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1.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 276-284, Septiembre 2019. Tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024913

RESUMO

Chromobacterium violaceum es una bacteria gram negativa anaerobia facultativa, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el agua y el suelo en regiones tropicales y subtropicales, que se asocia con infecciones respiratorias, gastrointestinales, abscesos hepáticos, meningitis, endocarditis, síndrome hemofagocítico y sepsis fulminante. Se presentan 2 casos en niños: el primero es un varón de 8 años con lesiones en piel, fiebre y adenitis inguinal, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis severa, síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) y falleció a las 3 h del ingreso. De los hemocultivos se aisló Chromobacterium violaceum. El segundo caso, es una niña de 12 años con antecedente de fiebre y adenopatía inguinal secundaria a herida cortopunzante en el pie homolateral, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis, con desarrollo de abscesos múltiples profundos. De la colección obtenida de piel y partes blandas y de un aspirado traqueal se aisló Chromobacterium violaceum. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico adecuado y posteriormente fue dada de alta. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de esta infección en niños y se encontraron 44 casos en todo el mundo. Algunos de éstos, se relacionaron con inmunodeficiencia de base, como la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica. La infección por esta bacteria es rara y se presenta como un cuadro grave que no responde a antibióticos habituales de uso empírico y tiene una alta tasa de mortalidad (AU)


Chromobacterium violaceum is a facultative anaerobic Gramnegative bacillus, widely distributed in water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions and associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, liver abscesses, meningitis, endocarditis, hemophagocytic syndrome, and fulminant sepsis. Here two pediatric cases are presented: The first was an 8-year-old boy with skin lesions, fever, and inguinal adenitis, who was admitted with severe sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and died three hours after. Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated from blood cultures. The second case was a 12-year-old girl with a history of fever and inguinal adenopathy secondary to a wound in the homolateral foot, who was admitted because of sepsis and multiple deep abscesses. From samples collected from the skin and soft tissues as well as tracheal aspirate Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated. Adequate antibiotic treatment was started and the patient was subsequently discharged. In a review of the literature, 44 cases worldwide were identified. Some of these cases were related to underlying immunodeficiency, such as chronic granulomatous disease. Infection with this bacterium is rare and presents with severe manifestations that do not respond to the common empirical antibiotics and are associated with a high mortality rate (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Chromobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 1-8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364067

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has become the most significant threat to human health across the globe. Polymyxins are often used as the only available therapeutic option against Gram-negative 'superbugs', namely Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The limited pharmacological and clinical knowledge on the polymyxins in the old literature substantially limited optimizing their clinical use. The current chapter provides a general introduction to this first-ever polymyxin book which comprehensively reviews the significant progress over the last two decades in the chemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, clinical use and drug discovery of polymyxins. In particular, recent pharmacological results have led to the first scientifically-based dosing recommendations and facilitated the discovery of new-generation polymyxins. Future challenges in polymyxin research are highlighted, aiming at improving the clinical utility of this last-line defence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 9-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364068

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has presented a major health challenge in the world and many isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa become resistant to almost all current antibiotics. This chapter provides an overview on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in these Gram-negative pathogens and outlines the formidable problem of the genetics of bacterial resistance. Prevalent multidrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria underscores the need for optimizing the clinical use of the last-line polymyxins.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 15-36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364069

RESUMO

Polymyxins are naturally occurring cyclic lipopeptides that were discovered more than 60 years ago. They have a narrow antibacterial spectrum, which is mainly against Gram-negative pathogens. The dry antibiotic pipeline, together with the increasing incidence of bacterial resistance in the clinic, has been dubbed 'the perfect storm'. This has forced a re-evaluation of 'old' antibiotics, in particular the polymyxins, which retain activity against many multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms. As a consequence, polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are now used as the last therapeutic option for infections caused by 'superbugs' such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This chapter covers the history, chemistry and antibacterial spectrum of these very important last-line lipopeptide antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Humanos , Polimixina B/farmacologia
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 143-153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364077

