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1.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105056, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175861

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. are emerging vector-borne pathogens distributed worldwide that can infect humans and a wide range of mammals including small companion animals (cats and dogs). An increasing number of studies from the worldwide have reported cat and dog Bartonella infections in recently years. Cats and dogs are the primary reservoir or accidental hosts for Bartonella henselae, the main causal agent of human cat scratch disease. Since pet cat and dog sharing human living environment and have the direct and intimate contact with humans, pet cats and dogs may represent excellent epidemiological sentinels for Bartonella infection in humans. In this study, 475 blood samples were collected from pet cats and dogs in local animal hospitals located at five districts of Shenzhen City, and detected the presence of Bartonella. Bartonella DNA was detected in eight samples collected from pet cats, no positive sample was detected from pet dog samples. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the eight sequences of Bartonella identified here shared the highest identity with B. henselae. Given the intimate contact between pet animals and humans, many attentions should be paid to prevent the Bartonella infections originate from pet cats or dogs, although the Bartonella infection rate in pet cats and dogs might be rather low.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/parasitologia , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/psicologia , Cães/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Filogenia
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 181-202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119415

RESUMO

Juvenile Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabit nests and burrows of their rodent hosts and cannot be collected from vegetation. To detect vertical transmission of Babesia canis in D. reticulatus, we studied larvae and nymphs collected from rodents. However, the molecular techniques used for detection of pathogen DNA are sensitive enough to detect not only pathogens vectored by ticks but also those taken up with current or previous blood meals ('meal contamination') or just present in the environment and on the tick or host surface ('environmental contaminations'). Thus, an additional aim of our study was to evaluate the extent of such contamination while studying feeding ticks collected from rodents. Juvenile D. reticulatus were collected from 140 rodents: 91 bank voles trapped in two forest sites in the Mazury Lake District and 49 rodents (Apodemus and Microtus spp.) from an open habitat near the town of Bialobrzegi in Central Poland. Altogether 504 D. reticulatus ticks, comprising 266 individually evaluated nymphs and 238 larvae assigned to 50 larval pools, were studied for the presence of Babesia, Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. DNA. Statistical analyses were conducted to (1) evaluate the effect of rodent host factors (species, sex and age) on prevalence of infection in ticks, and (2) to compare the frequency of positive samples between groups of pathogen-positive and pathogen-negative rodent hosts. To complete the last aim, blood samples obtained from 49 rodents from Bialobrzegi were studied for the presence of Babesia and Bartonella DNA. Infestation of rodent hosts with juvenile ticks ranged between 46 and 78%, with a mean abundance of 3.6 ticks/rodent for D. reticulatus and 4.8 ticks/rodent for Ixodes ricinus. The highest prevalence of PCR-positive D. reticulatus samples was obtained for Rickettsia spp. (28%) and R. raoultii was identified in 22 sequenced PCR products. Babesia DNA was detected in 20 (7.5%), including B. microti in 18 (6.8%) and B. canis in two (0.8%) of 266 D. reticulatus nymphs that were analyzed. Babesia microti DNA was also detected in four pools of D. reticulatus larvae (4/50 pools = 8%). The detection success of B. microti in D. reticulatus was associated with the species of the rodent hosts of the ticks (much higher for typical B. microti-host-species such as Microtus spp. than for Apodemus spp.) and host age (3 × higher in ticks collected from adult hosts in comparison to juvenile ones). Moreover, the DNA of B. microti was detected in 68% of D. reticulatus nymphs collected from B. microti-positive rodents in comparison to only 1.6% of nymphs collected from B. microti-negative rodents. Bartonella DNA was detected in 18% of D. reticulatus tick samples (38% of larval pools, 14% of nymphs). Again, host factors played important roles for 'tick positivity'-the highest prevalence of positive ticks was on Apodemus spp., which are regarded as Bartonella reservoirs. Bartonella DNA was detected in 42% of nymphs and 57% of larval pools collected from Bartonella-positive rodents in comparison to 28% of nymphs and 11% of larvae collected from Bartonella-negative rodents. Vertical transmission of B. canis in D. reticulatus ticks was confirmed in the field. Additionally, we demonstrated that 'meal contamination' generates a confounding signal in molecular detection of pathogen DNA extracted from ticks collected from infected hosts and must be taken into account in evaluating the competence of tick species as vectors.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes , Arvicolinae , Dermacentor , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Murinae , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Vetores Artrópodes/fisiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/transmissão , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Dermacentor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermacentor/microbiologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 104-111, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961804

