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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108404, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585657

RESUMO

The genus Bartonella is comprised of Gram-negative coccobacilli, aerobic, and facultative intracellular bacteria which are transmitted by hematophagous vectors (e.g., fleas, lice, sandflies, and ticks). Each species of Bartonella infects one or few related mammals as reservoir host(s). If a Bartonella spp. infects a nonspecific host like humans, it can lead to a more acute disease. Bartonella spp. has been detected more recently for the first time in camels in Israel by Rasis and colleagues. However, the epidemiological and public health importance of this new pathogen in camels is not clear. In this study, we aimed to detect the Bartonella spp. in the blood samples of Iranian camels, measure their prevalence, and determine their species. Also, the relationship between Bartonella spp. infection and different hematological factors and acute-phase proteins (Hp, a1AGP, SAA) was investigated. Finally, the sequences of three DNA regions, i.e.16S rDNA, rpoB, and ITS, were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. From the 106 examined blood samples of camels from Fars province (southern area of Iran), 18 samples were positive (17%). The findings also showed that Bartonella spp. positive camels had significantly lower Hb, MCH, and MCHC but higher RDW, SAA, and WBC (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our Bartonella strain was genetically similar to the 'Candidatus Bartonella dromedarii' but different from Bartonella bovis. Thus, more studies are required to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 'Candidatus Bartonella dromedarii'. Also, there is a need to evaluate precisely the risk factors, transmission routes, and zoonotic potential of this species.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Camelus/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(6): 1321-1327, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017080

RESUMO

The present study aimed to detect Bartonella DNA in cats belonging to shelters, and to evaluate risk factors, clinical signs, and hematological abnormalities associated with infection. Complete blood counts and screening for the presence of Bartonella DNA were performed on cats' ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid anticoagulant-blood samples. Eighty-three cats (39.9%) were positive for Bartonella species. Bartonella DNA was also detected in fleas and in the blood of cats infested by positive flea. Cats that had not been sterilized, had outdoor access, had histories of fights, and had concurrent flea infestation were more likely to be infected by Bartonella species (P < 0.05). Age and sex were not associated with infection. Fifty-one (38.6%) symptomatic cats were positive to Bartonella species (P > 0.05). Clinical conditions most commonly observed were signs of respiratory abnormality and Sporothrix species coinfection (P > 0.05). Regarding hematological changes, eosinophilia was associated with infection (P < 0.05). A high frequency of Bartonella species infection was found in shelter cats and highlights the importance of adequate flea-control programs to prevent infection in cats and consequently in adopters and other animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cidades , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 104-111, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961804

RESUMO

Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors that infect red blood cells of several mammal species. This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in 68 howler monkeys kept in captivity in São Paulo, a southeastern state in Brazil. In addition, possible hematological, biochemical and electrophoretic changes of serum proteins associated with the occurrence of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in captive primates were also investigated. The cPCR results showed that all sampled howler monkeys were negative for Bartonella spp. based on the gltA gene. The cPCR results indicated that 18 (26.47%) non-human primates (NHP) were positive for hemoplasmas based on the 16S rRNA gene. Monocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in hemoplasma-positive howlers (P < 0.05). Platelet counts decreased in nonhuman primates (NHP) positive for hemoplasmas (P < 0.05). The results from the blood serum proteinogram and biochemistry analyses were not significantly different between NHPs positive and negative for hemotrophic mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) based on the 16S rRNA gene positioned the obtained sequences close to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma kahanei'. The analysis of sequence diversity of the 16S rRNA gene showed that 5 different genotypes are circulating in NHP in Brazil and in the world; besides, a clear separation between the sequences of hemoplasmas that infect NHP of the Sapajus and Alouatta genus in Brazil was found, probably corresponding to two different species. The pathogenic potential of this hemoplasma species in NHP should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Alouatta , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in privately owned cats, was assessed in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: In March-May 2015 [Day 0 (D0)], 204 privately-owned cats from the Aeolian Islands (Sicily) were collared (G1, n = 104) or left as controls (G2, n = 100). The bacteraemia of Bartonella spp. was assessed at enrolment (D0) and study closure (D360) by PCR and DNA sequencing both prior to and after an enrichment step, using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM). RESULTS: A total of 152 cats completed the study with 3 in G1 and 10 in G2 being positive for Bartonella spp. Bartonella henselae genotype I ZF1 (1.35%) and genotype II Fizz/Cal-1 (6.76%) as well as B. clarridgeiae (5.41%) were detected in cats of G2. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the only species detected in G1. Based on the yearly crude incidence of Bartonella spp. infection (i.e. 3.85% in G1 and 13.51% in G2; P = 0.03) the Seresto® collar achieved a preventative efficacy of 71.54%. The incidence of Bartonella spp. infection was more frequent in flea-infested cats (6/33, 18.18%) than in uninfested ones (7/112, 5.88%) (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Cats living in the Aeolian Islands are exposed to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. The Seresto® collar provided significant risk reduction against Bartonella spp. infection in outdoor cats under field conditions. Such a preventative tool could be a key contribution for decreasing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in cats and thus ultimately to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sicília/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(3): 506-509, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526734