RESUMO

In this chapter, we systematically reviewed studies that assessed polymyxin's effectiveness and summarized results through meta-analysis. The outcomes addressed were all-cause mortality, assuming that for patients with severe multidrug-resistant infections survival is the most important outcome, and resistance development, important for future patients. Most clinical data on polymyxins in the literature are from retrospective, observational studies at high risk of bias. The majority of clinical studies were unpowered to examine mortality controlling for other risk factors. The studies had no control of dosage regimens and treatment modifications. We identified several areas of missing data, in particular randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, different dosage regimens, polymyxins versus alternative antibiotics (e.g. aminoglycosides, tigecycline), and monotherapy versus specific combination therapies. Ideally, mortality and development of resistance should be examined in RCTs, with further longitudinal studies required for the latter.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimixinas/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 155-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364078

RESUMO

Due to lack of better therapeutic options, colistin use for extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms was revived in the past two decades, including in patients in intensive-care units (ICU). There are multiple knowledge gaps pertaining to the clinical use and utility of colistin in critically-ill patients, but due to lack of options, it is used in these high risk patients. In this chapter, we critically review the various topics pertaining to colistin use in critically-ill patients, while highlighting the (lack of) controlled evidence supporting common current practices pertaining to colistin use by clinicians.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colistina/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 197-218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364080

RESUMO

Polymyxin B is another clinically available polymyxin that has re-emerged in clinical practice to treat infections caused by multi-drug (MDR) or extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Its chemical structure is very similar to the structure of polymyxin E (colistin). However, since the latter is administered as a prodrug, there are major pharmacokinetic differences between both polymyxins that may potentially determine different clinical and microbiological outcomes. Studies addressing clinical or microbiological outcomes in patients treated with polymyxin B for MDR or XDR GNB are reviewed in this chapter.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico , Colistina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 754, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important nosocomial pathogen. This pathogen has intrinsic or acquired resistance to a number of antibiotics classes. Furthermore, Stenotrophomonas infections have been associated with high mortality, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Accordingly, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on the clinical data, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of patients with S. maltophilia (SM) bacteremia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary care referral hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Data were collected between January 2006 and December 2015 from electric medical records. Our analysis aimed to identify the risk factors associated with crude mortality, as well as the predictive factors of quinolone-resistant strains in SM bacteremia patients. RESULTS: A total of 126 bacteremia patients were enrolled in the study. The mortality rate was 65.1%. On multivariable analysis, hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR], 5.090; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.321-19.621; P = 0.018), hematologic malignancy (OR, 35.567; 95% CI, 2.517-502.515; P = 0.008) and quinolone-resistant strains (OR, 7.785; 95% CI, 1.278-47.432; P = 0.026) were independent risk factors for mortality. Alternatively, usage of an empirical regimen with quinolone (OR, 0.172; 95% CI, 0.034-0.875; P = 0.034) was an independent protective factor for mortality. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors revealed that high Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.040-1.361; P = 0.011) and indwelling of a central venous catheter (CVC) (OR, 3.303; 95% CI, 1.194-9.139; P = 0.021) were independent predisposing factors associated with quinolone-resistant strains in SM bacteremia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high Charlson comorbidity score and indwelling of a CVC were significantly independent predictors of quinolone-resistant strains in SM bacteremia patients. Therefore, we need to carefully consider the antibiotic use in SM bacteremia patients with these predictive factors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/imunologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): 2214-2216, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369500

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the microbiological features of dacryocystitis in childhood. METHODS: Patients with dacryocystitis secondary to CNLDO between 2017 and 2019 in Izmir, Turkey were included in the study. Inclusion criteria of the study were: mucopurulent secretion, being under 4 years old and not having received prior antibiotic treatment. Samples from secretion were cultivated in sheep blood agar, eosin methylene blue, and chocolate agar. Reproduction was checked intermittently. Clinically significant growths were reported. RESULTS: Seventy patients with dacryocystitis secondary to CNLDO were included in the study. Sixty percent of patients were female (n = 42) and 40% (n = 28) percent of patients were male. The average age of participants was 2.09 ±â€Š0.68 (1-3) years old. Positive bacterial proliferation results were noted in 20 patients (28.6%). Eighty percent (n = 16) of culture-positive bacterias were gram-negative bacterias and 20% (4) were gram-positive bacterias. Twenty percent of culture-positive bacterias were aerobic and 80% were facultative bacterias. The most common bacteria seen in culture specimen was Haemophilus 40% (Haemophilus haemolyticus [20%] and Haemophilus influenzae [20%]). CONCLUSIONS: Gram-negative organisms especially Haemophilus were most prevalent. These findings could be helpful for antibiotic selection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Aparelho Lacrimal/microbiologia , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/etiologia , Ducto Nasolacrimal/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Dacriocistite/tratamento farmacológico , Dacriocistite/microbiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/congênito , Masculino
11.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1111-1117, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444523