RESUMO

Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors that infect red blood cells of several mammal species. This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in 68 howler monkeys kept in captivity in São Paulo, a southeastern state in Brazil. In addition, possible hematological, biochemical and electrophoretic changes of serum proteins associated with the occurrence of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in captive primates were also investigated. The cPCR results showed that all sampled howler monkeys were negative for Bartonella spp. based on the gltA gene. The cPCR results indicated that 18 (26.47%) non-human primates (NHP) were positive for hemoplasmas based on the 16S rRNA gene. Monocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in hemoplasma-positive howlers (P < 0.05). Platelet counts decreased in nonhuman primates (NHP) positive for hemoplasmas (P < 0.05). The results from the blood serum proteinogram and biochemistry analyses were not significantly different between NHPs positive and negative for hemotrophic mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) based on the 16S rRNA gene positioned the obtained sequences close to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma kahanei'. The analysis of sequence diversity of the 16S rRNA gene showed that 5 different genotypes are circulating in NHP in Brazil and in the world; besides, a clear separation between the sequences of hemoplasmas that infect NHP of the Sapajus and Alouatta genus in Brazil was found, probably corresponding to two different species. The pathogenic potential of this hemoplasma species in NHP should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Alouatta , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Acta Trop ; 193: 163-168, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825447

RESUMO

Cats are considered main reservoir of Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted to other cats especially through Ctenocephalides felis fleas, and to humans through scratching and biting. Serra da Tiririca State Park (PESET) is an Atlantic Forest area that shelters a wide variety of endemic fauna. Recently, the park has been suffering due to irregular housing construction and domestic animal population that interacts with humans and wildlife. Given that surveillance policies for animals are part of the global Strategic Framework for One Health, the aim of this study was to detect Bartonella spp. DNA in cats and dogs, evaluating laboratory changes and associated factors. Blood samples of 124 dogs and 89 cats were collected for hematology and serum chemistry analysis. DNA was extracted and tested by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a fragment of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of Bartonella spp. with specific primers. Positive samples were sequenced to identify species. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in 24.7% of cats, being, for our knowledge, the first report of B. clarridgeiae in cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. None of the samples obtained from dogs tested positive in the PCR assays. No statistical significance was observed in physical and laboratory exams. We suggest that cats that inhabit PESET can be considered sources of Bartonella sp. for other cats and humans. We highlight that infected cats did not present clinical or laboratory alterations. We alert for the need of care measures, avoiding scratch and bite, particularly in immunocompromised people.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella henselae , Doenças do Gato/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Bartonella henselae/genética , Brasil , Gatos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Floresta Úmida
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the rare Bartonella koehlerae are zoonotic pathogens, with cats being regarded as the main reservoir hosts. The spread of the infection among cats occurs mainly via fleas and specific preventive measures need to be implemented. The effectiveness of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health), registered to prevent flea and tick infestations, in reducing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in privately owned cats, was assessed in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: In March-May 2015 [Day 0 (D0)], 204 privately-owned cats from the Aeolian Islands (Sicily) were collared (G1, n = 104) or left as controls (G2, n = 100). The bacteraemia of Bartonella spp. was assessed at enrolment (D0) and study closure (D360) by PCR and DNA sequencing both prior to and after an enrichment step, using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM). RESULTS: A total of 152 cats completed the study with 3 in G1 and 10 in G2 being positive for Bartonella spp. Bartonella henselae genotype I ZF1 (1.35%) and genotype II Fizz/Cal-1 (6.76%) as well as B. clarridgeiae (5.41%) were detected in cats of G2. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the only species detected in G1. Based on the yearly crude incidence of Bartonella spp. infection (i.e. 3.85% in G1 and 13.51% in G2; P = 0.03) the Seresto® collar achieved a preventative efficacy of 71.54%. The incidence of Bartonella spp. infection was more frequent in flea-infested cats (6/33, 18.18%) than in uninfested ones (7/112, 5.88%) (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Cats living in the Aeolian Islands are exposed to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. The Seresto® collar provided significant risk reduction against Bartonella spp. infection in outdoor cats under field conditions. Such a preventative tool could be a key contribution for decreasing the risk of Bartonella spp. infection in cats and thus ultimately to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sicília/epidemiologia
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(4): 242-248, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571537

