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1.
Acta trop ; 198: [105093], Oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024019

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a pathogen endemic to South America and some Caribbean islands, with reports of occasional outbreaks. However, its current distribution and high-risk areas are little known. We conducted a modelling study to determine the areas with highest prevalence of MAYV occurrence in South America, based on confirmed cases and serological detection over the last 20 years and socio-environmental variables. We performed our analysis using Maxent software, a machine learning algorithm used for species distribution modeling. Our results showed that the occurrence of MAYV is mainly associated with the biome type, population density, annual rainfall, annual vapor rate, and elevation. Among biome types, the one most related to the occurrence of MAYV is Cerrado, probably related to the lifecycle of the Haemagogus vector and human population concentrations. According to our modelling, there is high yet undetectable MAYV concentration in the central region of Brazil and west-coastal region of the continent. A change in virus dispersion patterns was observed. The virus was previously predominantly in forests but now occupied rural areas and was becoming increasingly urbanized, which is increases the risk of outbreaks. Our results will serve to identify priority areas in the development of preventive actions and structuring of epidemiological surveillance


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 385-391, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arthropod-borne viruses are important causes of human morbidity worldwide. However, the available literatur and the epidemiological data concerning the importation to Poland of globally emerging arboviral infections, such as DENV, CHIKV, WNV, or ZIKV, are scarce. Only few seroepidemiologic studies concerning WNV in animals or humans in Poland have been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper is to summarize and present the current state of knowledge and the perspectives for research concerning the importation and the risk posed by the introduction to Poland of the four above-mentioned arboviral diseases. CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Climate change may facilitate the northward expansion of both the vectors for diseases previously unseen in Europe, as well as of the viruses themselves, resulting in autochthonous cases of diseases previously exclusively imported. Little is known about the importation of arboviral diseases to Poland because of the frequently asymptomatic or self-limiting course of the disease, lack of epidemiologic studies or effective disease reporting, as well as inadequate access to diagnostic methods. CONCLUSIONS: Further epidemiologic studies in Polish travellers are necessary in order to prevent importation or introduction of the above-mentioned viruses, and to act against potential problems related to blood transfusion or organ transplantation from infected donors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/imunologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Conhecimento , Polônia/epidemiologia
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(31): 673-678, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393865

RESUMO

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2018 on nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses because they are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel. In 2018, 48 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,813 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,647 (94%) WNV disease cases. Of the WNV disease cases, 1,658 (63%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.51 cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease per 100,000 population. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness and have no definitive treatment, maintaining surveillance is important to direct and promote prevention activities. Health care providers should consider arboviral infections in patients with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis, perform appropriate diagnostic testing, and report cases to public health authorities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância da População , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 265, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133059

RESUMO

Arboviruses represent a significant burden to public health and local economies due to their ability to cause unpredictable and widespread epidemics. To maximize early detection of arbovirus emergence in non-endemic areas, surveillance efforts should target areas where circulation is most likely. However, identifying such hotspots of potential emergence is a major challenge. The ecological conditions leading to arbovirus outbreaks are shaped by complex interactions between the virus, its vertebrate hosts, arthropod vector, and abiotic environment that are often poorly understood. Here, we systematically review the ecological risk factors associated with the circulation of six arboviruses that are of considerable concern to northwestern Europe. These include three mosquito-borne viruses (Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus) and three tick-borne viruses (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and louping-ill virus). We consider both intrinsic (e.g. vector and reservoir host competence) and extrinsic (e.g. temperature, precipitation, host densities, land use) risk factors, identify current knowledge gaps, and discuss future directions. Our systematic review provides baseline information for the identification of regions and habitats that have suitable ecological conditions for endemic circulation, and therefore may be used to target early warning surveillance programs aimed at detecting multi-virus and/or arbovirus emergence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Vetores Artrópodes/virologia , Vetores de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 423-434, mar.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004278

