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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1274-1278, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658530

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the influencing factors of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus in Beijing from 2014 to 2018. Methods: Data of acute gastroenteritis events caused by norovirus in Beijing from April 2014 to March 2018 were collected. Unconditional logistic regression model was conducted to identify the risk factors of the outbreaks. Results: A total of 765 acute gastroenteritis epidemics caused by norovirus were reported in Beijing, in which 85.88% (657/765) were cluster events and 14.12% (108/765) were outbreaks. Among the outbreaks, 70.37% (76/108) were reported in 2017; 84.26% (91/108) were reported in winter and spring; 88.89% (96/108) were reported in kindergartens, primary or secondary schools; 81.48% (88/108) were through person-to-person transmission; 93.52% (101/108) were caused by norovirus GⅡ infection. The risk of outbreaks in suburban and out suburb area were 1.84 times (95%CI: 1.13-3.02) and 3.78 times (95%CI: 1.62-8.82) as high as that in urban area, respectively. The risks of outbreaks in primary, secondary schools and other institutions were 6.26 times (95%CI: 3.53-11.10), 14.98 times (95%CI: 6.23-36.01) and 8.71 times (95%CI: 3.07-24.71) as high as that in kindergartens, respectively. The risk of outbreak in which patients having lower hospital visiting rate than the median rate of all events was 2.29 times than that in the context of having higher hospital visiting rate (95%CI:1.42-3.68). The risk of foodborne outbreak was 14.55 times as high as that transmitted through person-to-person (95%CI: 3.15-67.07). Conclusion: Measures such as strengthening the prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks in suburbs, primary schools, secondary schools and other institutions, promoting patients to visit the hospital actively, improving the management of foodborne events and kitchen workers should be taken to reduce the incidence of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Pequim/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577718

RESUMO

This study examined the characteristics of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis associated with convulsions in children and its molecular epidemiology. From July 2006 through December 2015, NoV infection was confirmed by the genome detection using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral genotyping with strain validation was achieved using sequence analyses with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool genome identification. The patients' clinical features were assessed retrospectively, focusing on convulsive disorders. The diagnosis of encephalitis followed the International Encephalitis Consortium. Seizures occurred in 52 (20.9%) of 249 NoV infections. GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b (n = 22, 42.3%) and GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n = 10, 19.2%) were major variants correlated with convulsions. Patient with convulsions tend to have GII.4 genotype infection (P < .001), short vomiting (≤2 days) (P < .001), and no fever (P = .002). Compared to GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b, the GII.4 Sydney 2012-associated convulsions had similar manifestations except without significant winter preponderance (P = .049). The NoV infection with convulsions had less febrile course, specific genotype (GII.4) infections, and with shorter symptom of vomiting. Continuous surveillance is important for uncommon disease associated with emerging NoV strain infections. The prevention of NoV diseases requires the development of vaccines targeting highly virulent variants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 883-888, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484248

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of Norovirus among adult patients suffering from infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, so as to provide evidence for developing related strategies on prevention and control of the disease. Methods: Diarrheal outpatients were monitored at the 'Intestinal clinic' from 22 hospitals involved in the sentinel surveillance program in Shanghai. Information on demographic and epidemiologic features of the patients was collected while data and clinical, fecal specimens were collected and sent to the district CDC for Norovirus detection. Positive rates of Norovirus were also compared in various populations and seasons during 2013-2018. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to fit into the comparisons between non-Norovirus and Norovirus groups. Results: 19.28% of the 12 083 diarrheal cases were found to have carried the Norovirus, with GⅡgroup the most commonly identified genotype. Rates of detection was seen higher in males (20.78%) than in females (17.73%). 30-44 year-old were found having the highest positive rate (21.51%). The positive rates were found the highest (23.60%) in the year of 2015. All the above shown differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Diarrheal patients affected with Norovirus would present watery stool (75.94%) and vomiting (35.84%). Data from the multivariate logistic analysis showed that factors as: being males, 30-44 years old, officials/clerks, in winter season and with histories of travelling etc., were related to higher risks on Norovirus infection. Conclusions: Infectious diarrhea caused by Norovirus occurred all year round, with seasonal peaks seen in winter and spring, in Shanghai. Specific prevention and control measures should be taken on Norovirus- caused infectious diarrhea, according to the difference on age, gender and season.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/virologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
4.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 328-332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507200