RESUMO

Bartonella is a species-rich bacterial genus that infects a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, including rodents. Despite high levels of murid rodent diversity in Africa, associated Bartonella prevalence and diversity remains understudied, particularly within the southern African subregion. To address this, we sampled endemic four-striped mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, from three rural and two urban localities in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. PCR screening and multilocus sequence analysis inclusive of five genome regions (gltA, nuoG, ribC, rpoB, and ITS), were respectively used to evaluate Bartonella status and diversity in these synanthropic rodent populations. An overall infection rate of 15% was recovered, ranging from 0% for an urban locality to 36.4% for a rural locality, consistent with the higher flea abundance recorded at the latter sites. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of three distinct Bartonella lineages (I-III), with lineages II and III grouping with bartonellae previously detected in R. pumilio from nature reserves in the Free State Province of South Africa, and lineage I being novel and sister to Bartonella strains identified previously in Micaelamys namaquensis. Our results indicate significant landscape effects on infection rates, highlight differential PCR assay performance, and identify three host-associated Bartonella lineages in Rhabdomys from South Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Filogenia , África do Sul
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 222: 69-74, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080675

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. have been identified in many bat species worldwide, including the zoonotic species, Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) preys preferentially on livestock in Latin America and is frequently infected with Bartonella spp. To determine the potential role of D. rotundus in transmitting Bartonella to livestock, common vampire bats and bat-bitten domestic ruminants from Mexico were tested for Bartonella infection by blood culture or conventional PCR. Furthermore, to explore the possibility of bite transmission during blood feeding, saliva swabs from 35 D. rotundus known to be either Bartonella bacteremic (N = 17) or blood culture negative (N = 18) were tested by PCR to detect the presence of Bartonella DNA. Twenty (17.1%) of 117 sheep and 16 (34.8%) of 46 cattle were Bartonella bacteremic by PCR testing. However, none of them were infected with Bartonella strains previously isolated from vampire bats and none of the 35 D. rotundus saliva swabs tested were PCR positive for Bartonella. All but two animals among those which were Bartonella culture and/or PCR positive, were infected with either B. bovis (cattle) or B. melophagi (sheep). Two sheep were infected by a possible new species, Candidatus Bartonella ovis, being phylogenetically closer to B. bovis than B. melophagi. This study does not support the role of D. rotundus as a reservoir of Bartonella species infecting livestock, which could be transmitted via bite and blood feeding and therefore suggest limited risk of zoonotic transmission of Bartonella from common vampire bats to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Saliva/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Mordeduras e Picadas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Quirópteros/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Variação Genética , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão
8.
J Comp Pathol ; 162: 29-42, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060840

RESUMO

Endomyocarditis is a commonly detected post-mortem finding in domestic cats presenting for sudden onset cardiovascular death, yet the aetiology remains unresolved. Cats are documented reservoir hosts for Bartonella henselae, the infectious cause of cat scratch disease in man. Various Bartonella spp. have been associated with culture-negative endocarditis, myocarditis and sudden death in man and animals. We hypothesized that Bartonella spp. DNA could be amplified more often from the hearts of cats with feline endomyocarditis-left ventricular endocardial fibrosis (FEMC-LVEF) complex compared with cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or cats with grossly and microscopically unremarkable hearts (designated non-cardiac disease controls). Formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded, cardiac tissues from 60 domestic and purebred cats aged 3 months to 18 years were examined, and histological features were recorded. Cardiac tissue sections were tested for Bartonella DNA using multiple 16-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets, including two Bartonella genera, a Bartonella koehlerae species-specific and a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii-specific assay, followed by DNA sequence confirmation of the species or genotype. Special precautions were taken to avoid DNA cross-contamination between tissues. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced from 18 of 36 cats (50%) with FEMC-LVEF and 1/12 (8.3%) cats with HCM. Bartonella spp. DNA was not amplified from any non-cardiac disease control hearts. Based on PCR/DNA sequencing, one Bartonella spp. was amplified from 10 cats, while the remaining eight were coinfected with more than one Bartonella spp. To our knowledge, this study represents the first documentation of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I infection in cats (n = 11). Fluorescence in-situ hybridization testing facilitated visualization of Bartonella bacteria within the myocardium of four of seven PCR-positive FEMC-LVEF hearts. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that Bartonella spp. may play a primary role or act as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of FEMC-LVEF. Studies involving cats from other geographical regions and definitive demonstration of Bartonella spp. within regions of inflammation are needed to confirm an association between Bartonella spp. and FEMC-LVEF induced morbidity and mortality in cats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/veterinária , Miocardite/veterinária , Animais , Bartonella , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/análise
9.
N Z Vet J ; 66(5): 257-260, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874523

