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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1104-1110, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115197

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of rotavirus-, norovirus-, adenovirus-and astrovirus-associ ated acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old in Beijing from Octorber, 2015 to March, 2017. Methods: In the intestinal clinic of 6 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, information and stool samples of the first 30 patients with acute gastroenteritis who are under the age of 5 years are collected monthly.Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus are identified by PCR.Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus in Beijing. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the Vesikari clinical severity score of of acute gastroenteritis caused by each virus. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analysis the associated factors of clinical features. Results: Of the 2 052 samples, 709 (34.6%) were non-mixed infections: the positive rate of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were 20.0%, 7.5%, 4.2% and 2.9%, respectively. A total of 135 cases (6.6%) were mixed infection. The mean and standard deviation of Vesikari clinical severity score was 8.0±3.1 for rotavirus associated acute gastroenteritis, which was significantly higher than norovirus (6.4±2.4, P<0.001), adenovirus (6.2±2.1, P<0.001) and astrovirus (6.1±2.0, P<0.001). The comparison of clinical features showed that compared with astrovirus, the children under 5 years old infected with rotavirus were more likely to have a diarrhea ≥5 days (OR=3.334), have vomiting ≥3 times within one day (OR=8.788), have vomiting≥1 day (OR=3.963), have a Vesikari clinical severity score ≥11 severe cases (OR=13.194). Norovirus infected cases were prone to have vomiting≥3 times in 1 day (OR=5.710).Adenovirus infected cases were prone to have a diarrhea≥5 days (OR=2.616). When using rotavirus as a reference, children under 5 years of age were less likely to develop fever≥38.4 ℃ after infection with norovirus (OR=0.397) or adenovirus (OR=0.280). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the characteristics of acute gastroenteritis caused by different viruses are different. The clinical symptoms caused by rotavirus are more serious. Children under 24 months of age are at high risk of rotavirus infection. Effective preventive measures such as vaccination should be taken as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
2.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e71, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major and highly infectious pathogen in cats worldwide. However, there have been limited studies about the status of FCV infections in Korea. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the current status of FCV infections in stray cats in Korea. METHODS: A novel reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed based on the conserved nucleotide sequences of reported FCV strains. Field swab samples were collected from 122 cats (2 hospital admitted cats and 120 stray cats) in 2016 and 2017. All the samples were tested by virus isolation and 2 different RT-PCRs, including the novel RT-PCR, for the detection of FCV. RESULTS: The novel RT-PCR assay showed no cross-reactivity to the nucleic acids of the other feline pathogens tested, and the limit of detection was calculated as 10° TCID50/mL based on an in vitro assessment. The novel RT-PCR assay detected 5 positive samples from the 122 field samples, which showed perfect agreement with the results of the virus isolation method. In contrast, another RT-PCR assay used in a previous study in Korea detected no positive samples. The prevalence of FCV infection in stray cats was 2.5% (3/120) based on the results of virus isolation and the novel RT-PCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the first report of the detection and prevalence of FCV in stray cats in Korea. The novel RT-PCR assay developed in this study showed high sensitivity and specificity, which indicates a useful diagnostic assay to identify FCV infection in cats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Calicivirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008375, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors in Latin America, including Colombia, is essential to understand the epidemiology of these infections. The primary objectives of this study were to describe etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age from Bucaramanga, Colombia, a middle-income country in Latin American, and to identify the presence of emerging E. coli pathotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a prospective, matched for age, case-control study to assess the etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia, South America. We tested for 24 pathogens using locally available diagnostic testing, including stool culture, polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adjusted attributable fractions were calculated to assess the association between AGE and each pathogen in this study population. The study included 861 participants, 431 cases and 430 controls. Enteric pathogens were detected in 71% of cases and in 54% of controls (p = <0.001). Co-infection was identified in 28% of cases and in 14% of controls (p = <0.001). The adjusted attributable fraction showed that Norovirus GII explained 14% (95% CI: 10-18%) of AGE, followed by rotavirus 9.3% (6.4-12%), adenovirus 3% (1-4%), astrovirus 2.9% (0.6-5%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 2.4% (0.4-4%), Cryptosporidium sp. 2% (0.5-4%), Campylobacter sp. 2% (0.2-4%), and Salmonella sp.1.9% (0.3 to 3.5%). Except for Cryptosporidium, all parasite infections were not associated with AGE. Three emergent diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were identified in cases (0.7%), including an enteroaggregative/enterotoxigenic E.coli (EAEC/ETEC), an enteroaggregative/enteropathogenic E.coli (EAEC/EPEC), and an emergent enteroinvasive E. coli with a rare O96:H19. No deaths were reported among cases or controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Norovirus and rotavirus explained the major proportion of moderate to severe AGE in this study. Higher proportion of infection in cases, in the form of single infections or co-infections, showed association with AGE. Three novel E. coli pathotypes were identified among cases in this geographic region.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Norovirus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e104, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381124