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequently occuring illnesses in children and adults worldwide. In February 2017, two AGE outbreaks occurred in two adjacent schools in Huzhou city, Zhenjiang province of China. We detected high percentages of recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 in one school and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in another school using next generation sequencing (NGS) and specific PCR. The results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GII.P16/GII.2, and suggest the need of further studies on whether CAV causes AGE. Keywords: acute gastroenteritis; norovirus; chicken anemia virus; Huzhou; School.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 736, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under 5 years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpatient children from the Children's Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Stool specimens were collected between January 2012 and December 2017 from 1433 children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. All samples were analysed by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genogroup II NoVs amplifying both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and partial capsid genes. The Norovirus Genotyping Tool v.2.0 ( https://www.rivm.nl/mpf/typingtool/norovirus/ ) was used for genotyping the strains, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted by MEGA 6.0. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, GII NoVs were detected in 15.4% (220/1433) of the samples, with the highest detection rate in children aged 7-12 months (19.2%, 143/746). The seasons with the highest prevalence of GII NoVs infection were autumn and winter. Based on genetic analysis of RdRp, GII.Pe (74.5%%, 137/184) was the most predominant RdRp genotype from 2013 to 2017, while GII.P4 played a dominant role in 2012 (55.6%, 21/36). Among the capsid genotypes, the most prevalent NoV genotype from 2012 to 2017 was GII.4 (74.1%, 163/220). On the basis of genetic analysis of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into - 19 RdRp/capsid genotypes, and 12 of them were discordant, such as GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.P7/GII.6, GII.Pe/GII.3, and GII.P16/GII.2. Starting with 2013, GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012 had completely replaced the pandemic GII.P4-2006b/GII.4-2006b subtype and was detected in children across all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows high detection rates and the genetic diversity of circulating NoV GII genotypes in paediatric AGE samples from Shanghai. The findings emphasize the importance of continuous molecular surveillance of emerging NoV strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/patologia , Genótipo , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 811-816, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378041

