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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1024-1033, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518061

RESUMO

Foodborne illness is an ongoing problem worldwide and is caused by bacteria that invade the food chain from the farm, slaughter house, restaurant or grocery, or in the home and can be controlled by strategies using biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants). Susceptibility profiles were determined for 96 Campylobacter jejuni strains obtained in 2011-2012 from broiler chicken house environments to antimicrobials and disinfectants as per the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and TREK Diagnostics using CAMPY AST Campylobacter plates. Low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was observed in C. jejuni strains to tetracycline (TET; 21.9%), ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13.5%), and nalidixic acid (NAL; 12.5%). The resistance profiles had a maximum of 3 antimicrobials, CIP-NAL-TET, with TET being the main profile observed. No cross-resistance was observed between antimicrobials and disinfectants. The C. jejuni strains (99%) were resistant to triclosan, 32% were resistant to chlorhexidine, and they all were susceptible to benzalkonium chloride. The strains had low-level minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to the disinfectants P-128, Food Service Sanitizer, F-25 Sanitizer, Final Step 512 Sanitizer, OdoBan, dioctyldimethylammmonium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (C10AC), benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (C12BAC), and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14BAC). Intermediate MICs against DC&R, cetylpyridinium bromide hydrate, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with elevated intermediate MICs against Tek-Trol, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride, tris(hydroxylmethyl)nitromethane (THN), and formaldehyde. The highest MIC were obtained for povidone-iodine. The components THN and the benzylammonium chlorides C12BAC and C14BAC were responsible for the inhibition by DC&R. The components C10AC and C12BAC may act synergistically causing inhibition of C. jejuni by the disinfectant P-128. The formaldehyde component in DC&R was not effective against C. jejuni compared with the ammonium chloride components. Its use in disinfectants may result in additional unnecessary chemicals in the environment. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is the most effective ammonium chloride component against C. jejuni.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Abrigo para Animais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1076-1082, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518066

RESUMO

Poultry is seen as the main reservoir for Campylobacter. Control of this zoonotic pathogen in primary production could potentially reduce the colonization in broiler flocks and consequently reduce the number of human infections. In the present study, 20 broiler flocks from 10 farms, were sampled immediately before and 5 to 7 d after partial depopulation (thinning) for the presence of Campylobacter using cecal droppings and overshoes. At the time of thinning, the catching crew, transportation vehicles, forklift, and transport containers were sampled for the presence of Campylobacter. Samples were cultivated; presumed positive isolates were confirmed by PCR. The isolates were molecularly typed by flaA restriction analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results show that all flocks were thinned using Campylobacter-contaminated equipment and materials. One-third of the broiler flocks became colonized after thinning. In 67% of the colonization cases, identical strains were found matching those of container systems, transport trucks, and/or forklifts. This identifies thinning as an important risk factor for Campylobacter introduction into broiler houses. Setup and compliance with biosecurity practices during thinning is essential to prevent Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
3.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 431: 79-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620649

RESUMO

Numerous studies point out that at present, a complete elimination of Campylobacter species in the poultry food chain is not feasible. Thus, the current aim should be to establish control measures and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in livestock (esp. poultry flocks) and to reduce the quantitative Campylobacter burden along the food chain in animals and subsequently in foods. The most effective measures to mitigate Campylobacter focus on the primary production stage. Nevertheless, measures applied during slaughter and processing complement the general meat hygiene approaches by reducing fecal contamination during slaughtering and processing and as a consequence help to reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat. Such intervention measures at slaughter and processing level would include general hygienic improvements, technological innovations and/or decontamination measures that are applied at single slaughter or processing steps. In particular, approaches that do not focus on a single intervention measure would need to be based on a thorough process of evaluation, and potential combinatory effects have to be modeled and tested. Finally, the education of all stakeholders (including retailers, food handlers and consumers) is required and will help to increase awareness for the presence of foodborne pathogens in raw meat and meat products and can thus aid in the development of the required good kitchen hygiene.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Cadeia Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas
4.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 431: 103-125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620650