RESUMO

Rodents are the most prominent animal host of Bartonella spp., which are associated with an increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Many rodent species thrive in urban environments and live in close contact with people, which can lead to an increased human risk of infection from rodent-borne pathogens. In this study, we explored the prevalence and distribution of Bartonella spp. in rodents in urban, developing, and rural environments surrounding a growing city in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We found that although Bartonella spp. infection was pervasive in most rodent species sampled, prevalence was highest in urban areas and infection was most commonly detected in the predominant indigenous rodent species sampled (Sundamys muelleri). Within the urban environment, parks and remnant green patches were significantly associated with the presence of both S. muelleri and Bartonella spp., indicating higher localized risk of infection for people using these environments for farming, foraging, or recreation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella/genética , Urbanização , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 618, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute febrile illness (AFI) represent a significant health challenge in the Peruvian Amazon basin population due to their diverse etiologies and the unavailability of specific on-site diagnostic methods, resulting in underreporting of cases. In Peru, one of the most endemic regions to dengue and leptospirosis is Madre de Dios, a region also endemic to emergent bacterial etiologic agents of AFI, such as bartonellosis and rickettsiosis, whose prevalence is usually underreported. We aimed to molecularly identify the presence of Leptospira spp., Bartonella bacilliformis, and Rickettsia spp. by Polymerase Chain Reaction in serum samples from patients with AFI from Puerto Maldonado-Madre de Dios in Peru. METHODS: Serum samples from patients with acute febrile illness were analyzed by real-time PCR for detecting the presence of Bartonella bacilliformis, Leptospira spp. and Rickettsia spp. RESULTS: Bartonella bacilliformis was the most prevalent bacteria identified in 21.6% (30/139) of the samples, followed by Leptospira spp. in 11.5% (16/139) and Rickettsia spp. in 6.5% (9/139) of the samples. No co-infections were observed between these bacteria. The most frequent symptoms associated with fever among all groups, were headaches, myalgias, and arthralgias. We found no statistically significant differences in the clinical presentation between patients infected with each bacterium. CONCLUSIONS: In a previous study, we shown the presence of dengue, chikungunya, Zika and oropouche virus. We were able to identify these pathogens in 29.5% of all the samples, with chikungunya and OROV as the most frequently found in 9.4 and 8.6% of all the samples, respectively. In this study we show that B. bacilliformis (21.6%), Leptospira spp. (11.5%) and Rickettsia spp. (6.5%) accounted for the main etiologies of AFI in samples from Puerto Maldonado-Madre de Dios, Perú. Our analysis of their clinical presentation, further shows the importance of implementing more sensitive and specific on-site diagnostic tools in the national surveillance programs.This study confirms that the un-specificity of signs and symptoms is not only associated with arboviral infections, but also with the clinical presentation of endemic bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella bacilliformis/genética , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Bartonella bacilliformis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Rios , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 624, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514361