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the infection status and recombination of Norovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Ningxia. Methods: The specimens of 10 sentinel hospitals in Ningxia were collected from 2016 to 2017. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for nucleic acid detection. GⅡ-positive samples were amplified by RT-PCR for the RdRp and Capsid regions, then sequenced and genotyped. Evolution analysis was performed using software such as MEGA-X, and recombination analysis was performed using Simplot 3.5.1 and RDP4. Results: The age of the 2 334 cases was 1.42 (0.68, 7.69) years old, 1 133 cases in 2016 and 1 201 cases in 2017, 1 343 and 991 cases for males and females respectively. The positive rate of Norovirus GⅠ genogroup was 0.86% (20/2 334), and GⅡ genogroup was 14.82% (346/2 334). A total of 78 recombinant strains were sequenced and 12 recombinant types were found. GⅡ.Pe/GⅡ.4Sydney_2012 and GⅡ.P12/GⅡ.3 were the main epidemic strains, accounting for 35.90% (28 strains) and 32.05% (25 strain) respectively, followed by GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.2 accounting for 12.82% (10 strains). Among them,GⅡ.P7/GⅡ.6 (2 strains), GⅡ.P12/GⅡ.3 (6 strains), GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.1 (2 strains), GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.2 (5 strains), GⅡ.Pe/GⅡ.4 (7 strains) were detected for the first time in Ningxia. Recombinant strains were all intergenotype recombination, and the recombination breakpionts were all located within ORF1. Conclusion: Norovirus infection in Ningxia area was mainly in GⅡ genogroup from 2016 to 2017, and most of them were recombinant strains. GⅡ.Pe/GⅡ.4Sydney_2012 and GⅡ.P12/GⅡ.3 were the main epidemic strains, followed by GⅡ.P16/GⅡ. 2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Criança , China , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 696, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was replaced by the GII.17 in 2014/2015. However, after the prevalence of new GII.17 variant in South China, a sharply increase in the number of norovirus infections associated with sporadic acute diarrhea was detected. In this study, we would investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in the sporadic acute gastroenteritis cases in the post-GII.17 period in South China. METHODS: Norovirus was screened from 217 patients with sporadic acute gastroenteritis from August 2015 to October 2017 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, two regions including the partial RNA polymerase and the capsid gene of positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine norovirus genotypes. Complete VP1 sequences of GII.4 strains detected in this study were also amplified and subjected into evolutionary tracing analyses. RESULTS: A total of 43 (19.82%) norovirus samples were confirmed from 217 stool specimens, and it was found that GII.4 resurged as the new predominant variant, accounting for 76.74% (33/43) of positive samples. Only one local strain GZ2015-L550 was clustered with the contemporary GII.P16/GII.4-2012 recombinant variant, and other 32 local strains belonged to the clade with the GII.Pe/GII.4-2012 variant. Other genotypes including GII.17 (n = 4), GII.3 (n = 4), GII.8 (n = 1) and GI. 6 (n = 1) were also detected. Furthermore, all GII.4 strains were phylogenetic analyzed based on their capsid P2 subdomains. Combined with other reported 754 strains, the GII.4-2012 variant could be divided into two clades. Most GII.4 strains collected in 2016 and 2017 in this study (7/8) formed a new cluster A in Clade II with additional 103 contemporaneous strains. In addition, evolutionary tracing of the capsid P2 subdomain of this variant was also analyzed, and one specific amino acid substitutions (N373) was identified for Cluster A. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study confirmed a norovirus infection peak in the post-GII.17 period in South China, which was caused by the resurgence of the GII.4 variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Prevalência
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(28): 627-630, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318854

