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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1024-1033, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518061

RESUMO

Foodborne illness is an ongoing problem worldwide and is caused by bacteria that invade the food chain from the farm, slaughter house, restaurant or grocery, or in the home and can be controlled by strategies using biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants). Susceptibility profiles were determined for 96 Campylobacter jejuni strains obtained in 2011-2012 from broiler chicken house environments to antimicrobials and disinfectants as per the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and TREK Diagnostics using CAMPY AST Campylobacter plates. Low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was observed in C. jejuni strains to tetracycline (TET; 21.9%), ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13.5%), and nalidixic acid (NAL; 12.5%). The resistance profiles had a maximum of 3 antimicrobials, CIP-NAL-TET, with TET being the main profile observed. No cross-resistance was observed between antimicrobials and disinfectants. The C. jejuni strains (99%) were resistant to triclosan, 32% were resistant to chlorhexidine, and they all were susceptible to benzalkonium chloride. The strains had low-level minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to the disinfectants P-128, Food Service Sanitizer, F-25 Sanitizer, Final Step 512 Sanitizer, OdoBan, dioctyldimethylammmonium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (C10AC), benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (C12BAC), and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14BAC). Intermediate MICs against DC&R, cetylpyridinium bromide hydrate, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with elevated intermediate MICs against Tek-Trol, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride, tris(hydroxylmethyl)nitromethane (THN), and formaldehyde. The highest MIC were obtained for povidone-iodine. The components THN and the benzylammonium chlorides C12BAC and C14BAC were responsible for the inhibition by DC&R. The components C10AC and C12BAC may act synergistically causing inhibition of C. jejuni by the disinfectant P-128. The formaldehyde component in DC&R was not effective against C. jejuni compared with the ammonium chloride components. Its use in disinfectants may result in additional unnecessary chemicals in the environment. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is the most effective ammonium chloride component against C. jejuni.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Abrigo para Animais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475480

RESUMO

Introduction. In May-June 2018, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis involved students and school staff from kindergartens and primary schools in Pescara, southern Italy.Aim. We present details of the epidemiological and microbiological investigation, and the findings of the analytical study, as well as the implemented control measures.Methodology. To identify possible risk factors associated with the observed outbreak, a case control study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect information on the date of symptoms onset, type and duration of symptoms, type of healthcare contact, school attendance, and food items consumed at school lunches during the presumed days of exposure. Attack rates were calculated for each date and school. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios of being a case and the odds of illness by food items consumed, respectively. Moreover, we carried out a comparative genomic analysis using whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated during the outbreak investigation to identify the source of the outbreak.Results. Overall, 222 probable cases from 21 schools were identified, and C. jejuni was successfully isolated from 60 patients. The meals in the schools involved were provided by two cooking centres managed by a joint venture between two food companies. Environmental and food sampling, epidemiological and microbiological analyses, as well as a case control study with 176 cases and 62 controls from the same schools were performed to identify the source of the outbreak. The highest attack rate was recorded among those having lunch at school on 29 May (7.8 %), and the most likely exposure was 'caciotta' cheese (odds ratio 2.40, 95 % confidence interval 1.10-5.26, P=0.028). C. jejuni was isolated from the cheese, and wgMLST showed that the human and cheese isolates belonged to the same genomic cluster, confirming that the cheese was the vehicle of the infection.Conclusion. It is plausible that a failure of the pasteurization process contributed to the contamination of the cheese batches. Timely suspension of the catering service and summer closure of the schools prevented further spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pasteurização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 121-130, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428331