RESUMO

Bartonellosis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that can infect humans and a large number of mammals including small companion animals (cats and dogs). In recent years, an increasing number of studies from around the world have reported Bartonella infections, although publications have predominantly focused on the North American perspective. Currently, clinico-pathological data from Europe are more limited, suggesting that bartonellosis may be an infrequent or underdiagnosed infectious disease in cats and dogs. Research is needed to confirm or exclude Bartonella infection as a cause of a spectrum of feline and canine diseases. Bartonella spp. can cause acute or chronic infections in cats, dogs and humans. On a comparative medical basis, different clinical manifestations, such as periods of intermittent fever, granulomatous inflammation involving the heart, liver, lymph nodes and other tissues, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, uveitis and vasoproliferative tumors have been reported in cats, dogs and humans. The purpose of this review is to provide an update and European perspective on Bartonella infections in cats and dogs, including clinical, diagnostic, epidemiological, pathological, treatment and zoonotic aspects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(12): 2317-2323, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457529

RESUMO

Twice a year in southwestern Nigeria, during a traditional bat festival, community participants enter designated caves to capture bats, which are then consumed for food or traded. We investigated the presence of Bartonella species in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) from these caves and assessed whether Bartonella infections had occurred in persons from the surrounding communities. Our results indicate that these bats and flies harbor Bartonella strains, which multilocus sequence typing indicated probably represent a novel Bartonella species, proposed as Bartonella rousetti. In serum from 8 of 204 persons, we detected antibodies to B. rousetti without cross-reactivity to other Bartonella species. This work suggests that bat-associated Bartonella strains might be capable of infecting humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Dípteros/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006786, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260954

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. are globally distributed bacteria that cause endocarditis in humans and domestic animals. Recent work has suggested bats as zoonotic reservoirs of some human Bartonella infections; however, the ecological and spatiotemporal patterns of infection in bats remain largely unknown. Here we studied the genetic diversity, prevalence of infection across seasons and years, individual risk factors, and possible transmission routes of Bartonella in populations of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in Peru and Belize, for which high infection prevalence has previously been reported. Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA gene for a subset of PCR-positive blood samples revealed sequences that were related to Bartonella described from vampire bats from Mexico, other Neotropical bat species, and streblid bat flies. Sequences associated with vampire bats clustered significantly by country but commonly spanned Central and South America, implying limited spatial structure. Stable and nonzero Bartonella prevalence between years supported endemic transmission in all sites. The odds of Bartonella infection for individual bats was unrelated to the intensity of bat flies ectoparasitism, but nearly all infected bats were infested, which precluded conclusive assessment of support for vector-borne transmission. While metagenomic sequencing found no strong evidence of Bartonella DNA in pooled bat saliva and fecal samples, we detected PCR positivity in individual saliva and feces, suggesting the potential for bacterial transmission through both direct contact (i.e., biting) and environmental (i.e., fecal) exposures. Further investigating the relative contributions of direct contact, environmental, and vector-borne transmission for bat Bartonella is an important next step to predict infection dynamics within bats and the risks of human and livestock exposures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Variação Genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Belize , Sangue/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Fezes/microbiologia , Glutamato Sintase/genética , Peru , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 279, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of bats as reservoirs of zoonotic agents, especially pathogenic bacteria such as Bartonella and Coxiella, has been discussed around the world. Recent studies have identified bats as potential hosts of species from the proteobacteria phylum. In Brazil, however, the role of bats in the natural cycle of these agents is poorly investigated and generally neglected. In order to analyze the participation of bats in the epidemiology of diseases caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Rickettsia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, we conducted a descriptive epidemiological study in three biogeographic regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. RESULTS: Tissues of 119 bats captured in preserved areas in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Santa Catarina from 2014 to 2015 were submitted to molecular analysis using specific primers. Bartonella spp. was detected in 22 spleen samples (18.5%, 95% CI: 11.9-26.6), whose phylogenetic analysis revealed the generation of at least two independent clusters, suggesting that these may be new unique genotypes of Bartonella species. In addition, four samples (3.4%, 95% CI: 0.9-8.3) were positive for the htpAB gene of C. burnetii [spleen (2), liver (1) and heart (1)]. Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were not identified. This is the first study reporting C. burnetii and Bartonella spp. infections in bats from the Atlantic Forest biome. CONCLUSIONS: These findings shed light on potential host range for these bacteria, which are characterized as important zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Coxiella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coxiella/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Florestas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Baço/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(5): 1229-1233, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226144