RESUMO

Outbreaks of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis have been reported in schools in recent decades in China. For early warning and response to infectious disease outbreaks, the Shanghai Infectious Diseases Bud Event Surveillance System (IDBESS) was established in 2016. Bud event is a term used for the early sign of a potential infectious disease outbreak in public settings when the first few cases appear. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis bud events from June 2016 to December 2017 and to understand factors influencing the severity of events. Data were extracted from the IDBESS, supplemented by field investigations and school absence surveillance. In total, 189 bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis were reported in schools and kindergartens, affecting 3827 individuals and 52.38% happened in primary schools. The attack rate of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis was 3.82% on average in students in the affected schools. In each event, case numbers varied between 5 and 148, with a median of 16. The duration of bud events lasted for 2 days on average. School absence happened in 47.93% (1797/3749) of affected students and the average duration of absence was 3.07 days. It was found that a longer delay before reporting was associated with a longer-lasting duration of bud event (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.07). In conclusion, ascribed to the sensitive threshold for alerting and the timely field investigation, the surveillance of bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is effective in the control of Norovirus infection among preschool children and students in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Norovirus , Vigilância da População , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(20): 613-617, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437337

RESUMO

The Camp Fire, California's deadliest wildfire, began November 8, 2018, and was extinguished November 25 (1). Approximately 1,100 evacuees from the fire sought emergency shelter. On November 10, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was reported in two evacuation shelters; norovirus illness was suspected, because it is commonly detected in shelter-associated AGE outbreaks. Norovirus is highly contagious and resistant to several disinfectants. Butte County Public Health Department (BCPHD), assisted by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), initiated active surveillance to identify cases, confirm the etiology, and assess shelter infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to guide recommendations. During November 8-30, a total of 292 patients with AGE were identified among nine evacuation shelters; norovirus was detected in 16 of 17 unique patient stool specimens. Shelter IPC assessments revealed gaps in illness surveillance, isolation practices, cleaning, disinfection, and handwashing. CDPH and BCPHD collaborated with partner agencies to implement AGE screening, institute isolation protocols and 24-hour cleaning services, and promote proper hand hygiene. During disasters with limited resources, damaged infrastructure, and involvement of multiple organizations, establishing shelter disease surveillance and IPC is difficult. However, prioritizing effective surveillance and IPC at shelter activation is necessary to prevent, identify, and contain outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Abrigo de Emergência , Incêndios Florestais , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1647-1652, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356188