RESUMO

AIM To identify Bartonella spp. in rats from New Zealand using molecular methods. METHODS DNA was extracted from the spleens of 143 black rats (Rattus rattus) captured in the Tongariro National Park, New Zealand. PCR was performed using Bartonella genus-specific primers amplifying segments of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer and citrate synthase (gltA) and beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. PCR products were sequenced and compared online with sequences stored in the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the United States of America. RESULTS DNA sequences matching Bartonella coopersplainsensis and B. henselae were detected in samples from 22/143 (15.4%) and 3/143 (2.1%) rats, respectively. Co-occurrence of B. coopersplainsensis and B. henselae sequences was observed in the sample from one rat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gram-negative fastidious bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are associated with a range of human diseases. Rodents play an important role as reservoirs of a broad range of Bartonella species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in rodents from New Zealand, and the first identification of B. henselae DNA in rats, worldwide. Whereas the public health significance of B. coopersplainsensis remains undefined, B. henselae is the agent of cat scratch disease, and the presence of this bacterium in rats may have public health implications. Our results are preliminary and additional analyses of larger samples, preferably by bacterial culture, would provide more information on the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp., in particular B. henselae, in rats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Primers do DNA , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Ratos
10.
J Vet Cardiol ; 20(4): 267-275, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The presence of Bartonella spp. was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dogs from Spain with blood culture-negative endocarditis. The aim of this study is to add information about canine infectious endocarditis in Europe. ANIMALS: Thirty dogs with naturally occurring blood culture-negative endocarditis were examined from 2010 to 2017 at three veterinary referral hospitals, located in northwest, northeast, and southeast of Spain. METHODS: It is a retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed to extract relevant data. Frozen or paraffin-embedded cardiac valve tissue and/or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid blood samples were evaluated by PCR for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Positive results were sequenced to confirm the species. RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction was positive for eight out of 30 dogs included (26.6%). Bartonella rochalimae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and Bartonella koehlerae were detected in valve tissue or blood. CONCLUSIONS: Bartonella could be an important cause of blood culture-negative infectious endocarditis in dogs from Spain. The outcome for those dogs affected with Bartonella spp. was grave. Prompt empirical treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate plus fluoroquinolones could be of value in cases of blood culture-negative endocarditis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Hemocultura/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
J Vet Cardiol ; 20(3): 198-203, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730195

RESUMO

A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair presented to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for acute onset respiratory distress. Thoracic radiographs, echocardiogram, and electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed left-sided congestive heart failure, myocardial thickening with left atrial dilation, and sinus rhythm conducted with a left bundle branch block, respectively. Cardiac troponin I was elevated and continued to increase over 36 h (1.9 ng/mL, 3.1 ng/mL, and 3.5 ng/mL, sequentially every 12 h). The cat tested positive for Bartonella henselae and was treated with azithromycin (30 mg/kg by mouth (PO) every 24 h for 30 days), along with furosemide (1 mg/kg PO every 24 h), benazepril (0.4 mg/kg PO every 24 h), pimobendan (0.23 mg/kg PO every 12 h), and clopidogrel (18.75 mg PO every 24 h). Reevaluation at 6 weeks revealed normal respiratory rate on physical examination, normal cardiac structures and function on echocardiogram, resolution of left bundle branch block on ECG, and normal cardiac troponin I levels (0.06 ng/mL). All medications were discontinued at this time, and the cat continued to do well 5 months after reevaluation. Here, we report a case of transient myocardial thickening in a cat that was also positive for B. henselae.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella henselae/isolamento & purificação , Bloqueio de Ramo/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Miocardite/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/complicações , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/complicações , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Masculino , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico
12.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(5): 258-265, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652641

RESUMO

Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. were identified in bat flies collected on two bat species, with the highest prevalence in Trichobius parasiticus and Strebla wiedemanni collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). When comparing Bartonella sequences from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA), vector-associated strains were diverse and generally close to, but distinct from, those recovered from their bacteremic bat hosts in Mexico. Complete Bartonella sequence concordance was observed in only one bat-vector pair. The diversity of Bartonella strains in bat flies reflects the frequent host switch by bat flies, as they usually do not live permanently on their bat host. It may also suggest a possible endosymbiotic relationship with these vectors for some of the Bartonella species carried by bat flies, whereas others could have a mammalian host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406284