RESUMO

RESUMEN En esta revisión se recogen las más recientes investigaciones sobre los virus de chikungunya y del zika en el continente americano y la posible emergencia de nuevos arbovirus. Se realizó una investigación de los principales artículos publicados en PubMed, Scielo y MEDLINE durante 2010-16, acerca de la presencia de arbovirus en el continente americano, su evolución y complicaciones. En el brote de chikungunya ocurrido en las Américas se han descrito la fiebre, poli artralgia, mialgia y salpullido como los síntomas más comunes en la fase aguda, mientras la artralgia crónico ha persistido en 37-90 % de cohortes pequeñas. El origen asiático de las cepas americanas de virus del chikungunya y del zika evidencian una ruta de la diseminación en común y ambos trasmitidos por el aedes aegypti. Con respecto al zika de fiebre y la asociación de malformaciones congénitas y la transmisión sexual es uno de los descubrimientos más importantes en el Nuevo Mundo. Los virus de chikungunya y zika, se transmite por el aedes aegypti, y se han convertido en un serio problema de salud principalmente por la falta de vacuna y los métodos eficaces para el control del vector.


ABSTRACT This review gathers together the most recent researches carried out on Chikungunya and Zika viruses in the American continent, and states the possible emergency of new arboviruses. The authors performed a review of the main articles published in PubMed, Scielo y MEDLINE in the period 2010-2016 on the presence of arboviruses in the American continent, their evolution and complications. The most commonly described symptoms of the chikungunya outbreak in the American continent are fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia and rash in the acute stage, while chronic arthralgia has persisted in 37-90 % of the little cohorts. The Asian origin of American Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses strains evidence a common dissemination course and common transmission by the Aedes Aegypti. Regarding Zika fever, the association of congenital malformations and sexual transmission are the most important discoveries in the New World. Chikungunya and Zika viruses are transmitted by the Aedes Aegypti and they have become a serious health problem, mainly due to the lack of vaccine and efficacious methods of the vector control.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
7.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(3): 276-287, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region, arbovirus infections are emerging infectious diseases. Their surveillance can benefit from one health inter-sectoral collaboration; however, no standardized methodology exists to study One Health surveillance. METHODS: We designed a situation analysis study to document how integration of laboratory/clinical human, animal and entomological surveillance of arboviruses was being implemented in the Region. We applied a framework designed to assess three levels of integration: policy/institutional, data collection/data analysis and dissemination. We tested the use of Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) to graphically present evidence of inter-sectoral integration. RESULTS: Serbia, Tunisia and Georgia participated in the study. West Nile Virus surveillance was analysed in Serbia and Tunisia, Crimea-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever surveillance in Georgia. Our framework enabled a standardized analysis of One Health surveillance integration, and BPMN was easily understandable and conducive to detailed discussions among different actors/institutions. In all countries, we observed integration across sectors and levels except in data collection and data analysis. Data collection was interoperable only in Georgia without integrated analysis. In all countries, surveillance was mainly oriented towards outbreak response, triggered by an index human case. DISCUSSION: The three surveillance systems we observed prove that integrated surveillance can be operationalized with a diverse spectrum of options. However, in all countries, the integrated use of data for early warning and inter-sectoral priority setting is pioneeristic. We also noted that early warning before human case occurrence is recurrently not operationally prioritized.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Saúde Única , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Mar Negro , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Vigilância da População , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Trop ; 192: 49-54, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arboviruses (Zika, dengue and chikungunya) represent a major risk for pregnant women, especially because their vertical transmission can lead to neurological damage in newborns. Early diagnosis can be difficult due to similar clinical presentation with other congenital infections that are associated with congenital abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the circulation of arboviruses and other pathogens responsible for congenital infections, reporting clinical aspects and geographic distribution of maternal rash in a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). METHODS: Cross-sectional study with pregnant women presenting rash attended at the Exanthematic Diseases Unit (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro) from 2015 to 2018. Diagnosis of arboviruses was performed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and laboratorial screening for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and HIV was assessed. Demographic data was used for georeferencing analysis. FINDINGS: We included 121 pregnant women, of whom Zika virus was detected in 45 cases (37.2%), chikungunya in 33 (27.3%) and dengue in one (0.8%). Five patients presented syphilis, and we observed one case each of listeria, cytomegalovirus, and a syphilis-toxoplasmosis case. Similarity of clinical symptoms was observed in all groups; however, 84.8% of patients with chikungunya presented arthralgia. Following the decline of Zika cases, chikungunya infection was mostly observed during 2017-2018. Considering pregnant women infected with arboviruses and other infections, 41% resided in urban slums, mostly in Niterói. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous circulation of arboviruses and other agents responsible for congenital infections were observed; however, we did not identify co-infections between arboviruses. In this scenario, we emphasize the importance of adequate prenatal care to provide an accurate diagnosis of maternal rash.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Arbovirus/complicações , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 664, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne arboviruses, like dengue virus, continue to cause significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly in Southeast Asia. When the infectious mosquitoes probe into human skin for a blood meal, they deposit saliva containing a myriad of pharmacologically active compounds, some of which alter the immune response and influence host receptivity to infection, and consequently, the establishment of the virus. Previous reports have highlighted the complexity of mosquito vector-derived factors and immunity in the success of infection. Cumulative evidence from animal models and limited data from humans have identified various vector-derived components, including salivary components, that are co-delivered with the pathogen and play an important role in the dissemination of infection. Much about the roles and effects of these vector-derived factors remain to be discovered. METHODS/DESIGN: We describe a longitudinal, pagoda (community)-based pediatric cohort study to evaluate the burden of dengue virus infection and document the immune responses to salivary proteins of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. The study includes community-based seroprevalence assessments in the peri-urban town of Chbar Mon in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. The study aims to recruit 771 children between the ages of 2 and 9 years for a three year period of longitudinal follow-up, including twice per year (rainy and dry season) serosurveillance for dengue seroconversion and Ae. aegypti salivary gland homogenate antibody intensity determinations by ELISA assays. Diagnostic tests for acute dengue, Zika and chikungunya viral infections will be performed by RT-PCR. DISCUSSION: This study will serve as a foundation for further understanding of mosquito saliva immunity and its impact on Aedes-transmitted arboviral diseases endemic to Cambodia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03534245 registered on 23 May 2018.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/imunologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Camboja/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/imunologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/imunologia , Saliva/virologia , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 642, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at Barkedji, Senegal after the first outbreak of Rift valley fever in West Africa in 1988. This system was recently updated using more sampling methods and collecting in greater number of ponds and villages sites. METHODS: For the current study, mosquitoes were sampled biweekly between July and December 2012 and 2013 using CDC+CO2 light traps set at ground and canopy level, mosquito nets baited with goat, sheep, human or chicken, light traps baited with goat, sheep and chicken; bird-baited traps using pigeons or chickens placed either at the ground or canopy level. Collected mosquitoes were identified, pooled and screened for arboviruses. RESULTS: A total of 42,969 mosquitoes in 4,429 pools were processed for virus isolation. Ten virus species were identified among 103 virus isolates. West Nile virus (WNV; 31 isolates), Barkedji virus (BARV; 18), Sindbis virus (SINV; 13), Usutu virus (USUV; 12), Acado virus (ACAV; 8), Ndumu virus (NDUV; 9), Sanar virus (SANV; 7), Bagaza virus (BAGV; 3), Rift valley fever virus (RVFV; 1), and Yaounde virus (YAOV; 1) were isolated from 9 ponds (91 strains) and 7 villages (12 strains). Only 3 virus species (WNV, NDU and SINV) were isolated from villages. The largest numbers of isolates were collected in October (29.1% of total isolates) and November (50.5%). Viruses were isolated from 14 mosquito species including Cx. neavei (69.9% of the strains), Cx. antennatus (9.7%), and Ma. uniformis (4.8%). NDUV, ACAV, and SINV are herein reported for the first time in the Barkedji area. Isolation of ACAV and SANV from a pool of male Ma. uniformis and USUV and BARV from a pool of male Cx. neavei, are reported for the first time to our knowledge. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the Barkedji area is characterized by a high diversity of viruses of medical, veterinary and unknown importance. Arboviruses were first detected in July at the beginning of the rainy season and peaked in abundance in October and November. The Barkedji area, an enzootic focus of several potentially emerging arboviruses, should be surveilled annually to be prepared to deal with future disease emergence events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Culicidae/classificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Senegal/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(41): 1137-1142, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335737