RESUMO

Despite many novel diagnostic strategies and advances in treatment, infective endocarditis (IE) remains a severe disease. The epidemiology of IE has shifted and staphylococci have replaced streptococci as the most common cause and nosocomially acquired infections, invasive procedures, indwelling cardiac devices and acquired infections due to intravenous drug abuse are more frequent. The incidence of IE has steadily increased in recent years and the patients affected are older and have more comorbidities. The modern treatment of IE is interdisciplinary. The pharmacotherapy of IE depends on the pathogen and its sensitivity. The presence of a bioprosthetic valve and implantable cardiac devices plays a significant role in selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment. This article provides an update and overview of the current clinical practice in diagnostics and pharmacotherapy of IE in adults with a special focus on partial oral therapy and the role of aminoglycosides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Comorbidade , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 718, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed a clinical bedside tool to simultaneously estimate the probabilities of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) among hospitalized adult patients with Gram-negative infections. METHODS: Data were obtained from a retrospective observational study of the Premier Hospital that included hospitalized adult patients with a complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP), or bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Gram-negative bacteria between 2011 and 2015. Risk factors for 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP were ascertained by multivariate logistic regression, and separate models were developed for patients with community-acquired versus hospital-acquired infections for each resistance phenotype (N = 6). Models were converted to a singular user-friendly interface to estimate the probabilities of a patient having an infection due to 3GC-R, CRE, or MDRP when ≥ 1 risk factor was present. RESULTS: Overall, 124,068 patients contributed to the dataset. Percentages of patients admitted for cUTI, cIAI, HAP/VAP, and BSI were 61.6, 4.6, 16.5, and 26.4%, respectively (some patients contributed > 1 infection type). Resistant infection rates were 1.90% for CRE, 12.09% for 3GC-R, and 3.91% for MDRP. A greater percentage of the resistant infections were community-acquired relative to hospital-acquired (CRE, 1.30% vs 0.62% of 1.90%; 3GC-R, 9.27% vs 3.42% of 12.09%; MDRP, 2.39% vs 1.59% of 3.91%). The most important predictors of having an 3GC-R, CRE or MDRP infection were prior number of antibiotics; infection site; infection during the previous 3 months; and hospital prevalence of 3GC-R, CRE, or MDRP. To enable application of the six predictive multivariate logistic regression models to real-world clinical practice, we developed a user-friendly interface that estimates the risk of 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP simultaneously in a given patient with a Gram-negative infection based on their risk (Additional file 1). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a clinical prediction tool to estimate the probabilities of 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP among hospitalized adult patients with confirmed community- and hospital-acquired Gram-negative infections. Our predictive model has been implemented as a user-friendly bedside tool for use by clinicians/healthcare professionals to predict the probability of resistant infections in individual patients, to guide early appropriate therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 690, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In most developing countries, puerperal sepsis is treated empirically with broad spectrum antibiotics due to lack of resources for culture and antibiotics susceptibility testing. However, empirical treatment does not guarantee treatment success and may promote antimicrobial resistance. We set to determine etiological agents and susceptibility pattern to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, among women suspected of puerperal sepsis, and admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital. METHODS: Hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at tertiary hospital from December 2017 to April 2018. The study recruited post-delivery women suspected with puerperal sepsis. Socio- demographic, clinical and obstetric information were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood and endocervical swab samples were collected for aerobic culture. Blood culture bottles were incubated in BACTEC FX40 (Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA). Positive blood cultures and cervical swabs were inoculated onto sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar, incubated aerobically at 37 °C for 18-24 h. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 197women were recruited, of whom 50.3% had spontaneous vaginal delivery, while 49.2% had caesarean section. Bacteraemia was detected in 22 (11.2%) women, along with 86 (43.6%) isolated from endocervical swabs. Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant isolates detected in 92(46.7%) cases. Majority of the isolates were E. coli 68(61.8%) followed by Klebsiella spp. 22(20.0%). E. coli were highly susceptible to meropenem (97.0%), while resistance to ceftriaxone, ampicillin and ceftazidime was 64.7, 67.6 and 63.2%, respectively. Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to meropenem (86.4%) and resistant to ceftriaxone (77.3%), gentamicin (86.4%), ampicillin (81.8%) and ceftazidime (86.4%). Staphylococcus aureus isolates were 100% susceptible to clindamycin. The proportion of extended spectrum beta lactamase producers among gram-negative bacilli was 64(69.6%) and 53.8% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin. CONCLUSION: In this study puerperal sepsis was mostly caused by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Causative agents exhibited very high levels of resistance to most antibiotics used in empiric treatment calling for review of treatment guidelines and strict infection control procedures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Puerperais/microbiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Tanzânia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426735