RESUMO

The aim of this work was the establishment of a national laboratory sentinel surveillance service for human clinical Campylobacter in Ireland. This included detailed genomic molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter for 2019. For February-December 2019, 24 clinical microbiology laboratories in Ireland submitted all PCR/culture-positive clinical Campylobacter spp. specimens to Public Health Laboratory (PHL) Dublin one week out of every four. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria was carried out for Campylobacter spp. isolates for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin. Batch whole genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on cultures and analysis was performed to determine species, genotype, identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence determinants and identify clusters. A total of 75 isolates and 366 PCR-positive stools were received, and 277 isolates recovered (55.7% recovery from stools). Of 257 isolates characterized by WGS, 86.4% (n = 222) were Campylobacter jejuni, 11.7% (n = 30) Campylobacter coli and 1.9% (n = 5) Campylobacter lari. There were 20 clonal complexes with ST-21 clonal complex most prevalent at 26.8% (n = 69). 50.5% (n = 140) of isolates were susceptible to all three antimicrobials tested. 39.3% (n = 109) isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant, 26.3% (n = 73) tetracycline resistant and two isolates erythromycin resistant. Congruence between phenotypic and genotypic AST was observed. There was 95.9% and 95.6% sensitivity and specificity for WGS to predict ciprofloxacin sensitivity and 98.6% and 99.5% sensitivity and specificity for WGS to predict tetracycline sensitivity. Virulence factors flaA, racR, ciaB and cdtB were detected in all isolates. WGS identified 31 potential clusters for public health alert. This sentinel surveillance of human campylobacteriosis in Ireland establishes the basis for a national reference service. Linking with other partners in a 'One Health' framework will help us better understand sources of infection to reduce disease burden and the threat of AMR.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100891, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516467

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. contaminated poultry products are strongly associated with foodborne illnesses worldwide. Development of effective management strategies to reduce contamination by Campylobacter spp. requires an improved understanding of the numerous factors that drive these contamination processes. Currently, chicken farms are using more free-range chicken meat production systems in response to consumer preferences. However, Campylobacter spp. colonization has rarely been investigated on free-range broiler farms. The present study investigated the temporal and environmental factors influencing Campylobacter spp. colonization of free-range broilers as well as potential sources and genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) in commercial free-range broiler farms. Genetic linkages among the isolates were analyzed using flaA amplicon analysis. Campylobacter coli was first detected in fecal samples of a commercial free-range broiler flock on day 10 of rearing. Multiple genotypes of C. jejuni and C. coli were identified in this study. The farm environment was identified as a potential source of C. jejuni and C. coli colonization of free-range broilers. The dominant Campylobacter genotype varied between free-range broiler farms over time, with C. jejuni being the most frequently isolated species. These findings enhance the understanding of C. jejuni and C. coli colonization in free-range broiler farms and could inform the development of more effective intervention strategies to help control this important foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109046, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445066