RESUMO

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC from U.S. states in 2017 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses because, in the continental United States, these viruses are acquired primarily through travel. In 2017, 48 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,291 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,097 (92%) WNV disease cases. Among the WNV disease cases, 1,425 (68%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national rate of 0.44 cases per 100,000 population. More Jamestown Canyon and Powassan virus disease cases were reported in 2017 than in any previous year. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct and promote prevention activities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância da População , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(6): 203-209, 16 sept., 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175212

RESUMO

Introducción. Con posterioridad a la oleada del virus del Zika y el incremento en la incidencia de síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB), se ha estudiado la relación causal, pero no se ha encontrado una plena correlación etiológica. Pacientes y métodos. Del 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2017, se incluyeron pacientes con SGB. Además de las serologías básicas, se solicitaron determinaciones de enterovirus, virus del herpes, Campylobacter, hepatitis B y C, TORCH, virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Brucella y Salmonella. Resultados. Cohorte de siete pacientes de sexo masculino. A cinco pacientes se les analizó el líquido cefalorraquídeo, que era normal. A todos se les realizó una tomografía encefálica, también normal, y se realizó neuroconducción, que mostró polineuropatía inflamatoria desmielinizante aguda en cuatro casos y neuropatía motora axonal aguda en uno. Todos recibieron inmunoglobulinas intravenosas; tuvieron buen pronóstico cinco casos y hubo dos defunciones. No se informó de casos positivos al virus del Zika. Hubo un caso positivo al dengue, uno al chikungunya, cinco a Campylobacter y uno a enterovirus. Se informó de coinfecciones de dengue + Campylobacter en un caso y de chikungunya + Campylobacter en otro. Conclusiones. La presente cohorte demuestra que no fue posible establecer una relación causal entre el SGB y el virus del Zika, pero se identificaron otros agentes causales víricos y bacterianos, como dengue, chikungunya y enterovirus, y fue aún más destacable la identificación de los casos de Campylobacter


Introduction. After Zika virus outbreak and the increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the causal relationship has been studied, however a full etiological correlation has not been found. Patients and methods. From January 1 to December 31, 2017, patients with GBS were included. In addition to the basic serologies, enterovirus, herpes, Campylobacter, hepatitis B and C, TORCH, HIV, Brucella and Salmonella were requested Results. Cohort of seven male patients. Five patients analyzed cerebrospinal fluid reporting normal; all of them underwent brain scan, reporting normal. Neuroconduction was performed, resulting in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in four cases and acute motor axonal neuropathy in one case. All received intravenous immunoglobulins, five cases had a good prognosis and two deaths. No positive cases were reported to Zika virus. A positive case was reported to dengue and another to chikungunya. Five positive cases were reported to Campylobacter. One case positive to enterovirus. Dengue + Campylobacter coinfections were reported in one case and chikungunya + Campylobacter in another case. Conclusions. The present cohort shows that it was not possible to establish a causal relationship between GBS and Zika virus, but other viral and bacterial causal agents were identified, such as dengue, chikungunya and enterovirus, with the identification of Campylobacter cases even more remarkable


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterovirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/sangue , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/líquido cefalorraquidiano , México/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Administração Intravenosa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais
16.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 56(2): 186-188, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906032

RESUMO

In this paper the relationship between the incidence of microcephaly and various arboviruses in current boom is exposed. It stands out that in the infection by the dengue virus, there have been no cases of microcephaly, however in the case series of chikungunya infection, incidence of cases with this affectation was reported, highlighting a cohort called CHIMERE; also the highest incidence of microcephaly associated with the mentioned Zika virus, which has been widely studied. All this, due to the neurotropism of these arboviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/complicações , Microcefalia/virologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(5): e0006505, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851952