RESUMO

On 31 March 2019, 68 school students suffered from vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after participating in a group activity at a commercial park. In this outbreak, multiple norovirus genotypes were observed, including GII.2[P16], GII.17[P17], and GII.13[P21]. Further, we determined the full-genome sequences of two strains of GII.13[P21] recombinant noroviruses, which were 7434 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis based on open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 revealed that these recombinants were related to stains of different genotypes from different countries. The full genome nucleotide sequences of the two isolates were 97.0% and 98.0% identical to those of strains from London and Thailand, respectively. Simplot analysis revealed the presence of a break point at nt 5059 in the ORF1 region. The histo-blood group antigen binding sites were conserved in both recombinant viruses. Our findings not only provide valuable genetic information about a recombinant norovirus but also contribute to our general understanding of the evolution, genetic diversity, and distribution of noroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Genoma Viral , Norovirus/genética , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia
8.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): 419-427, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report clinical features, gross post mortem and histopathological findings from an investigation into sudden or unexpected death in rabbits that was undertaken during an outbreak of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standard protocol, veterinarians were invited to submit case histories and results of their post mortem examination of pet rabbits that died unexpectedly. Histopathological examination of heart, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney samples was collated with macroscopic appearance and clinical details. RESULTS: Hepatocellular necrosis, characteristic of rabbit haemorrhagic disease, was observed in 185 of 300 (62%) submissions, often accompanied by glomerular thrombosis and changes in other organs. Evidence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease was not apparent on histopathology in 113 of 300 (38%) rabbits. Gross post mortem examination by veterinary practitioners did not always reflect reported histopathological changes. No macroscopic abnormalities were seen in 78/185 (42%) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease cases. Rapid death and death of other rabbits in the household were common features of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. Ante mortem clinical signs included anorexia, collapse, lethargy, seizures, icterus, bleeding from the mouth, dyspnoea, hypothermia, pyrexia, bradycardia or poor blood clotting. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease can be suspected from a history of sudden death, especially if multiple rabbits are affected. There is not always macroscopic evidence of the disease but histopathology is useful to support or refute a diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and provide information about other causes of death.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Coelhos , Reino Unido
9.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 249-261, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327034

RESUMO

Recently, multiple infectious organisms have been identified as the cause of emerging diseases in lagomorphs. The most important of these emerging diseases is rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) type 2, a new variant with differences in pathogenicity to classical RHDV. Hepatitis E is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease, with widespread prevalence in many different rabbit populations. Mycobacteriosis has been recently reported in other captive domestic rabbit populations. This article provides a recent review of the published literature on emerging infectious diseases in rabbits, including farmed, laboratory, and pet rabbits, some of which have zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Hepatite E/veterinária , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/patogenicidade , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Coelhos , Zoonoses
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(4): 547-551, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344480

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics related to Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events in Shanghai, and to discuss the value of bud events surveillance, so as to help Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea control, prevention and to improve the surveillance system on bud events. Methods: Data related to 142 Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events were gathered from 16 districts of Shanghai areas in 2018 and were analyzed. Results: There were 2 peaks, April and November for 142 Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events reported in 2018. 98.59% (140/142) of the bud events occurred in schools and kindergartens. 80.28% (114/142) of the bud events would involve 6-19 cases per each event. The median time duration between the onset date of the first case and the reporting date of the event was 2 days and the median event duration was 7 days. The bud event scale and regional incidence of bud events as well as the reporting timelines were influential factors on the duration of the bud events. Conclusions: Two peaks, spring and winter bud events of the Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea were seen in Shanghai in 2018. Schools and kindergartens were to be prioritized locations for control and prevention of Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events. Surveillance system was proved to have contributed to the early detection, reporting and control of bud events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 474, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, norovirus can be transmitted by infected food handlers but norovirus outbreaks are not routinely investigated in Kenya. We estimated norovirus prevalence and associated factors among food handlers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among food handlers using pretested questionnaires and collected stool specimens from food handlers which were analyzed for norovirus by conventional PCR. We observed practices that allow norovirus transmission and surveyed respondents on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in food safety. We calculated odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to identify factors associated with norovirus infection. Variables with p < 0.05 were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI. RESULTS: Of samples from 283 respondents, 43 (15.2%) tested positive for norovirus. Factors associated with norovirus detection were: reporting diarrhea and vomiting within the previous month (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.2-27.4), not knowing aerosols from infected persons can contaminate food (AOR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.1-37.5), not knowing that a dirty chopping board can contaminate food (AOR = 26.1, 95% CI = 1.6-416.7), observing respondents touching food bare-handed (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.5-11.1), and working in premises without hand washing services (AOR = 20, 95% CI = 3.4-100.0). CONCLUSION: The norovirus infection was prevalent amongst food handlers and factors associated with infection were based on knowledge and practices of food hygiene. We recommend increased hygiene training and introduce more routine inclusion of norovirus testing in outbreaks in Kenya.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1121-1128, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221714