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis and the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans. C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common species implicated in campylobacteriosis. Broilers and their products are considered the most important food sources of human infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in different reservoirs at the farm, and the permanence of this pathogen during four consecutive rearing periods. The samples were taken from the same house farm in the downtime period and during the last week of broiler rearing, prior to their slaughter during four consecutive cycles. Different reservoirs as potential sources of Campylobacter were analysed. The prevalence of Campylobacter in vectors was 23% in A. diaperinus larvae, 20% in wild birds, 13% in A. diaperinus adults, and 9% in flies; as regards fomites, the prevalence was 50% in workers' boots, 27% in litter, and 21% in feed, while in broilers it was 80%. Campylobacter jejuni was the most detected species (51%) in the samples analysed. In addition, some Campylobacter genotypes persisted in the house farm throughout consecutive rearing periods, indicating that those strains remain during downtime periods. However, our study could not identify the Campylobacter sources in the downtime periods because all the samples were negative for Campylobacter isolation. In addition, a remarkable finding was the effect of the use of enrofloxacin (as a necessary clinical intervention for flock health) in cycle 3 on the Campylobacter population. No Campylobacter could be isolated after that clinic treatment. Afterwards, we found a greater proportion of C. coli isolates, and the genotypes of those isolates were different from the genotypes found in the previous rearing periods. In conclusion, the effect of the use of enrofloxacin during the rearing period changed the Campylobacter species proportion, and this finding is particularly interesting for further evaluation. Furthermore, more studies should be conducted with the aim of detecting the Campylobacter sources between rearing periods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Reservatórios de Doenças , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Termotolerância
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genotypes in C. jejuni isolated from Iranian children with gastroenteritis. Furthermore, the level of dnaK gene expression in C. jejuni strains with selected capsular genotypes and LOS classes was intended. Moreover, a comprehensive study of C. jejuni MLST-genotypes and inclusive comparison with peer sequences worldwide was intended. METHODS: Twenty clinical C. jejuni strains were isolated from fecal specimens of 280 children aged 0-5 years, suspected of bacterial gastroenteritis, which admitted to 3 children hospitals from May to October, 2018. Distribution of sialylated LOS classes and specific capsular genotypes were investigated in C. jejuni of clinical origin. The expression of dnaK in C. jejuni strains was measured by Real-Time-PCR. MLST-genotyping was performed to investigate the clonal relationship of clinical C. jejuni strains and comparison with inclusive sequences worldwide. RESULTS: C. jejuni HS23/36c was the predominant genotype (45%), followed by HS2 (20%), and HS19 and HS4 (each 10%). A total of 80% of isolates were assigned to LOS class B and C. Higher expression level of dnaK gene was detected in strains with HS23/36c, HS2 and HS4 capsular genotypes and sialylated LOS classes B or C. MLST analysis showed that isolates were highly diverse and represented 6 different sequence types (STs) and 3 clonal complexes (CCs). CC21 and CC257 were the most dominant CCs (75%) among our C. jejuni strains. No new ST and no common ST with our neighbor countries was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The C. jejuni isolates with LOS class B or C, and capsular genotypes of HS23/36, HS2, HS4 and HS19 were dominant in population under study. The CC21 and CC257 were the largest CCs among our isolates. In overall picture, CC21 and CC353 complexes were the most frequently and widely distributed clonal complexes worldwide, although members of CC353 were not detected in our isolates. This provides a universal picture of movement of dominant Campylobacter strains worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 109, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. accounting for 50-60% of the cases. Sulphonamides, tetracycline, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are typically used in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases but have become ineffective in the face of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella species in children under five years of age presenting with diarrhoea at Kapsabet County Referral Hospital in Kenya. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 139 children admitted with diarrhoea. Each sample was examined macroscopically for colour, texture, and presence of extraneous material. The samples were then cultured for bacterial growth. Observed bacterial growth was isolated and identified by a series of biochemical tests. Resistance patterns were also evaluated using the Kirby - Bauer Disk diffusion method. The chi - square test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used to establish statistical significance. RESULTS: Approximately 33.1% of the total faecal samples tested were positive for enteric pathogens. Shigella spp. demonstrated resistance to erythromycin (91.7%), doxycyclin (83.3%), ampicillin (82.1%), cotrimoxazole (73.1%), minocycline (66.7%) and cefuroxime (54.2%). Campylobacter jejuni also exhibited resistance to erythromycin (87.5%), doxycyclin (75%), ampicillin (73.7%), cotrimoxazole (73.3%) and minocycline (68.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The resistance patterns of Shigella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni reported in this study necessitates the need for a comprehensive multiregional investigation to evaluate the geographical prevalence and antimicrobial resistance distributions of these microorganisms. These findings also support the need for the discovery and development of effective therapeutic alternatives. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered. Certificate No. 00762.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter spp. infections are a globally important cause of enterocolitis, causing substantial morbidity. Capturing accurate information on hospitalisations is challenging and limited population-level data exist to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of hospitalised cases. METHODS: Hospital administrative and laboratory datasets were linked to identify Campylobacter-associated hospitalisations between 2004 and 2013. Accuracy of morbidity coding was assessed using laboratory diagnosis as a gold standard, with health department surveillance data used to calculate population-based rates. Additional patient-level data were collected via review of medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to assess changes in rates and proportions and to assess relationships between key variables including age, length of stay, comorbidity and complications. RESULTS: In total 685 Campylobacter-associated hospital admissions were identified, with the sensitivity of morbidity coding 52.8% (95% CI 48.9-56.7%). The mean annual rate of hospitalisation was 13.6%. Hospitalisation rates were higher for females across most age-groups, while for both genders marked increases were observed for those aged ≥60 years. Median admission age was 39.5 years, with an average length of stay of 3.5 days. Comorbidities were present in 34.5% (237/685) of admissions, with these patients more likely to develop electrolyte disturbances, hypotension, renal impairment or acute confusion (all p < 0.001). Bacteraemia and acute kidney injury were observed in 4.1% (28/685) and 3.6% (23/685) of admissions, respectively. Inpatient mortality was low (0.15%). CONCLUSION: Under reporting of Campylobacter-associated hospitalisations is substantial but can be improved through data linkage. We observed demographic differences among those hospitalised but further work is needed to determine risk factors and predictors for hospitalisation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Tempo de Internação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108929, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157488

