UTI could be observed for every FRAIL item increase. Participants with more severe frailty exhibited a trend of having higher risk of urosepsis as well. CONCLUSIONS: Having frailty predicted a higher risk of developing UTI in the future in patients with DM and CKD. It would be prudent to screen for frailty in these patients and provide optimal frailty-directed management to attenuate their risk of UTI and improve their outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Fragilidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26064, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of urinary retention after hysterectomy in women. METHODS: This research searched for 6 database documents, and the deadline is July 23, 2020. This study included a randomized controlled trial of women with urinary retention after hysterectomy. These randomized controlled trials compare acupuncture with bladder function training or other nonacupuncture treatments, and measure urodynamics, effectiveness (BR), and urinary tract infection rates (UIR). Four independent reviewers participated in data extraction and evaluation. Assess the risk of bias in each article, and conduct a meta-analysis according to the type of acupuncture. The result is expressed as a mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The meta-analysis contains 12 studies. Most studies indicate low risk or unknown risk, but the GRADE scores of the combined results show low or moderate levels. After the combined analysis, we found that acupuncture versus bladder function exercise and other nonacupuncture therapies can significantly improve the values of post voided residual urine (PVR) (MD = -25.29; 95% CI [-30.45 to -20.73]), maximal cystometric capacity (MD = 39.54; 95% CI [10.30-68.78]), bladder capacity for first voiding desire (MD = -61.98; 95% CI [-90.69 to -33.26]) and maximal flow rate (MFR) (MD = 7.58; 95% CI [5.19-9.97]). And compared with the control group, acupuncture still has advantages in BR (RR = 1.36; 95% CI [1.18-1.56]) and UIR (RR = 0.22; 95% CI [0.08-0.82]). These heterogeneities have been resolved through subgroup analysis, and their main sources are related to different intervention times, the time to start the intervention, and different PVR requirements. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence that acupuncture can increase the patient's MFR, BR, and UIR. However, acupuncture can effectively improve the PVR, maximal cystometric capacity, and bladder capacity for first voiding desire values of patients with urinary retention after hysterectomy. Although limited due to the quality and methodological limitations of the included studies, acupuncture can still be used as an effective and safe treatment for women with urinary retention after hysterectomy. REGISTRATION: The research has been registered and approved on the PROSPERO website. The registration number is CRD42019119238.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063602

RESUMO

Patients with pelvic fractures could encounter various complications during or after treatments. This cohort study investigated the risk of mortality and readmissions in patients with pelvic fractures, with or without urinary tract infections (UTIs), within 30 days following the pelvic fractures. This retrospective cohort study examined claim records from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000). We selected patients hospitalized with pelvic fractures between 1997 and 2013 for study. Patients who had index data before 2000 or after 2010 (n = 963), who died before the index date (n = 64), who were aged <18 years (n = 94), or who had a pelvic injury (n = 31) were excluded. In total, the study cohort comprised 1623 adult patients; 115 had UTIs, and 1508 patients without UTIs were used as a comparison cohort. Multivariate analysis with a multiple Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed to analyze the data. Our results showed that the 1-year mortality rate (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.25-4.29) and readmission rate (adjusted HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.26-3.34) of the UTI group were significantly higher than those of the non-UTI group. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier curve for the 1-year follow-up indicated that the UTI group had a higher cumulative risk of both mortality and hospital readmission compared with the non-UTI group. In conclusion, among patients with pelvic fracture, patients with UTI were associated with increased risks of mortality and readmission. Physicians must pay more attention to such patients to prevent UTIs among patients with pelvic fractures during hospitalization and conduct a follow-up after discharge within at least 1 year.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
19.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(2): 164-168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969947

RESUMO

Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) has been studied worldwide as part of device-related healthcare infection. CAUTI is one of the most commonly reported infections in the literature, which occurs during clinical practice in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and non-ICU departments. Many studies have covered the CAUTI rate in Saudi Arabia mainly in the ICU covering single or multiple hospitals as surveillance for device-related infections in the ICU. Few studies have conducted an interventional approach that examined the implementation of infection control protocols and then compared them to international practice as a standard. This review aims to explore the literature to provide insight into the infection control practices that have been reported in Saudi Arabia during the last two decades on the preventive measures and clinical consequences of CAUTIs. Very few studies have recorded the pattern of resistant microorganisms that burdens clinical practice in ICUs concerning CAUTIs. Only one study compared the type of catheter materials and discussed the effect of these materials on reducing CAUTIs. It is essential to cover catheter utilization and to understand how a sufficient infection control protocol with educational programs for healthcare personnel can transform practice, for the better, regarding CAUTI rates in Saudi hospitals. There is a demand for more interventional and epidemiological studies on the causes and factors affecting the rate of CAUTI in the area. Studies may help reduce the CAUTI incidence rate, which consequently reduces the costs and morbidity associated with this type of infection and other healthcare-related infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(9): 3059-3066, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050377

RESUMO

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in preterm infants and may have long-term sequela, such as recurrent infections and renal scarring in older children. We assessed long-term outcomes of preterm infants with UTI, born during 1996-2008 in Schneider Children's Medical Center's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and incidence of UTI recurrence. Of 89 preterm infants, seven were excluded due to prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), 41 interviewed by phone, 18 presented for follow-up evaluation in the nephrology clinic, and 23 lost to follow-up. No patient who completed follow-up reported additional UTI episodes or issues related to kidney and urinary tract. Clinically evaluated participants were 17.1 ± 3.6 years, born prematurely at 29.4 ± 4 weeks. All had a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate of >90 ml/min/1.73m2; four (22%) had systolic blood pressure >90th percentile; none had proteinuria (mean protein/creatinine ratio 0.09 ± 0.04 mg/mg) or albuminuria (mean albumin/creatinine ratio 10.2 ± 6.3 mcg/mg). Renal ultrasonography done in the first years of life in 12 (66%) patients demonstrated normal kidney size and structure.Conclusion: In this pilot study, a single episode of UTI in premature infants without CAKUT did not constitute a risk factor for recurrence of infections or kidney injury in their first two decades of life. Thus, normal ultrasound in NICU excluding CAKUT may be sufficient for premature patients with UTI, with no need of further imaging or long-term nephrology follow-up. What is Known: • Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in neonates and premature infants. Risk factors for UTI recurrence in children are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and bladder and bowel dysfunction. • The recurrence rate and long-term renal sequela of UTI in preterm infants have not been studied. Guidelines regarding management and long-term follow-up for infants less than 2 months old are lacking. What is New: • A single episode of UTI in premature infants without CAKUT probably does not constitute a risk factor for UTI recurrence, and it is unlikely to cause renal injury in the first two decades of life. • For premature infants with UTI without sonographic diagnosis of CAKUT in NICU, prophylactic antibiotic treatment, further imaging, or long-term nephrology follow-up may be unnecessary.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Infecções Urinárias , Sistema Urinário , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
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