RESUMO

Since 2014, novel non-GII.4 norovirus (NoV) genotypes continue to be reported as the main cause of outbreaks worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of predominant types were observed in recent years. At least eight genotypes were identified, and 91.9% of the genotyped outbreaks were caused by non-GII.4 strains. The top three circulating genotypes during the study period were GII.2[P16], GII.3[P12], and GII.17[P17]. The predominant NoV genotypes in outbreaks have changed from GII.4 variants to GII.17[P17] in 2014-2015, GII.3[P12] in 2015-2016, and then GII.2[P16] in 2016-2018. Non-GII.4 NoVs play an increasingly important role in outbreaks in Huzhou. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of novel NoV strains and help control NoV outbreaks in the next epidemic season.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Norovirus/classificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210423

RESUMO

The role of individual case characteristics, such as symptoms or demographics, in norovirus transmissibility is poorly understood. Six nursing home norovirus outbreaks occurring in South Carolina, U.S. from 2014 to 2016 were examined. We aimed to quantify the contribution of symptoms and other case characteristics in norovirus transmission using the reproduction number (REi) as an estimate of individual case infectivity and to examine how transmission changes over the course of an outbreak. Individual estimates of REi were calculated using a maximum likelihood procedure to infer the average number of secondary cases generated by each case. The associations between case characteristics and REi were estimated using a weighted multivariate mixed linear model. Outbreaks began with one to three index case(s) with large estimated REi's (range: 1.48 to 8.70) relative to subsequent cases. Of the 209 cases, 155 (75%) vomited, 164 (79%) had diarrhea, and 158 (76%) were nursing home residents (vs. staff). Cases who vomited infected 2.12 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.68) times the number of individuals as non-vomiters, cases with diarrhea infected 1.39 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.87) times the number of individuals as cases without diarrhea, and resident-cases infected 1.53 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02) times the number of individuals as staff-cases. Index cases tended to be residents (vs. staff) who vomited and infected considerably more secondary cases compared to non-index cases. Results suggest that individuals, particularly residents, who vomit are more infectious and tend to drive norovirus transmission in U.S. nursing home norovirus outbreaks. While diarrhea also plays a role in norovirus transmission, it is to a lesser degree than vomiting in these settings. Results lend support for prevention and control measures that focus on cases who vomit, particularly if those cases are residents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Casas de Saúde/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/virologia
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 226-230, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164134