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in deer in Thailand and to characterize the isolates by biochemical, morphological and genetic analysis. A total of 247 blood samples were collected from Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) in a livestock breeding facility in Thailand. Bartonella bacteria were isolated in 3.6% of the blood samples. Three out of 110 (2.7%) males and 6 of 137 (4.4%) females were positive for Bartonella. A higher prevalence of Bartonella was observed in young deer under 4 years of age compared to adults over 4 years of age, but no Bartonella was isolated from deer over 8 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven loci of Bartonella indicated that all the isolates from Rusa deer in Thailand were identical and formed a distinct cluster from other known Bartonella species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(3): 678-681, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477960

RESUMO

Sardinia is a hotspot for studying tick-borne diseases in the Mediterranean region, where cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases are increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of tick-borne bacteria of medical and veterinary importance in ixodid ticks collected from domestic and wild animals, humans, and vegetation from different collection sites in Sardinia. Using standard PCR and sequencing techniques, the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species, as well as Coxiella burnetii was evaluated. A total of 1619 ticks were morphologically identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, R. bursa, R. annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Ha. sulcata, Hyalomma lusitanicum, H. marginatum, Ixodes festai (sometimes referred to erroneously as I. ventalloi), and Argas reflexus. Results indicated the presence of several circulating pathogens in Sardinian ticks. DNA of Rickettsia species was detected in 58 out of 1619 (4%) belonging to R. sanguineus s.l., D. marginatus, Ha. punctata, H. marginatum, and I. festai species. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 33 out of 1619 ticks (2%) belonging to R. sanguineus s.l., R. bursa, and Ha. punctata species. A total of 61 out of 1619 (4%) ticks (R. sanguineus s. l., R. bursa, Ha. punctata, and I. festai) tested positive for Anaplasma spp. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 21 out of 1619 (1%) ticks belonging to R. sanguineus s.l., R. bursa, R. annulatus, and H. marginatum species. Five R. sanguineus s.l. and one R. bursa ticks were positive for the presence of Bartonella sp. 16S rRNA gene. Our findings expand the knowledge on tick-borne microorganism repertoires and tick distribution in Sardinia. Tick distribution should be monitored for effective control of these arthropods and the infections they transmit.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(1): 66-75, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977767

RESUMO

: Simultaneous infections with multiple pathogens can alter the function of the host's immune system, often resulting in additive or synergistic morbidity. We examined how coinfection with the common pathogens Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Bartonella sp. affected aspects of the adaptive and innate immune responses of wild deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus). Adaptive immunity was assessed by measuring SNV antibody production; innate immunity was determined by measuring levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood and the complement activity of plasma. Coinfected mice had reduced plasma complement activity and higher levels of CRP compared to mice infected with either SNV or Bartonella. However, antibody titers of deer mice infected with SNV were more than double those of coinfected mice. Plasma complement activity and CRP levels did not differ between uninfected deer mice and those infected with only Bartonella, suggesting that comorbid SNV and Bartonella infections act synergistically, altering the innate immune response. Collectively, our results indicated that the immune response of deer mice coinfected with both SNV and Bartonella differed substantially from individuals infected with only one of these pathogens. Results of our study provided unique, albeit preliminary, insight into the impacts of coinfection on immune system function in wild animal hosts and underscore the complexity of the immune pathways that exist in coinfected hosts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/veterinária , Peromyscus , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia , Vírus Sin Nombre , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bartonella/complicações , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/virologia , Proteína C-Reativa , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/complicações , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/microbiologia , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(3): 339-351, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274119