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Chickens are considered to be one of the major reservoirs of Campylobacter infection in humans due to colonization of their intestinal tract. When the chickens are slaughtered and processed, the entire skin of the carcass becomes contaminated with campylobacters. We observed that the number of C. jejuni attached to chicken skin was reduced significantly after treatment of the skin with sodium hydroxide followed by washing with PBS, implying that adhesion factors involved in binding to C. jejuni may exist on skin. Such potential binding-related proteins present in alkaline extracts of the skin surface were detected by a two-dimensional overlay assay and identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chicken serum albumin (CSA) was identified as a major protein in these alkaline extracts and confirmed by ELISA to bind specifically to C. jejuni. Moreover, using the same approach, flagellar hook protein E (FlgE) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) in C. jejuni were identified as bacterial adhesins that bound to the CSA. The ability to bind CSA was also confirmed using recombinant FlgE and MOMP of C. jejuni expressed in Escherichia coli. The present findings suggest that adhesins expressed on C. jejuni cells may bind specifically via proteins present on the skin, as well as by physical attachment.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Adesinas Bacterianas/análise , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e30, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319723

RESUMO

New Zealand has a long-running campylobacter infection (campylobacteriosis) epidemic with contaminated fresh chicken meat as the major source. This is both the highest impact zoonosis and the largest food safety problem in the country. Adding to this burden is the recent rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in these campylobacter infections acquired from locally-produced chicken. Campylobacteriosis rates halved in 2008, as compared with the previous 5 years, following the introduction of regulatory limits on allowable contamination levels in fresh chicken meat, with large health and economic benefits resulting. In the following decade, disease rates do not appear to have declined further. The cumulative impact would equate to an estimated 539 000 cases, 5480 hospitalisations, 284 deaths and economic costs of approximately US$380 million during the last 10 years (2009-2018). Additional regulatory interventions, that build on previously successful regulations in this country, are urgently needed to control the source of this epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Epidemias , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370970

RESUMO

Campylobacter species are known to cause enteritis. However, over the past 40-50 years, there have been reports of varying presentations, such as cellulitis, spondylodiscitis and bacteraemia. Of the Campylobacter species, Campylobacter jejuni is the most common culprit for causing bacteraemia, however, Campylobacter coli bacteraemia is becoming more prevalent. Here, we discuss an unusual case of C. coli bacteraemia in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Colite/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/terapia , Campylobacter coli/imunologia , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/imunologia , Colite/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008533, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776937

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and its incidence is especially high in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Disease epidemiology in LMICs is different compared to high income countries like the USA or in Europe. Children in LMICs commonly have repeated and chronic infections even in the absence of symptoms, which can lead to deficits in early childhood development. In this study, we sequenced and characterized C. jejuni (n = 62) from a longitudinal cohort study of children under the age of 5 with and without diarrheal symptoms, and contextualized them within a global C. jejuni genome collection. Epidemiological differences in disease presentation were reflected in the genomes, specifically by the absence of some of the most common global disease-causing lineages. As in many other countries, poultry-associated strains were likely a major source of human infection but almost half of local disease cases (15 of 31) were attributable to genotypes that are rare outside of Peru. Asymptomatic infection was not limited to a single (or few) human adapted lineages but resulted from phylogenetically divergent strains suggesting an important role for host factors in the cryptic epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in LMICs.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/fisiopatologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Tipagem Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834007

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring the chickens' intestinal microbiota and understanding its interactions with the host. The objective is to optimize this parameter in order to increase the productivity of farm animals. With the goal to isolate candidate probiotic strains, specific culturomic methods were used in our study to culture commensal bacteria from 7-days old chicks raised in two farms presenting long history of high performance. A total of 347 isolates were cultured, corresponding to at least 64 species. Among the isolates affiliated to the Firmicutes, 26 had less than 97% identity of their partial 16S sequence with that of the closest described species, while one presented less than 93% identity, thus revealing a significant potential for new species in this ecosystem. In parallel, and in order to better understand the differences between the microbiota of high-performing and low-performing animals, caecal contents of animals collected from these two farms and from a third farm with long history of low performance were collected and sequenced. This compositional analysis revealed an enrichment of Faecalibacterium-and Campylobacter-related sequences in lower-performing animals whereas there was a higher abundance of enterobacteria-related sequences in high-performing animals. We then investigated antibiosis activity against C. jejuni ATCC 700819 and C. jejuni field isolate as a first phenotypic trait to select probiotic candidates. Antibiosis was found to be limited to a few strains, including several lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Bacillus horneckiae and a strain of Escherichia coli. The antagonist activity depended on test conditions that mimicked the evolution of the intestinal environment of the chicken during its lifetime, i.e. temperature (37°C or 42°C) and oxygen levels (aerobic or anaerobic conditions). This should be taken into account according to the stage of development of the animal at which administration of the active strain is envisaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108830, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841810