RESUMO

In October 2017, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) was notified by a local health department of a gastrointestinal illness outbreak among attendees of a wedding reception at facility A, an event center. Shortly thereafter, state and local public health officials began receiving reports of similar gastrointestinal illness among attendees of subsequent facility A events. An investigation was initiated to identify cases, establish the cause, assess possible transmission routes, and provide control recommendations. Overall, 159 cases consistent with norovirus infection (three confirmed and 156 probable) were identified among employees of facility A and attendees of nine facility A events during October 27-November 18, 2017. The investigation revealed a public vomiting episode at the facility on October 27 and at least one employee involved with preparing and serving food who returned to work <24 hours after symptom resolution, suggesting that a combination of contaminated environmental surfaces and infected food handlers likely sustained the outbreak. Recommendations regarding sanitation and excluding ill employees were communicated to facility A management. However, facility A performed minimal environmental cleaning and did not exclude ill employees. Consequently, transmission continued. To prevent persistent norovirus outbreaks in similar settings, public health officials should ensure that involved facilities implement a comprehensive prevention strategy as early as possible that includes extensive sanitation and strict exclusion of ill food handlers for at least 48 hours after symptom resolution (1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Logradouros Públicos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Prática de Saúde Pública
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 595, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NVs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. There are limited data on the prevalence and molecular characterization of NVs in children in Hohhot, China. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2017, 1863 stool samples were collected at Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Hohhot. All samples were screened for NVs by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). RESULTS: NVs were detected in 24.15% of these inpatient cases, ranging from 12.78 to 32.92% in different years. NV was detected throughout the year, with a peak in winter. Based on sequence analysis of the partial VP1 gene, the 306 identified NV strains were divided into six genotypes: GII.3 (71.24%), GII.4 (23.53%), and GII.2, GII.5, GII.6, and GII.13 (total 5.23%). Based on further sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.4, and GII.P4/GII.4 were identified as predominant genotypes, accounting for 92.6% of genotyped strains. The median age of the children with NV infection was 8.0 (range 0-59) months. However, children infected with GII.3 were younger (median 7.0 months) than GII.4-positive patients (median 10.0 months). CONCLUSION: NV contributed greatly to AGE among hospitalized children in Hohhot in China. Continuous surveillance is important for understanding the local prevalence and characterization of NV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Norovirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 592, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some NoV outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of NoV infection and duration of NoV shedding among employees during NoV outbreaks, as well as factors affecting shedding duration. METHODS: Specimens and epidemiological data were collected from employees who were suspected of being involved in the transmission or with AGE symptoms during NoV outbreaks in Xuhui District, Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Specimens were detected using real-time RT-PCR to determine whether or not employees had become infected with NoV. Specimens were collected every 3-7 days from NoV-infected employees until specimens became negative for NoV. RESULTS: A total of 421 employees were sampled from 49 NoV outbreaks, and nearly 90% of them (377/421) were asymptomatic. Symptomatic employees showed significantly higher prevalence of NoV infection than asymptomatic ones (70.5% vs. 17.0%, P < 0.01). The average duration of NoV shedding was 6.9 days (95% confidence interval: 6.1-7.7 days) among 88 NoV-infected individuals, and was significantly longer in symptomatic individuals than in asymptomatic ones (9.8 days vs. 5.6 days, P < 0.01). In Cox proportional-hazards model, after adjusting age and gender, symptoms was the only factor associated with duration of NoV shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with asymptomatic employees, symptomatic employees had higher prevalence of NoV infection and longer durations of NoV shedding. Since NoV shedding duration among NoV-infected employees tends to be longer than their isolation time during outbreaks, reinforcement of hygiene practices among these employees is especially necessary to reduce the risk of virus secondary transmissions after their return to work.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenterite , Norovirus/genética , Adulto , Canal Anal/virologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
New Microbiol ; 42(3): 156-160, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305934

RESUMO

In October 2017, two outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred among patrons of a cafeteria in Italy in one week. Virological and bacteria investigations on stool samples, environment and food were conducted to identify the infectious agents and the possible source of infection. Forty-five cases occurred in the two outbreaks, including 13 laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus GI. Nine staff members were interviewed, six were confirmed positive for NoV GI and 3 experienced GE symptoms. Bacteria faecal indicators and other bacteria pathogens were not detected in either environmental swab samples or food. A low level of NoV GII was detected in two environmental swab samples. The same GI.6 strain was identified in cases related to both outbreaks, suggesting a common source of infection. Since the two outbreaks occurred in one week, the NoV contamination could have persisted in the cafeteria. Furthermore, virological investigation revealed confirmed cases among food handlers who had worked at the cafeteria between and during the two outbreaks. Several studies highlighted the importance of excluding symptomatic food handlers to prevent contamination of foods and environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Norovirus/fisiologia
12.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1530-1541.e8, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216462

RESUMO

Rapidly evolving RNA viruses, such as the GII.4 strain of human norovirus (HuNoV), and their vaccines elicit complex serological responses associated with previous exposure. Specific correlates of protection, moreover, remain poorly understood. Here, we report the GII.4-serological antibody repertoire-pre- and post-vaccination-and select several antibody clonotypes for epitope and structural analysis. The humoral response was dominated by GII.4-specific antibodies that blocked ancestral strains or by antibodies that bound to divergent genotypes and did not block viral-entry-ligand interactions. However, one antibody, A1431, showed broad blockade toward tested GII.4 strains and neutralized the pandemic GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney strain. Structural mapping revealed conserved epitopes, which were occluded on the virion or partially exposed, allowing for broad blockade with neutralizing activity. Overall, our results provide high-resolution molecular information on humoral immune responses after HuNoV vaccination and demonstrate that infection-derived and vaccine-elicited antibodies can exhibit broad blockade and neutralization against this prevalent human pathogen.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Sequência Conservada , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Norovirus/classificação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinação
13.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2327-2332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177352