RESUMO

Although extensive research has been carried out to describe the transmission pathways of Campylobacter entering livestock farms, the role of livestock farms as source of Campylobacter contamination of the environment is still poorly investigated. It is assumed that Campylobacter-positive livestock farms contribute to an environmental contamination, depending on the animal species on the farm, their Campylobacter status, the housing system, manure management as well as their general farm hygienic and biosecurity management. Different emission sources, like manure, air, water, insects and rodents as well as personnel, including equipment and vehicles, contribute to Campylobacter emission into the environment. Even though Campylobacter are rather fastidious bacteria, they are able to survive in the environment for even a longer period of time, when environmental conditions enable survival in specific niches. We conclude that a significant reduction of Campylobacter emission in the environment can be successfully achieved if various intervention strategies, depending on the farm type, are applied simultaneously, including proper general and personal hygiene, establishing of hygienic barriers, insect controls, manure management and hygienization of stables, barns and exhaust air.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Fazendas
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109074, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508583

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common foodborne pathogens that cause human sickness mostly through the poultry food chain. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has excellent antibacterial ability against C. jejuni growth. This study investigated the antibacterial mechanism of CEO against C. jejuni primarily through metabolism, energy metabolism of essential enzymes (AKPase, ß-galactosidase, and ATPase), and respiration metabolism. Results showed that the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP) was inhibited, and that the enzyme activity of G6DPH substantially decreased upon treatment with CEO. Analysis of the effect of CEO on the expression of toxic genes was performed by the real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression levels of the toxic genes cadF, ciaB, fliA, and racR under CEO treatment were determined. Casein/CEO nanospheres were further prepared for the effective inhibition of C. jejuni and characterized by particle-size distribution, zeta-potential distribution, fluorescence, TEM, and GC-MS methods. Finally, the efficiency of CEO and casein/CEO nanospheres in terms of antibacterial activity against C. jejuni was verified. The casein/CEO nanospheres displayed high antibacterial activity on duck samples. The population of the test group decreased from 4.30 logCFU/g to 0.86 logCFU/g and 4.30 logCFU/g to 2.46 logCFU/g at 4 °C and at 25 °C for C. jejuni, respectively. Sensory evaluation and texture analysis were also conducted on various duck samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseínas/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Patos/microbiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Nanosferas , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100891, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516467

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. contaminated poultry products are strongly associated with foodborne illnesses worldwide. Development of effective management strategies to reduce contamination by Campylobacter spp. requires an improved understanding of the numerous factors that drive these contamination processes. Currently, chicken farms are using more free-range chicken meat production systems in response to consumer preferences. However, Campylobacter spp. colonization has rarely been investigated on free-range broiler farms. The present study investigated the temporal and environmental factors influencing Campylobacter spp. colonization of free-range broilers as well as potential sources and genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) in commercial free-range broiler farms. Genetic linkages among the isolates were analyzed using flaA amplicon analysis. Campylobacter coli was first detected in fecal samples of a commercial free-range broiler flock on day 10 of rearing. Multiple genotypes of C. jejuni and C. coli were identified in this study. The farm environment was identified as a potential source of C. jejuni and C. coli colonization of free-range broilers. The dominant Campylobacter genotype varied between free-range broiler farms over time, with C. jejuni being the most frequently isolated species. These findings enhance the understanding of C. jejuni and C. coli colonization in free-range broiler farms and could inform the development of more effective intervention strategies to help control this important foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109046, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445066