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic markers associated with Campylobacter infection in humans. A total of 104 Campylobacter isolates obtained from poultry and humans were examined for the presence of nine virulence genes and their ability to adhere to, invade and produce cytotoxin were defined using HeLa cells. The diversity of the Campylobacter spp. isolates was studied based on sequencing of the SVR-region of flaA gene. Altogether 45 flaA-SVR alleles were identified among 104 Campylobacter isolates of poultry and human origin. All Campylobacter isolates possessed flaA, cadF and racR genes involved in adherence. Accordingly, all poultry and human isolates exhibited adherence towards HeLa cells at mean levels of 0.95% and 0.82% of starting viable inoculum, respectively. The genes involved in invasion (iam and pldA) and cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) were also widely distributed among the human and poultry Campylobacter isolates. Significantly higher invasiveness was observed for poultry isolates (mean level of 0.002% of starting bacterial inoculum) compared to human isolates (0.0005%). Interestingly the iam gene, associated with invasion, was more common in human (100%) than poultry (84%) isolates, and the poultry isolates lacking the iam gene showed a marked reduction in their ability to invade HeLa cells. Moreover, virB11 was present in 22% of the poultry and 70.4% of the human isolates. Strains lacking virB11 showed a slight reduction in invasion, however in the absence of iam even the poultry isolates containing virB11 were unable to invade HeLa cells. The mean cytotoxicity of Campylobacter isolates from poultry and human was 26.7% and 38.7%, respectively. Strains missing both the cdtB and cdtC genes were non-cytotoxic compared to strains containing all three cdtABC genes, which were the most cytotoxic among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from both sources. No cytotoxic effect was observed in only 4% of poultry and 5.6% of human isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Polônia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 625, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that males have higher incidence rates (IR) of campylobacteriois than females. The objectives of this study were to determine whether these observations differ between age groups and are consistent over different countries and during different time periods. METHODS: We obtained data on IRs of campylobacteriosis by sex and age group over a period of 11-26 years from seven countries. Male to female incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed by age group, country and time period. For each age group, we used meta-analytic methods to combine the IRRs. Sensitivity analysis was used to test whether the results are robust to differences between countries and time periods. Meta-regression was conducted to estimate the different effects of age, country, and time period on the IRR. RESULTS: In the age groups < 1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-44, 45-64 and 65+ years old, the pooled IRRs (with 95% CI) were 1.31 (1.26-1.37), 1.34 (1.31-1.37), 1.35 (1.32-1.38), 1.73 (1.68-1.79), 1.10 (1.08-1.12), 1.19(1.17-1.21) and 1.27 (1.24-1.30), respectively. For each age group, the excess campylobacteriosis IRs in males differed at different age groups. However, despite some quantitative differences between countries, the excess was consistently present over long time-periods. In meta-regression analysis, age group was responsible for almost all the variation in the IRRs. CONCLUSIONS: The male predominance in campylobacteriosis IRs starts in infancy. This suggests that this is due, at least in part, to physiological or genetic differences and not just behavioural factors. These findings can provide clues to the mechanisms of the infection and could lead to more targeted treatments and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108775, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645510