RESUMO

Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inhabit cities worldwide and carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Although many studies have investigated rat-level risk factors, there is limited research on the effects of weather and environment on zoonotic pathogen transmission ecology in rats. The objective of this study was to use a disease ecology approach to understand how abiotic (weather and urban microenvironmental features) and biotic (relative rat population abundance) factors affect Bartonella tribocorum prevalence in urban Norway rats from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This potentially zoonotic pathogen is primarily transmitted by fleas and is common among rodents, including rats, around the world. During a systematic rat trap and removal study, city blocks were evaluated for 48 environmental variables related to waste, land/alley use and property condition, and rat abundance. We constructed 32 weather (temperature and precipitation) variables with time lags prior to the date we captured each rat. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models with rat pathogen status as the outcome. The odds of a rat testing positive for B. tribocorum were significantly lower for rats in city blocks with one or more low-rise apartment buildings compared to blocks with none (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.04-0.80; p = .02). The reason for this association may be related to unmeasured factors that influence pathogen transmission and maintenance, as well as flea vector survival. Bartonella tribocorum infection in rats was positively associated with high minimum temperatures for several time periods prior to rat capture. This finding suggests that a baseline minimum temperature may be necessary for flea vector survival and B. tribocorum transmission among rats. There was no significant association with rat abundance, suggesting a lack of density-dependent pathogen transmission. This study is an important first step to understanding how environment and weather impacts rat infections including zoonotic pathogen ecology in urban ecosystems.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Ratos
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 32(1): 222-231, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of Bartonella species seroepidemiology in dogs may aid clinical decision making and enhance current understanding of naturally occurring arthropod vector transmission of this pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic groups in which Bartonella exposure may be more likely, describe spatiotemporal variations in Bartonella seroreactivity, and examine co-exposures to other canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD). ANIMALS: A total of 15,451 serology specimens from dogs in North America were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. METHODS: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae, and Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) serology results, as well as results from a commercial assay kit screening for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, and Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni, and Rickettsia species IFA results were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Overall, 3.26% of dogs were Bartonella spp. seroreactive; B. henselae (2.13%) and B. koehlerae (2.39%) were detected more frequently than B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.42%, P < 0.0001). Intact males had higher seroreactivity (5.04%) than neutered males (2.87%, P < 0.0001) or intact or spayed females (3.22%, P = 0.0003). Mixed breed dogs had higher seroreactivity (4.45%) than purebred dogs (3.02%, P = 0.0002). There was no trend in seasonal seroreactivity; geographic patterns supported broad distribution of exposure, and co-exposure with other CVBD was common. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Bartonella spp. exposure was documented throughout North America and at any time of year. Male intact dogs, mixed breed dogs, and dogs exposed to other CVBD have higher seroreactivity to multiple Bartonella species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): e207-e215, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235263

RESUMO

Bartonella species are arthropod-borne bacterial pathogens that infect numerous mammalian species. Small mammals play an important role as natural reservoirs of many Bartonella species, maintaining the greatest diversity of Bartonella described to date. Although Bartonella research has been conducted in Southeast Asia, no studies have been undertaken on small mammals in Singapore. Here, we report the detection and description of Bartonella in small mammals in Singapore during the period of November 2011 to May 2014. BartonellaDNA was detected in 20.8% (22/106) of small mammal spleens with a PCR amplifying the beta subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene. Commensal species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi had the highest prevalence, 75% (3/4) and 34,5% (10/29), followed by Suncus murinus 30% (6/20), Tupaia glis 16,7% (1/6) and Mus castaneus 13.3% (2/15). Phylogenetic analysis of 18 rpoB gene sequences revealed five Bartonella genotypes circulating in the small mammals of Singapore. Bayesian tip-significance testing demonstrated strong structuring in the geographical signal, indicating that distribution of Bartonella species is correlated to the distribution of their hosts. Major deforestation and fragmentation in Singapore favour synanthropic species that traverse habitats and increase the possibility of spillover to incidental hosts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Genótipo , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Singapura/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/microbiologia
20.
Ann Parasitol ; 64(4): 309-315, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720968

RESUMO

Bartonellosis is a disease caused by Bartonella spp. microorganisms which belong to the Rickettsiales order. This disease is a zoonosis, B. henselae, whose primary reservoir is the cat, which in humans causes a cat-scratch disease. In infected cats, symptoms such as fever, lymphedema, reproduction disorders, myocarditis, rhinotracheitis, gingivitis, and arthritis may be observed. Bartonella appears to be transmitted among cats and dogs in vivo exclusively by arthropod vectors (excepting perinatal transmission), not by biting or scratching. In the absence of these vectors, the disease does not spread. On the other hand, the disease can be spread to humans by bites and scratches, and it is highly likely that it is spread by arthropod vectors as well. This review presents a potential role of ticks and fleas in the transmission of bartonellosis. Clinicians should be aware that a common illness, such as infection with Bartonella, can be transmitted by arthropod vectors, and that a history of animal scratches or bites is not necessary for disease transmission.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
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