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis and the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans. C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common species implicated in campylobacteriosis. Broilers and their products are considered the most important food sources of human infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in different reservoirs at the farm, and the permanence of this pathogen during four consecutive rearing periods. The samples were taken from the same house farm in the downtime period and during the last week of broiler rearing, prior to their slaughter during four consecutive cycles. Different reservoirs as potential sources of Campylobacter were analysed. The prevalence of Campylobacter in vectors was 23% in A. diaperinus larvae, 20% in wild birds, 13% in A. diaperinus adults, and 9% in flies; as regards fomites, the prevalence was 50% in workers' boots, 27% in litter, and 21% in feed, while in broilers it was 80%. Campylobacter jejuni was the most detected species (51%) in the samples analysed. In addition, some Campylobacter genotypes persisted in the house farm throughout consecutive rearing periods, indicating that those strains remain during downtime periods. However, our study could not identify the Campylobacter sources in the downtime periods because all the samples were negative for Campylobacter isolation. In addition, a remarkable finding was the effect of the use of enrofloxacin (as a necessary clinical intervention for flock health) in cycle 3 on the Campylobacter population. No Campylobacter could be isolated after that clinic treatment. Afterwards, we found a greater proportion of C. coli isolates, and the genotypes of those isolates were different from the genotypes found in the previous rearing periods. In conclusion, the effect of the use of enrofloxacin during the rearing period changed the Campylobacter species proportion, and this finding is particularly interesting for further evaluation. Furthermore, more studies should be conducted with the aim of detecting the Campylobacter sources between rearing periods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Reservatórios de Doenças , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Termotolerância
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834007

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring the chickens' intestinal microbiota and understanding its interactions with the host. The objective is to optimize this parameter in order to increase the productivity of farm animals. With the goal to isolate candidate probiotic strains, specific culturomic methods were used in our study to culture commensal bacteria from 7-days old chicks raised in two farms presenting long history of high performance. A total of 347 isolates were cultured, corresponding to at least 64 species. Among the isolates affiliated to the Firmicutes, 26 had less than 97% identity of their partial 16S sequence with that of the closest described species, while one presented less than 93% identity, thus revealing a significant potential for new species in this ecosystem. In parallel, and in order to better understand the differences between the microbiota of high-performing and low-performing animals, caecal contents of animals collected from these two farms and from a third farm with long history of low performance were collected and sequenced. This compositional analysis revealed an enrichment of Faecalibacterium-and Campylobacter-related sequences in lower-performing animals whereas there was a higher abundance of enterobacteria-related sequences in high-performing animals. We then investigated antibiosis activity against C. jejuni ATCC 700819 and C. jejuni field isolate as a first phenotypic trait to select probiotic candidates. Antibiosis was found to be limited to a few strains, including several lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Bacillus horneckiae and a strain of Escherichia coli. The antagonist activity depended on test conditions that mimicked the evolution of the intestinal environment of the chicken during its lifetime, i.e. temperature (37°C or 42°C) and oxygen levels (aerobic or anaerobic conditions). This should be taken into account according to the stage of development of the animal at which administration of the active strain is envisaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 327: 108656, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445835

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the world's leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, causing nearly 9 million cases of food poisoning in Europe every year. Poultry is considered the main source of Campylobacter infection to humans. The objectives of the study were to determine occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in chickens, the antimicrobial resistance, genotypes, and relatedness of the isolates. A total of 177 chicken samples obtained from informal butcher shops (fresh), formal poultry slaughterhouses (refrigerated) and retail market (frozen) were analyzed. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. was conducted according to the ISO 10272-2006 method. Multiplex PCR was used for confirmation and identification of the isolates. The disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing was used for genotyping. The proportion of samples with Campylobacter spp. was 31.6% among all chicken samples (fresh and refrigerated 47.5%, frozen 0%) C. coli was isolated from 42.4% of chicken samples obtained from butcher shops and from 18.6% of samples obtained in formal slaughterhouses. C. jejuni was isolated from 17.0% of samples obtained in butcher shops and formal slaughterhouses. Campylobacter spp. was not isolated in frozen chicken samples. All tested isolates showed resistance toward ciprofloxacin and susceptibility toward imipenem and all of the isolates were multidrug resistant toward 5 or more antimicrobials. Three sequence types were identified among 10 C. coli isolates and seven sequence types were identified among 10 C. jejuni isolates. Among sequence types, chicken isolates shared similarities of both phenotypic and genetic levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1173-1184, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416023