RESUMO

In the context of recent arbovirus epidemics, questions about the frequency of simultaneous infection of patients with different arbovirus species have been raised. In 2014, a major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic impacted the Caribbean and South America. As part of ongoing screening of schoolchildren presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Haiti, we used RT-PCR to identify CHIKV infections in 82 of 100 children with this diagnosis during May-August 2014. Among these, eight were infected with a second arbovirus: six with Zika virus (ZIKV), one with Dengue virus serotype 2, and one with Mayaro virus (MAYV). These dual infections were only detected following culture of the specimen, suggesting low viral loads of the co-infecting species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ZIKV and MAYV strains differ from those detected later in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Moreover, CHIKV and ZIKV strains from co-infected patients clustered monophyletically in their respective phylogeny, and clock calibration traced back the common ancestor of each clade to an overlapping timeframe of introduction of these arboviruses onto the island.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sorogrupo , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
18.
Cutis ; 101(4): E12-E14, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763490

RESUMO

Despite commanding essentially universal scientific consensus, climate change remains a divisive and poorly understood topic in the United States. Familiarity with this subject is not just for climate scientists. The impact of climate change on human morbidity and mortality may be considerable; thus, physicians also should be knowledgeable in this realm. Climate change science can seem opaque and inferential, creating fertile ground for political polemics and undoubtedly contributing to confusion among the general public. This puts physicians in a pivotal position to facilitate a practical understanding of climate change in the public sphere by discussing changes in disease patterns and their possible relationship to a changing climate. This article provides a background on climate change for dermatologists and highlights how climate change may impact the management of skin disease across the United States.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/etiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/etiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Rec ; 183(5): 159, 2018 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764954

RESUMO

Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners. The questionnaire was distributed using social media and a press release and was active between May and July 2016. There were 466 respondents, of whom 327 completed the survey in full. High proportions of respondents correctly identified photographic images of biting midges (71.2 per cent) and mosquitoes (65.4 per cent), yet few were aware that they transmit equine infectious diseases (31.4 per cent and 35.9 per cent, respectively). Of the total number of respondents, only 7.4 per cent and 16.2 per cent correctly named a disease transmitted by biting midges and mosquitoes, respectively. Only 13.1 per cent and 12.5 per cent of participants identified specific clinical signs of African horse sickness (AHS) and West Nile virus (WNV), respectively. This study demonstrates that in the event of heightened disease risk educational campaigns directed towards horse owners need to be implemented, focussing on disease awareness, clinical signs and effective disease prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Arbovirus , Vetores de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Propriedade , Adulto , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1062: 11-18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845522

RESUMO

Mozambique is a tropical country situated in the Southern part of Africa, a region where data on the burden and epidemiology of arbovirus is presently quite scarce although the frequency of outbreaks caused by arboviruses is rapidly increasing. Outbreaks of dengue fever have been reported in Mozambique, Angola and Tanzania and a recent unprecedented outbreak of Yellow fever has been recorded in Angola. These new outbreaks collectively suggest that arboviruses, and specifically flavivirus infections, are endemic in Mozambique.Although recent data on arbovirus activity is scarce, the work of Kokernot et al. [R.H. Kokernot, K.C. Smithburn, A.F. Gandara, B.M. Mc'Intosh and C.S. Heymann Anais Inst Med Trop (1960), 17:201-230] describes seroepidemiological and entomological studies carried out in several parts of Mozambique during the 1950s. Complementary seroepidemiological investigations on arboviruses that were conducted in the early 1980s also found serological evidence of several arboviruses which included Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Rift Valey Fever, Sinbdis virus, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, Pongola and Bawamba Fever and Yellow Fever.Notably the first description of Chikungunya virus in 1952-1953 in Tanzania also included reported cases in northern Mozambique. Furthermore, DENV serotype 3 was for the first time described in northern Mozambique in 1984 and 1985. Since several arboviral infections result in acute self limiting fever they have remained unsuspected for several decades. However, it is well known that during the 1980's intensive malaria control initiatives which included massive distribution of bed nets, community education and indoor and outdoor spraying campaigns were implemented. It is possible that these measures may have influenced the epidemiology of arboviruses. However, the impact of these interventions in controlling the spread of arboviruses is not known.In conclusion, the old literature on arboviruses in Mozambique is relevant for assessing the gaps and current risk of occurrence of these pathogens at the region, particularly in a time in which they are spreading worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/história , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/história , Epidemias/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Moçambique/epidemiologia
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