RESUMO

Carrion's disease is a neglected, vector-borne illness that affects Colombia, Ecuador, and especially Peru. The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia peruensis are the main illness vectors described, although other species may be implicated in endemic areas such as some northern Peruvian regions, in which Carrion's disease vector has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Bartonella bacilliformis DNA in Lutzomyia maranonensis from Cajamarca, northern Peru. This sand fly has not been defined as a vector yet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps were used to collect adult phlebotomine sand flies from 2007 to 2008 in the Cajamarca department. Female specimens were identified using morphological keys and were grouped into pools of five sand flies, taking into account district and sampling site (intradomicile or peridomicile). DNA was extracted, and then conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to detect B. bacilliformis and subsequently confirmed by sequencing. A total of 383 specimens of L. maranonensis species were analyzed. Two of 76 pools were positive for B. bacilliformis by sequencing; all positives pools were from Querocotillo district. In addition, Mesorhizobium spp. were identified in two pools of sand flies, which is an α-proteobacteria phylogenetically very close to B. bacilliformis. This study presents molecular evidence that suggests L. maranonensis is naturally infected by B. bacilliformis in the Cajamarca department. Further research should determine if L. maranonensis is a vector and could transmit B. bacilliformis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Bartonella bacilliformis/isolamento & purificação , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Psychodidae/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella bacilliformis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 491, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella spp. cause persistent bacterial infections in mammals. Although these bacteria are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, there is also evidence for vertical transmission in their mammalian hosts. We aimed to determine: (i) the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in a Microtus spp. community; (ii) whether vertical transmission occurs from infected female voles to their offspring; (iii) the effect of concurrent Babesia microti infection on the success of vertical transmission of Bartonella; and (iv) the impact of congenital infection on pup survival. RESULTS: We sampled 124 Microtus arvalis, 76 Microtus oeconomus and 17 Microtus agrestis. In total, 115 embryos were isolated from 21 pregnant females. In the following year 11 pregnant females were kept until they had given birth and weaned their pups (n = 62). Blood smears and PCR targeting the Bartonella-specific rpoB gene fragment (333bp) were used for the detection of Bartonella. Bartonella DNA was detected in 66.8% (145/217) of the wild-caught voles. Bartonella infection was detected in 81.8% (36/44) of pregnant female voles. Bartonella-positive individuals were identified among the embryos (47.1%; 40/85) and in 54.8% (34/62) of pups. Congenitally acquired Bartonella infections and co-infection with B. microti had no impact on the survival of pups over a 3-week period post partum. Among 113 Bartonella sequences, four species were detected: Bartonella taylorii, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella doshiae and a Bartonella rochalimae-like genotype. Bartonella taylorii clade B was the dominant species in wild-caught voles (49%), pregnant females (47%), their embryos (85%), dams (75%) and pups (95%). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection maintained in Microtus spp. community is followed by a high rate of vertical transmission of several rodent species of Bartonella in three species of naturally infected voles, M. arvalis, M. oeconomus and M. agrestis. Congenitally acquired Bartonella infection does not affect the survival of pups. Co-infection with B. microti does not affect the effectiveness of the vertical transmission of Bartonella in voles. Bartonella taylorii clade B was found to be the dominant species in wild-caught voles, including pregnant females and dams, and in their offspring, and was also found to be the most successful in vertical transmission.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/microbiologia , Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella/genética , Variação Genética , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Animais , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Babesia microti/fisiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bartonella/fisiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/congênito , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/microbiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245047

RESUMO

Bartonella bacteria are arthropod-borne and can cause long-term bacteremia in humans and animals. The predominant arthropod vectors and the mode of transmission for many novel Bartonella species remain elusive or essentially unstudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in Norwegian cervids and deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) and to characterise the bacteria by sequencing of the partial gltA gene and 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) in order to evaluate a possible transmission route. A total of 260 spleen samples and 118 deer keds were collected from cervids by hunters in the Southern part of Norway. Bartonella DNA was detected in 10.5% of spleen samples of roe deer (n = 67), in 35.1% red deer (n = 37), in 35.9% moose (n = 156), and in 85% pools of adult wingless deer ked (n = 59). Two Bartonella lineages were identified based on phylogenetic analysis of the gltA gene and ITS region sequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/fisiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Baço/microbiologia
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 65: 244-250, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071312