RESUMO

AIMS: Campylobacter sp. are important causes of reproductive disease in ruminants worldwide. Although healthy bulls are well-known carriers for infection of cows, the role of rams as a potential source for infecting ewes is unclear. This study aimed to determine prevalence, species distribution, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter sp. isolated from the preputial cavity of healthy rams. METHODS AND RESULTS: The material of this prospective study comprised 191 swab samples taken from the preputial cavity of healthy rams. Enrichment and membrane filtration were employed for the isolation of Campylobacter. Presumptive isolates were confirmed as Campylobacter by phenotypic and molecular tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used for the definitive identification of the isolates at species level, and genotyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The susceptibility of the Campylobacter sp. isolates to various antibiotics was determined by the disk diffusion test. In all, 27 of the 191 (14·13%) swab samples were found to be positive for Campylobacter sp. (28 isolates were recovered in total). Per phenotypic and genotypic analyses, one isolate was identified as Campylobacter mucosalis and the remaining 27 isolates were identified as Campylobacter sputorum bv. faecalis. The PFGE analysis of the C. sputorum biovar faecalis isolates produced 17 clusters and 24 different pulsotypes, indicating high genetic heterogeneity. All 28 isolates were found to be susceptible to all of the antibiotics tested. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy rams may be an important reservoir of different Campylobacter species in the preputium. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study demonstrated for the first time that healthy rams can carry different Campylobacter sp. including genetically diverse C. sputorum bv. faecalis and C. mucosalis in the preputial cavity. Further investigation on the potential implication of this finding on sheep reproductive health (e.g. infectious infertility, and abortion) and overall epidemiology of Campylobacter may be warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Prepúcio do Pênis/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 325-332, May 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135637

RESUMO

A case series study was conducted to determine the frequency of causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Uruguay. The sample size of 102 cases was composed of 53 fetuses, 35 fetuses with placentas, and 14 placentas without an associated fetus. All cases underwent gross and microscopic pathologic examinations as well as microbiological and serological testing. The etiology was determined in 54 (53%) of cases, 51 of which were caused by infectious agents. Within the observed 102 cases, 30 (29%) were caused by Neospora caninum, six (6%) by Coxiella burnetii and two (2%) by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. Bovine Parainfluenza-3 virus and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport caused one abortion each. Opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mannheimia sp., Trueperella pyogenes, and Providencia stuartii) were associated with 11 abortions. In two cases the fetal death was attributed to dystocia, and in one case the fetus had a congenital mesothelioma. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was identified in three fetuses; two of which were co-infected with and had typical lesions of N. caninum. No lesions were observed in the other fetus infected by BVDV. Leptospira interrogans was identified in one fetus without lesions. Despite the relatively low overall success rate in establishing an etiological diagnosis in cases of abortion in cattle, a systemic workup of bovine abortion is necessary to establish prevention and control strategies. This also facilitates monitoring and surveillance of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle, some of which represent a risk to public health.(AU)


Uma série de casos foi estudada para determinar a frequência de causas do aborto em bovinos leiteiros no Uruguai. A amostra, de 102 casos, foi composta por 53 fetos, 35 fetos com placentas e 14 placentas sem feto associado. Todos os casos foram submetidos a exames patológicos macroscópicos e microscópicos, além de testes microbiológicos e sorológicos. A etiologia foi determinada em 54 (53%) dos casos, 51 dos quais foram causados por agentes infecciosos. Nos 102 casos observados, 30 (29%) foram causados por Neospora caninum, seis (6%) por Coxiella burnetii e dois (2%) por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. O vírus da Parainfluenza-3 e Salmonella enterica serovar Newport causaram um aborto cada. Bactérias oportunistas (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mannheimia sp., Trueperella pyogenes e Providencia stuartii) foram associadas a 11 abortos. Em dois casos, a morte fetal foi atribuída a distocia e, em um caso, o feto apresentava mesotelioma congênito. A infecção pelo vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) foi identificada em três fetos; dois dos quais foram co-infectados e apresentavam lesões típicas de N. caninum. Não foram observadas lesões no outro feto infectado pelo BVDV. Leptospira interrogans foi identificada em um feto sem lesões. Apesar da relativamente baixa taxa de sucesso no diagnóstico etiológico nos casos de aborto em bovinos, é necessário o diagnóstico sistemático dos abortos para estabelecer estratégias de prevenção e controle. Isso também facilita o monitoramento e a vigilância de doenças reprodutivas em bovinos leiteiros, algumas das quais representam um risco para a saúde pública.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Campylobacter fetus , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Coxiella burnetii , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Aborto Animal/patologia , Uruguai , Leptospira , Leptospirose/veterinária
13.
Vet Ital ; 56(1)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343091