RESUMO

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2017 survey was the fifth year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand nine hundred and ten isolates, comprising Enterobacterales (7,100, 89.8%), P. aeruginosa (697, 8.8%) and Acinetobacter species (113, 1.4%), were tested using commercial automated methods. The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2018). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 11.3%/11.3% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria), 8.8%/8.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 5.7%/5.7% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.1%/18.0% for E. coli, 4.4%/11.2% for K. pneumoniae, 1.3%/3.5% for K. oxytoca, 3.0%/8.5% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 5.1%/9.8% for P. aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%/5.9%, 3.7%/7.3%, 9.6%/11.0%, 22.5%/27.6%, and 6.4%/13.2% for the same five species respectively. Twenty-seven isolates from 25 patients were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene: 12 blaIMP (11 patients), five blaOXA-181 (four patients), three blaOXA-23, two blaNDM, two blaKPC, two blaVIM, and one blaGES.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 609, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This scenario worsens with the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens, resulting in infections which are difficult to treat or even untreatable with conventional antimicrobials. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological aspects of BSI caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). METHODS: We conducted a laboratory-based surveillance for gram-negative bacteremia over a 1-year period. The bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by VITEK®2. Resistance genes were identified through PCR assays. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients, 28.7% had infections caused by MDR-GNB. The risk factors for MDR bacteremia were male sex, age ≥ 60, previous antimicrobial use, liver disease and bacteremia caused by K. pneumoniae. K. pneumoniae was the most frequently observed causative agent and had the highest resistance level. Regarding the resistance determinants, SHV, TEM, OXA-1-like and CTX-M-gp1 were predominant enzymatic variants, whereas CTX-M-gp9, CTX-M-gp2, KPC, VIM, GES, OXA-48-like, NDM and OXA-23-like were considered emerging enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Here we demonstrate that clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes are prevalent in this setting. We hope our findings support the development of intervention measures by policy makers and healthcare professionals to face antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
16.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 553-558, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269557