RESUMO

Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a methodology used to organize and analyze scientific information to both estimate the probability and severity of an adverse event as well as prioritize efforts to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens. No QMRA efforts have been applied to Campylobacter in the Australian chicken meat sector. Hence, we present a QMRA model of human campylobacteriosis related to the occurrence of cross-contamination while handling raw chicken meat in Western Australia (WA). This work fills a gap in Campylobacter risk characterization in Australia and enables benchmarking against risk assessments undertaken in other countries. The model predicted the average probability of the occurrence of illness per serving of salad that became cross-contaminated from being handled following the handling of fresh chicken meat as 7.0 × 10-4 (90% Confidence Interval [CI] ± 4.7 × 10-5). The risk assessment model was utilized to estimate the likely impact of intervention scenarios on the predicted probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) per serving. Predicted relative risk reductions following changes in the retail prevalence of Campylobacter were proportional to the percentage desired in the reduction scenario; a target that is aiming to reduce the current baseline prevalence of Campylobacter in retail chicken by 30% is predicted to yield approximately 30% relative risk reduction. A simulated one-log reduction in the mean concentration of Campylobacter is anticipated to generate approximately 20% relative risk reductions. Relative risk reduction induced by a one-log decrease in the mean was equally achieved when the tail of the input distribution was affected-that is, by a change (one-log reduction) in the standard deviation of the baseline Campylobacter concentration. A scenario assuming a 5% point decrease in baseline probability of cross-contamination at the consumer phase would yield relative risk reductions of 14%, which is as effective as the impact of a strategic target of 10% reduction in the retail prevalence of Campylobacter. In conclusion, the present model simulates the probability of illness predicted for an average individual who consumes salad that has been cross-contaminated with Campylobacter from retail chicken meat in WA. Despite some uncertainties, this is the first attempt to utilize the QMRA approach as a scientific basis to guide risk managers toward implementing strategies to reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis in an Australian context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Galinhas , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Verduras/microbiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236889, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730330

RESUMO

Australian rates of campylobacteriosis are among the highest in developed countries, yet only limited work has been done to characterize Campylobacter spp. in Australian retail products. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on 331 C. coli and 285 C. jejuni from retail chicken meat, as well as beef, chicken, lamb and pork offal (organs). Campylobacter isolates were highly diverse, with 113 sequence types (STs) including 38 novel STs, identified from 616 isolates. Genomic analysis suggests very low levels (2.3-15.3%) of resistance to aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, fluoroquinolone, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics. A majority (>90%) of isolates (52/56) possessing the fluoroquinolone resistance-associated T86I mutation in the gyrA gene belonged to ST860, ST2083 or ST7323. The 44 pork offal isolates were highly diverse, representing 33 STs (11 novel STs) and harboured genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides, lincosamides and macrolides not generally found in isolates from other sources. Prevalence of multidrug resistant genotypes was very low (<5%), but ten-fold higher in C. coli than C. jejuni. This study highlights that Campylobacter spp. from retail products in Australia are highly genotypically diverse and important differences in antimicrobial resistance exist between Campylobacter species and animal sources.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carne/análise , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Galinhas , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645064

RESUMO

The reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis is primarily considered to be poultry, but also other such as ruminants, pets and environmental sources are related with infection burden. Multilocus sequence typing is often used for Campylobacter epidemiological studies to determine potential sources of human infections. The collection of 420 Campylobacter jejuni isolates with assigned MLST genotype from poultry (n = 139), cattle (n = 48) and wild birds (n = 101) were used in source attribution analysis. Asymmetric island model with accurate and congruent self-attribution results, was used to determine potential sources of human C. jejuni infections (n = 132) in Baltic States. Source attribution analysis revealed that poultry (88.3%) is the main source of C. jejuni human infections followed by cattle and wild bird with 9.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that clinical cases of C. jejuni infections in Baltic countries are mainly linked to poultry, but also to cattle and wild bird sources.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Países Bálticos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 518, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide, and increasing rates of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in C. jejuni are a major public health concern. The rapid detection and tracking of FQ resistance are critical needs in developing countries, as these antimicrobials are widely used against C. jejuni infections. Detection of point mutations at T86I in the gyrA gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid detection tool that may improve FQ resistance tracking. METHODS: C. jejuni isolates obtained from children with diarrhea in Peru were tested by RT-PCR to detect point mutations at T86I in gyrA. Further confirmation was performed by sequencing of the gyrA gene. RESULTS: We detected point mutations at T86I in the gyrA gene in 100% (141/141) of C. jejuni clinical isolates that were previously confirmed as ciprofloxacin-resistant by E-test. No mutations were detected at T86I in gyrA in any ciprofloxacin-sensitive isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of T86I mutations in C. jejuni is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to identify fluoroquinolone resistance in Peru. This detection approach could be broadly employed in epidemiologic surveillance, therefore reducing time and cost in regions with limited resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , DNA Girase/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Isoleucina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peru , Treonina/genética
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