RESUMO

A research was carried out in Italy with the aim of assessing Campylobacter contamination in broilers from breeding to slaughter, of defining the genetic diversity of isolates and their antibiotic resistance. Sampling was carried out in a slaughterhouse, and in farms representative of the most common broiler production in Italy. At farm, the 78.8% (95% C.I.: 74.5%­82.5%) of cloacal samples tested positive for Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni showed higher prevalence in winter than in spring and summer (p < 0.00001, χ2 = 32.9), while C. coli showed an opposite trend (p < 0.00001, χ2= 41.1). At slaughterhouse, the 32.3% (95% C.I.: 30.2%­35.2%) and the 23.9% (95% C.I.: 21.7%­26.3%) of skin samples tested positive for C. jejuni for C. coli, respectively. C. coli showed higher prevalence than C. jejuni at washing (p < 0.05, χ2 = 11.11) and at chilling (p < 0.05, χ2 = 9.26). PFGE revealed high heterogeneity among isolates. Some clones were identified within the same farm in more than one season, suggesting environmental conditions able to support their persistence; other clones resulted to be spatially distant, suggestive of cross­contamination. Both Campylobacter species showed high resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, while resistance to erythromycin was more frequent in C. coli than C. jejuni (p < 0.05; χ2 test).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Contaminação de Alimentos , Itália/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
14.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(5): 550-556, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329627

RESUMO

1. Campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. Broilers are considered the most important source of human Campylobacter infection. In the 2008 European baseline survey Ireland had a 98% prevalence of campylobacter-contaminated broiler carcases. 2. Randomly-selected Campylobacter isolates (296 C. jejuni, 54 C. coli) recovered in 2017 and 2018, from Irish broiler neck skin and caeca were tested for their resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin. 3. Overall, 45% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates tested were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Tetracycline resistance (38%) was most prevalent in C. jejuni, followed by ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance (29%). In C. coli, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (26%) was most prevalent followed by resistance to tetracycline (13%). Gentamicin resistance was undetected and resistance to streptomycin was low for C. jejuni (1%) and C. coli (4%). All C. jejuni isolates examined were erythromycin-sensitive, while 9% of C. coli isolates were erythromycin-resistant. Three multidrug-resistant C. coli isolates were recovered. 4. While antibiotic resistance rates were somewhat similar to figures reported nationally over the past 20 years, the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in C. jejuni has increased. The persistence of substantial ciprofloxacin resistance in the Irish broiler population was noteworthy, despite fluoroquinolones having been banned for growth promotion in Europe since 2006.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
15.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103455, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336358

RESUMO

The present pilot study aimed at evaluating air sampling as a novel method for monitoring Campylobacter in poultry farms. We compared the bacteriological isolation of Campylobacter from boot swabs and air filter samples using ISO 10272-1:2017. A secondary aim was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, i.e. real time PCR, on the same sample set. Samples from 44 flocks from five European countries were collected, and included air samples, in parallel with boot swabs. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from seven of 44 boot swabs from three of five partners using the enrichment method. Two of these positive boot swab samples had corresponding positive air samples. Using enrichment, one positive air sample was negative in the corresponding boot swabs, but Campylobacter spp. was isolated from direct plating of the boot swab sample. One partner isolated Campylobacter spp. from six of 10 boot swabs using direct plating. Overall, 33 air filter samples were screened directly with PCR, returning 14 positive results. In conclusion, there was a lack of correspondence between results from analysis of boot swabs and air filters using ISO 10272-1:2017. In contrast, the combination of air filters and direct real-time PCR might be a way forward. Despite the use of the detailed ISO protocols, there were still sections that could be interpreted differently among laboratories. Air sampling may turn into a multi-purpose and low-cost sampling method that may be integrated into self-monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/microbiologia , Internacionalidade , Projetos Piloto , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
16.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103486, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336365