RESUMO

Bartonellae bacteria are associated with several re-emerging human diseases. These vector-borne pathogens have a global distribution, yet data on Bartonella prevalence and diversity in the Arabian Peninsula are limited. In this study we assessed the Bartonella infection status of the Baluchistan gerbil (Gerbillus nanus), a species associated with pastoral communities throughout the Middle East region, using a multi-gene PCR screening approach. The results demonstrated that 94 (68.1%) of the 138 gerbils trapped on a monthly basis, over a period of one year, were PCR-positive. Sequencing of the gltA gene region confirmed the presence of four discrete Bartonella lineages (I-IV) and high levels of co-infection (33.0%). Each of the four lineages, varied in overall abundance (7.5%-47.9%) and had discernible seasonal peaks. Bartonella status was significantly correlated with ectoparasite presence, but not with sex, nor with season. Statistical analyses further revealed that co-infected individuals had a significantly higher relative body condition. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) performed with a concatenated dataset of three genetic loci (gltA, nuoG, and rpoB), 1452 nucleotides (nt) in length confirmed that lineage IV, which occurred in 24 PCR-positive animals (25.5%), is most closely related to zoonotic B. elizabethae. The remaining three lineages (I-III) formed a monophyletic clade which, on the basis of gltA was shown to contain bartonellae from diverse Gerbillinae species from the Middle East, suggestive of a gerbil-associated species complex in this region. Lineage I was identical to a Candidatus B. sanaae strain identified previously in Bushy-tailed jirds (Sekeetamys calurus) from Egypt, wherease MLSA indicate that lineages II and III are novel. The high levels of infection and co-infection, together with the presence of multiple Bartonella lineages indicate that Gerbillus nanus is likely a natural reservoir of Bartonella in the Arabian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Bartonella/genética , Gerbillinae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 222: 69-74, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080675

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. have been identified in many bat species worldwide, including the zoonotic species, Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) preys preferentially on livestock in Latin America and is frequently infected with Bartonella spp. To determine the potential role of D. rotundus in transmitting Bartonella to livestock, common vampire bats and bat-bitten domestic ruminants from Mexico were tested for Bartonella infection by blood culture or conventional PCR. Furthermore, to explore the possibility of bite transmission during blood feeding, saliva swabs from 35 D. rotundus known to be either Bartonella bacteremic (N = 17) or blood culture negative (N = 18) were tested by PCR to detect the presence of Bartonella DNA. Twenty (17.1%) of 117 sheep and 16 (34.8%) of 46 cattle were Bartonella bacteremic by PCR testing. However, none of them were infected with Bartonella strains previously isolated from vampire bats and none of the 35 D. rotundus saliva swabs tested were PCR positive for Bartonella. All but two animals among those which were Bartonella culture and/or PCR positive, were infected with either B. bovis (cattle) or B. melophagi (sheep). Two sheep were infected by a possible new species, Candidatus Bartonella ovis, being phylogenetically closer to B. bovis than B. melophagi. This study does not support the role of D. rotundus as a reservoir of Bartonella species infecting livestock, which could be transmitted via bite and blood feeding and therefore suggest limited risk of zoonotic transmission of Bartonella from common vampire bats to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Saliva/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Mordeduras e Picadas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Quirópteros/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Variação Genética , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 489, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bats are among the most widely distributed mammals worldwide and can represent hosts or reservoirs for a number of different pathogens. Bartonella spp. are opportunistic bacterial pathogens, which are transmitted by a large variety of arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and host-associations of these Gram-negative bacteria in heart tissues of bats collected in four different countries from eastern and central Europe and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other bat-associated bartonellae. RESULTS: The results of this study show for the first time the presence of Bartonella spp. DNA in heart tissues of bats from central and eastern Europe. The overall prevalence of the infection was 1.38%. Phylogenetic analysis identified four new Bartonella spp. sequences, which were closely related with other Bartonella previously isolated from bats in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: The gltA sequences of Bartonella spp. showed considerable heterogeneity in the phylogenetic analysis resulting in six different clades. Our study demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. only in heart tissues of bats from Romania, with two new bat species recorded as hosts (Myotis cf. alcathoe and Pipistrellus pipistrellus).