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze the changes of indicator of antimicrobial usage and detection rate of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB), in order to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). Methods: The antimicrobial stewardship program was implemented since December 2011 at the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Intensified effort was made from 2014 to 2017. We divided the program into four stages, one before ASP (2010-2011) and three after ASP (2012-2013 as the first, 2014-2015 as the second and 2016-2017 as the third post-ASP stages). The usage rates in outpatient,emergency department and inpatient, along with the antibiotic use density (AUD, defined as daily doses/per 100 patient-days), the AUD of the third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems in inpatient were reviewed retrospectively. The detection rates of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli, ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumonia, carbapenem-resistant E. coli, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also analyzed at the same time. The correlation analysis between the detection rate of MDR-GNB and the indicator of antimicrobial usage was made. Result: Among four stages, the usage rates were 55.2% (560 578/1 015 540) , 38.1% (493 554/1 296 336) , 26.8% (378 602/1 411 595) and 23.1% (347 817/1 502 817) in outpatient, 75.6% (429 582/568 230) , 61.4% (382 558/623 138) , 43.6% (265 102/608 071) and 35.1% (218 484/622 397) in emergency department, and 76.0% (30 568/40 221) , 53.7% (30 437/56 636) , 49.9% (37 395/74 895) and 50.3% (35 493/70 544) in inpatient, respectively. All indicators decreased significantly (χ(2)=297 811.798, 3 155 704.783, 5 592.037, P<0.01). The AUD in inpatient was 38.4,31.8,21.7 and 19.41,and the AUD of the third-generation cephalosporins were 13.83, 11.21, 6.20 and 6.84, respectively, which decreased significantly after ASP (r=-0.878, -0.781, P<0.05). The AUD of carbapenems were 1.94,1.77,1.87 and 1.93, respectively (r=0.123, P>0.05). A total of 11 289 strains of bacteria were collected, including 5 589 strains of E. coli, 2 823 strains of K.pneumoniae, 1 637 strains of A. baumandii, and 1 240 strains of P. aeruginosa.The detection rates of ESBLs-producing E.coli and ESBLs -producing K. pneumoniae in four stages were 75.4% (1 034/1 371) , 66.6% (893/1 341) , 57.8% (834/1 443) , 46.7% (670/1 434) and 78.7% (547/695) , 67.5% (455/674) , 49.3% (421/854) , 32.5% (195/600) , respectively,both decreased significantly (χ(2)=266.204; 328.805, P<0.01). The detection rates of Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were 28.2% (115/408) , 26.7% (126/472) , 24.3% (125/515) and 12.0% (29/242) respectively,and showed significant decreasing trend after ASP (χ(2)=18.112, P<0.01). The detection rates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were 11.3% (40/355) , 18.5% (58/313) , 13.4% (46/343) and 7.0% (16/229) , respectively,with the most obvious decrease in the third stage after ASP. The detection rates of carbapenem-resistant E. coli and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumonia were continuously lower (<5%). There were positive correlations between the detection rates of ESBLs-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae and all usage indicators (r(1)=0.930, 0.974, 0.746, 0.958, 0.842; r(2)=0.910, 0.960, 0.765, 0.963, 0.898, P<0.05). Conclusion: The antimicrobial stewardship program can effectively reduce both the usage of antimicrobial and the production of MDR-GNB, which has great value to promote rational clinical use of antimicrobials and reduce bacterial resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(4): 237-245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that sustained use of generic antibiotics may be associated with clinical failure and emergence of antibacterial resistance. The present study was designed to determine the clinical outcome between the use of generic meropenem (GM) and brand-name meropenem (BNM). Additionally, this study evaluated the economic impact of GM and BNM to determine if the former represents a cost-effective alternative to the latter. METHODS: Patients treated between January 2011 and May 2014 received GM while patients treated between June 2014 and March 2017 received BNM. Mortality was compared between groups. Total infection cost was defined by the cost of antimicrobial consumption, length of stay, and laboratory and imaging exams until infection resolution. FINDINGS: A total of 168 patients were included; survival rate for the 68 patients treated with GM was 38% compared to 59% in the patients treated with BNM. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables most strongly-associated with mortality were cardiovascular disease (OR 18.18, 95% CI 1.25-262.3, p = 0.033) and treatment with generic meropenem (OR 18.45, 95% CI 1.45-232.32, p = 0.024). On the other hand, total infection cost did not show a significant difference between groups (BNM $10,771 vs. GM $11,343; p = 0.91). INTERPRETATION: The present study suggests that patients treated with GM have a risk of death 18 times higher compared to those treated with BNM. Furthermore, economic analysis shows that GM is not more cost effective than BNM. SUMMARY: More studies measuring clinical outcomes are needed to confirm the clinical equivalence of brand-name versus generic antibiotics, not only for meropenem but also for other molecules.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Meropeném/economia , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Colômbia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 657, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is a slowly growing gram-negative bacillus that can cause severe invasive disease in human. Although E. corrodens infections in various sites of human body have been well described, pericarditis caused by invasive E. corrodens has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a 63-year old male with a complaint of left shoulder pain. The patient was diagnosed as purulent pericarditis by chest computed tomography scan and ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis, and the pathogen of E. corrodens was identified in the pericardial fluid culture. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated quickly, and he died right after the drainage surgery even though the pathogen was sensitive to antibiotics treatment. CONCLUSION: E. corrodens is a rare pericarditis associated pathogen. Purulent pericarditis caused by E. corrodens presents atypical manifestations and rapid progression of infection in immunosuppressed individuals such as neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis and proper drainage surgery with effective antibiotics treatment may improve the prognosis.


Assuntos
Eikenella corrodens/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Eikenella corrodens/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericardiocentese , Pericardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericardite/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303935

RESUMO

Introduction: Superbugs are pathogenic micro-organism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: One hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (NIs) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that acinetobacter were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem. Conclusion: Superbugs (Acinetobacter species) significantly contributed to delayed hospital admissions through observed 100% resistance to used antibiotics. The healthcare managers of these hospitals and the ministry of health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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