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and clinic symptoms of an outbreak of infectious diarrhea caused by Sapovirus, in CT community, Zhaoqing, Guangdong province. Methods: Retrospective study of field epidemiology investigation was carried out and Chi-square test was used enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in swab, fecal specimens and water samples. Results: A total of 422 cases were identified in this outbreak, with the prevalence as 11.95%. Cases mainly concentrated between 21 and 24, December, with curves noticed by point- source and peaked on the 22(nd). Symptoms mainly appeared as vomiting, with watery stool. Patients were founded in every village, with the highest prevalence appeared in the elderly (25.20%) but involved in every age group. Sapovirus infection was most frequently seen in the population under 25 years of age, with overall prevalence as 16.41%. People older than 50 years of age took the second place (12.05%), and the lowest was seen between 25 to 49 years age group (8.42%). Sapovirus was detected in both swab and fecal specimens, with the positive rate as 38.78%. Both general and heat- resistant coliformed-bacteria were detected in the 24 monitored water samples, with the qualification rates as 95.83%, 45.83% and 50.00%, respectively. However, Sapovirus was not detected in any of the water samples. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed that an outbreak, caused by sapovirus infection in CT community was most likely related to the central water supply. The surveillance system for infectious diarrheal diseases should be improved and both public health awareness and surveillance programs on drinking water should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(2): 99-107, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern about health misinformation is longstanding, especially on the Internet. METHODS: Using agent-based models, we considered the effects of such misinformation on a norovirus outbreak, and some methods for countering the possible impacts of "good" and "bad" health advice. The work explicitly models spread of physical disease and information (both online and offline) as two separate but interacting processes. The models have multiple stochastic elements; repeat model runs were made to identify parameter values that most consistently produced the desired target baseline scenario. Next, parameters were found that most consistently led to a scenario when outbreak severity was clearly made worse by circulating poor quality disease prevention advice. Strategies to counter "fake" health news were tested. RESULTS: Reducing bad advice to 30% of total information or making at least 30% of people fully resistant to believing in and sharing bad health advice were effective thresholds to counteract the negative impacts of bad advice during a norovirus outbreak. CONCLUSION: How feasible it is to achieve these targets within communication networks (online and offline) should be explored.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Surtos de Doenças , Letramento em Saúde , Internet , Norovirus/fisiologia , Análise de Sistemas , Acesso à Informação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/organização & administração , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/organização & administração , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Serviços de Informação/organização & administração , Serviços de Informação/normas , Registros Públicos de Dados de Cuidados de Saúde
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e52, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063241

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) infections occur very frequently yet are rarely diagnosed. In Denmark, NoV infections are not under surveillance. We aimed to collect and describe existing laboratory-based NoV data. National NoV laboratory data were collected for 2011-2018, including information on patient identification number, age and sex, requesting physician, analysis date and result. We defined positive patient-episodes by using a 30-day time window and performed descriptive and time series analysis. Diagnostic methods used were assessed through a survey. We identified 15 809 patient-episodes (11%) out of 142 648 tested patients with an increasing trend, 9366 in 2011 vs. 32 260 in 2018. This corresponded with a gradual introduction of polymerase chain reaction analysis in laboratories. The highest positivity rate was in patients aged <5 years (15%) or >85 years (17%). There was a large difference in test performance over five Danish geographical regions and a marked seasonal variation with peaks from December to February. This is the first analysis of national NoV laboratory data in Denmark. A future laboratory-based surveillance system may benefit public health measures by describing trend, burden and severity of seasons and possibly pinpoint hospital outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
17.
Virus Genes ; 56(3): 279-287, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065329

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the molecular characteristics and spatio-temporal dynamics of GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus in Zhoushan Islands during 2013-2018. We collected 1849 samples from sporadic acute gastroenteritis patients between January 2013 and August 2018 in Zhoushan Islands, China. Among the 1849 samples, 134 (7.24%) samples were positive for human norovirus (HuNoV). The complete sequence of GII.17 VP1 gene was amplified from 31 HuNoV-positive samples and sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full-length sequence of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GII.17 genotype detected during 2014-2018 belongs to the new GII.17 Kawasaki variant. Divergence analysis revealed that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of GII.17 in Zhoushan Islands was estimated to be between 1997 and 1998. The evolutionary rate of the VP1 gene of the GII.17 genotype norovirus was 1.14 × 10-3 (95% HPD: 0.62-1.73 × 10-3) nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The spatio-temporal diffusion analysis of the GII.17 genotype identified Hong Kong as the epicenter for GII.17 dissemination. The VP1 gene sequence of Zhoushan Island isolates correlated with that of Hong Kong and Japan isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/história , China/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/história , Variação Genética , Genótipo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Ilhas , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Proteínas Virais/genética
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4707538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104692