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Coração/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Romênia/epidemiologia
17.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 60: e31, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043935

RESUMO

The increasing use of illicit drugs imposes a public health challenge worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are more susceptible to health complications due to immunosuppression associated with drug use and non-hygienic self-administration of substances, contaminants, and liquids. PWID are subjected to increased risk of acquiring and transmitting different pathogens (frequently functioning as sentinel cases for (re)emerging pathogens), including those transmitted by arthropods and vertebrate reservoirs in unhealthy environments. A clear association between injection drug use and HIV, HBV, and HCV infections has been described; however, other infectious viral and bacterial agents have been seldomly assessed. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Hantavirus among 300 randomly selected PWIDs from Rio de Janeiro, as part of a multi-city cross-sectional study carried out in the 1990s. Point seroprevalences and respective 95% CIs are as follows: 9.3% for C. burnetii (95% CI: 6.0%-13.0%), 1.0% for Bartonella spp. (95% CI: 0.0%-3.0%), and 4.0% for Hantavirus (95% CI: 2.0%-7.0%). In addition to the blood-borne pathogens, the results of this study increase our knowledge on other transmissible infectious agents in PWID. The high seroprevalence of C. burnetii and Hantavirus found among PWID is intriguing and suggests the need to carry out prospective studies, including molecular analyses, to confirm these findings and allow a better understanding of the putative relevance of these zoonotic infectious agents among PWID.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bancos de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/microbiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/virologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 7(1): 115, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941982

RESUMO

The seroprevalence and epidemiology of Bartonella bacilliformis infection in the Andean highlands of Ecuador is largely unknown. We conducted a sero-epidemiologic survey of 319 healthy children aged 1-15 years living in six rural, mountain communities in Loja Province, Ecuador. Blood was collected by finger stick onto filter paper and dried, and the eluted sera analyzed for antibodies to B. bacilliformis by rPap31 ELISA. Demographic, entomologic, and household variables were assessed to investigate associated risk factors for antibody seropositivity to B. bacilliformis. Seroprevalence of 28% was found among children in the study communities. Increased risk of seropositivity was associated with the presence of lumber piles near houses. Decreased risk of seropositivity was observed with the presence of animal waste and incremental 100 meter increases in elevation. Although investigation of clinical cases of Carrion's disease was not within the scope of this study, our serology data suggest that infection of children with B. bacilliformis is prevalent in this region of Ecuador and is largely unrecognized and undiagnosed. This study highlights the need to further investigate the prevalence, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and disease impact of this pathogen in Ecuador.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Bartonella bacilliformis , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Bartonella/imunologia , Bartonella bacilliformis/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
N Z Vet J ; 66(5): 257-260, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874523

RESUMO

AIM To identify Bartonella spp. in rats from New Zealand using molecular methods. METHODS DNA was extracted from the spleens of 143 black rats (Rattus rattus) captured in the Tongariro National Park, New Zealand. PCR was performed using Bartonella genus-specific primers amplifying segments of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer and citrate synthase (gltA) and beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. PCR products were sequenced and compared online with sequences stored in the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the United States of America. RESULTS DNA sequences matching Bartonella coopersplainsensis and B. henselae were detected in samples from 22/143 (15.4%) and 3/143 (2.1%) rats, respectively. Co-occurrence of B. coopersplainsensis and B. henselae sequences was observed in the sample from one rat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gram-negative fastidious bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are associated with a range of human diseases. Rodents play an important role as reservoirs of a broad range of Bartonella species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in rodents from New Zealand, and the first identification of B. henselae DNA in rats, worldwide. Whereas the public health significance of B. coopersplainsensis remains undefined, B. henselae is the agent of cat scratch disease, and the presence of this bacterium in rats may have public health implications. Our results are preliminary and additional analyses of larger samples, preferably by bacterial culture, would provide more information on the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp., in particular B. henselae, in rats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Primers do DNA , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Ratos
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 63: 231-235, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864510

RESUMO

All the studies published including Bartonella bacilliformis MLST data, as well as all B. bacilliformis genomes present in GenBank were analyzed. Overall 64 isolates and their geographical distribution were analyzed, and 14 different MLST patterns were observed. The results highlight the need for expanding the MLST studies and adding a higher number of isolates from all endemic areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Bartonella bacilliformis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Bartonella bacilliformis/classificação , Bartonella bacilliformis/isolamento & purificação , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Peru/epidemiologia
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