RESUMO

Two distinct genotypes responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are reported, GI.1 (RHDV) and GI.2 (RHDV2). Vaccines based on these two genotypes are only partially cross-protective. Hence, knowing which genotype is circulating is important for appropriate control measures. We have investigated 25 field samples isolated between 2015 and 2018 from rabbits with clinical signs of RHD. Only GI.2 (RHDV2) is currently circulating in Tunisia. All Tunisian samples were grouped together with typical genotypic and phenotypic mutations. Therefore, we recommend initiating an extensive preventive vaccination program based on GI.2 vaccines in addition to a regular monitoring of the circulating lagoviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Coelhos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/química , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 167: 32-38, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027718

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) in stray colony cats from Milan, Italy. Cats were divided in groups based on age, gender, reproductive status, health status and colony of origin. Blood samples were tested with an in-clinic ELISA test. The possible presence of a link between the antibody titre or the presence of seropositive results and the independent variables (age, gender, reproductive status, health status and colony location) was assessed by means of multinomial and univariate logistic regression models, respectively. Seroprevalence of 85.4% was reported for FCV. The diffusion of the other two pathogens in the cat population was much lower compared to FCV, with 45.7% and 37.1% seroprevalence observed for FPV and FHV-1, respectively. An increase of antibody titres from kitten to senior was generally observed for the three pathogens. Age was a statistically significant variable for FHV-1, with senior cats significantly associated with higher antibody titres and higher percentages of seropositive animals compared to younger age groups. Neutered cats had significantly higher antibody titres and showed significantly higher FHV-1 seroprevalences compared to sexually intact cats. Colonies from two of the nine administrative districts of Milan showed significantly higher FPV seroprevalences compared to the others. No other significant differences were observed. Our results, based on cats belonging to 70 different colonies located in urban areas far from each other, suggest that the three viruses circulate in the feline population of stray cats in Milan. The feline calicivirus represents the most common circulating pathogen, as observed also in other studies worldwide. Finally, our results suggest that stray cats may be not adequately protected against FPV, FHV-1 and FCV and vaccination could be a possible strategic solution, especially for FPV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Panleucopenia Felina/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/sangue , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Calicivirus Felino/imunologia , Gatos , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Feminino , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Itália , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1762-1764, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924292

RESUMO

We describe the extremely rapid worldwide spread of the Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2/RHDV2/b (henceforth GI.2), the causative infectious agent of the so-called 'novel' rabbit haemorrhagic disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We tracked down all novel confirmed detections of GI.2 between May 2010 and November 2018 by carrying out a two-step in-depth review. We suggest that such spread would not have been possible without anthropogenic involvement. Our results also point out the importance of reviewing and adapting the protocols of virus detection and management in order to control, mitigate and contain properly, not only GI.2, but also new viruses that may emerge in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Epidemias/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Coelhos
16.
Arch Virol ; 164(5): 1411-1417, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850861

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine enteric caliciviruses, a total of 167 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened. Bovine noroviruses (BoNoVs) and neboviruses were detected in 56 (33.5%) and 37 (22.1%) fecal samples, respectively. Sequences of the RdRp and capsid gene of selected BoNoVs showed that the GIII.1 and GIII.2 genotypes were in circulation in Turkey. Two of the BoNoV strains were identified as recombinant strains (GIII.P1/GIII.2). All examined neboviruses possessed a Nebraska-like RdRp gene. The two nebovirus strains were classified into lineage 4 based on phylogenetic analysis of VP1 amino acid sequences. One of them showed evidence of a recombination event within the S domain. This study is thus the first to reveal the presence of the BoNoV GIII.1 genotype and recombinant strains of BoNoV and neboviruses in Turkey.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Caliciviridae/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Norovirus/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Bovinos , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
17.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(2): 138-148, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900141