RESUMO

Norovirus is the leading cause of food-borne disease outbreaks. We conducted this study to examine the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus genogroup I infections from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Taiwan. Between January 2015 and June 2019, 2121 acute gastroenteritis clusters were reported to Taiwan CDC, of which 351 (16.5%) clusters were positive for NoV GI, and GI.3 was the most prevalent (36.8%) during the study period. The GI.3 infections were significantly higher than non-GI.3 infections in the age groups of 0-5 and 6-18 years. The phylogenetic analysis of the MCC tree revealed that VP1 genes were divided into 3 groups: the GI.P3-GI.3 strains in Taiwan were genetically close to Japan and the GI.Pd-GI.3 strains were segregated into 2 other groups which were genetically closely related to China. In addition, 7 GI.Pd-GI.3 recombinants were identified circulating in Taiwan between 2018 and 2019, and the prevalence of GI.Pd-GI.3 should be monitored to assess whether this could become the new predominant strains in neighboring Asian countries or other parts of the world. Both GI.P3-GI.3 and GI.Pd-GI.3 strains cocirculate, the recombination among these two lineages occurs frequently, contributing to the genetic diversity and multiple occurrences of different norovirus lineages, and their rapid evolution makes future control more difficult. Continued surveillance and timely interventions are critical to understand the complexity of norovirus gene variation and to monitor the new emerging norovirus strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Taiwan
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906431

RESUMO

It is commonly accepted that the number of officially reported incidences of norovirus (NoV) according to the German Protection against Infection Act (Infektionsschutzgesetz) does not reflect the 'true' incidence of NoV in Germany. This study aims to reveal the reasons for the underreporting of NoV cases by comparing secondary data. METHODS: NoV incidence (cases per 100,000 reference persons) in the age group 18-65 was derived from register data of four different sources in the German public health system (2011-2015): Statutory health insurance in the federal state of Lower Saxony (AOK; in- and outpatient cases), the Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care in Germany (ZI; outpatient cases), the German Federal Statistical Office (inpatient cases; DESTATIS), and the Robert Koch Institute (RKI SurvStat; health reporting data). RESULTS: the incidence derived from the AOK in Lower Saxony varied between 49 and 66 NoV cases per 100,000 persons and was thus lower than at the federal level. Incidences of all inpatient and outpatient data were lower than the incidence according to the RKI in the last 2-3 years of the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: the disagreement between NoV incidences calculated from secondary inpatient and outpatient data and the respective numbers published by the RKI can be regarded as an indication that not all NoV cases were reported to public health authorities. This might be due to missed cases during the notification procedure or misclassification of gastroenteritis cases by general practitioners. Considering the limitations associated with analyzing secondary data, the appropriateness of these assumptions should be verified in future studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Norovirus , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Virus Genes ; 56(2): 174-181, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912284

RESUMO

Genogroup II, genotype 4 noroviruses (GII.4 NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, we isolated a GII.4 NoV strain (designated 2015HN08) from a kid presenting with acute gastroenteritis and determined its near-complete genome sequence. We then performed sequence analysis by comparing this strain with the prototypical GII.4 strain. Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the major capsid protein (VP1) were expressed by using a recombinant-baculovirus expression system, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced to compare changes in antigenic or histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) binding sites with the previously characterized GII.4 NoV strain (JZ403). The genome of 2015HN08 was 7559 nucleotides (nt) long, excluding the poly(A) tail. Genotyping analysis indicated that this strain was a Sydney 2012 variant. In comparison with the prototype Sydney 2012 strain, there were 74, 35, and 16 differences in nucleotide sequences in ORF1, OFR2, and OFR3, causing 7, 10, and 6 amino acid (aa) changes, respectively. Expression of VP1 led to successful assembly of VLPs, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Screening of hybridoma cell supernatants with an in vitro VLP-HBGAs binding blockade assay led to the identification of a cell clone 3G10 that exhibited HBGA-blocking effects. This mAb also exhibited blocking effects against JZ403 strain, suggesting maintenance of the antigenic site and/or HBGAs binding sites between the two strains. In summary, we determined the near-complete genome sequence of a GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant and produced an mAb with blocking effects that might be useful in evaluating the evolution of current Sydney 2012 NoV strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gastroenterite/genética , Norovirus/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica
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