RESUMO

Two outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures. Traceback was conducted by collecting oyster tags from restaurants and analyzing them to determine the most common farms. Oyster samples were collected from case homes, restaurants, and harvest sites and tested for the presence of norovirus. Potential environmental pollution sources were investigated to identify the source of the outbreak. Four hundred and 49 cases were identified as part of the two outbreak waves. The oysters were traced to various geographically dispersed farms in BC coastal waters. Twelve farms were closed as a result of the investigations. No environmental pollution sources could be identified as the cause of the outbreak. Similarities in the timeframe, genotype, and geographic distribution of identified oyster farms indicate that they may have been one continuous event. Genotype data indicate that human sewage contamination was the likely cause of the outbreak, although no pollution source was identified.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ostreidae/virologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotos/virologia
18.
Viruses ; 11(2)2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795617

RESUMO

Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used since the 1990s. It is a composite measure of years of life lost with years lived with disability. Essentially, one DALY is the equivalent of a year of healthy life lost if a person had not experienced disease. Norovirus is the most common cause of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Norovirus activity varies from one season to the next for reasons not fully explained. Infection with norovirus is generally not severe, and is normally characterized as mild and self-limiting with no long-term sequelae. In this study, we model a range of estimates of DALYs for community cases of norovirus in England and Wales. We estimated a range of DALYs for norovirus to account for mixing of the severity of disease and the range of length of illness experienced by infected people. Our estimates were between 1159 and 4283 DALYs per year, or 0.3⁻1.2 years of healthy life lost per thousand cases of norovirus. These estimates provide evidence that norovirus leads to a considerable level of ill health in England and Wales. This information will be helpful should candidate norovirus vaccines become available in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Caliciviridae/mortalidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(2): 86-89, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793561

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the main pathogenic agents worldwide responsible for viral sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. A gastroenteritis outbreak broke out in patients hospitalized in several wards located in two different floors of a hospital in Liege, Belgium. The objective was to determine whether a same NoV strain would be involved in the two different floors, and to explore how this outbreak would have spread from a floor to the other. Stool samples from patients and healthcare workers were collected, as well as data from medical files. NoV detection, quantification and characterization were performed using molecular biology methods. A same NoV strain, from genotype GII.4, was detected in two patients hospitalized on the two different floors. This finding allowed to conclude that a same outbreak spread in the two floors, probably due to movements of common healthcare workers. A rapid NoV detection during outbreak is important in the aim to rapidly implement hygiene measures to limit the size of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Infecção Hospitalar , Surtos de Doenças , Norovirus , Bélgica , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Brain Dev ; 41(3): 263-270, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a major pathogen of gastroenteritis and is known to cause encephalitis/encephalopathy. The aim of this national survey was to clarify the clinical features of norovirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (NoVE) among children in Japan. METHODS: A nationwide survey of children with NoVE was conducted using a structured research form. The initial survey asked pediatricians about children with NoVE treated between January 2011 and March 2016. The second survey obtained patient information from two sources: hospitals that responded to the initial survey and those identified as having treated cases from a literature search. RESULTS: Clinical information was available for 29 children. Their median age was 2 y 8 m. The outcome was good in 13 patients and poor in 15. The interval between the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and that of encephalitis/encephalopathy was significantly shorter in those with a poor outcome. At the onset of an elevated serum creatinine level and an abnormal blood glucose level were correlated with a poor outcome. Regarding the subtypes of encephalitis/encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome were frequent. CONCLUSION: The outcome of children with NoVE was poor. Early onset of neurological symptoms, an elevated serum creatinine level, and an abnormal blood glucose level were associated with a poor outcome. No effective treatment was identified and this should be the subject of future studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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