RESUMO

The application of Campylobacter specific bacteriophages appears as a promising food safety tool for the biocontrol of this pathogen in the poultry meat production chain. However, their isolation is a complicated challenge since their occurrence appears to be low. This work assessed the efficiency of seven protocols for recovering Campylobacter phages from chicken skin samples inoculated at phage loads from 5.0 × 101 to 5.0 × 106 PFU/g. The enrichment of chicken skin in selective Bolton broth containing target isolates was the most efficient procedure, showing a low detection limit of 5.0 × 101 PFU/g and high recovery rates of up to 560%. This method's effectiveness increased as phage concentration decreased, showing its suitability for phage isolation. When this method was applied to isolate new Campylobacter phages from retail chicken skin, a total of 280 phages were recovered achieving an isolation success rate of 257%. From the 109 samples 68 resulted phage positive (62%). Chicken skin could be, therefore, considered a rich source in Campylobacter phages. This method is a simple, reproducible and efficient approach for the successful isolation of both group II and III Campylobacter specific bacteriophages, which could be helpful for the enhancement of food safety by reducing this pathogen contamination in broiler meat.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Pele/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Avícolas/virologia , Pele/microbiologia
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 413-419, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274977

RESUMO

Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Campylobacter fetus and C. jejuni are the major species involved. We report herein on abortion storms in 4 Danish sheep flocks. Initially, no pathogenic bacteria were isolated from placental and fetal tissues on aerobic and selective media despite the presence of severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with numerous bacteria located intracellularly in trophoblasts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was then applied on abortion material from 13 cases; species-specific oligonucleotide probes directed against either C. fetus or C. jejuni were used in combination with a general bacterial probe. C. fetus was detected as the only lesion-associated bacterial species in 4 cases from 2 flocks, and C. jejuni in 6 cases from the other 2 flocks, thereby establishing the likely etiology of the abortion storms in all 4 flocks. FISH is a useful detection tool in culture-negative cases with tissue lesions suggestive of bacterial infection. Furthermore, FISH is a fast and economical method to detect and identify the zoonotic agent Campylobacter within ovine abortion material.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter fetus/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Feminino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108615, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273001

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis caused by C. jejuni is a serious yet common foodborne disease in the U.S. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni from poultry has continued to increase despite the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in the U.S. poultry industry in 2005. To date, no clear selective pressures that explain this effect have been documented. In this study, we investigated limited bioavailability of iron in poultry and enhanced iron uptake and regulation as potential indirect selective pressures conferring fitness advantages in fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni compared to its susceptible wild-type counterpart. Five fluoroquinolone-susceptible C. jejuni isolates were selected from litter collected from commercial broiler farms. Using antibiotic selection, five fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were created. Relative expressions of six genes involved in iron acquisition and regulation were compared between the resistant and susceptible strains using RT-qPCR under normal and iron-limiting conditions. High variability in the relative gene expressions was observed among the strains, with only one resistant strain showing the consistent upregulation of the measured genes compared to the matching susceptible wild-type. Our results suggest that the hypothesis tested in the study may not be an adequate explanation of the molecular mechanism behind the enhanced fitness of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni compared to susceptible C. jejuni. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex ecology and dynamics of fluoroquinolone resistance in C. jejuni in poultry environment and warrants an examination of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni strains recovered from the natural broiler chicken environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação Puntual , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108637, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273016

RESUMO

This paper presents the impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in poultry and pig bacteria of the French EcoAntibio plan, a public policy to reduce antimicrobial use in animals. The analysis was performed using sales data of veterinary antimicrobials and AMR data from bacteria obtained at slaughterhouse and from diseased animals. From 2011-2018, fluoroquinolones exposure decreased by 71.5 % for poultry and 89.7 % for pigs. For Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broilers at slaughterhouses, ciprofloxacin resistance increased from 51 % in 2010 to 63 % in 2018, whereas for turkeys the percentages varied from 56 % in 2014 to 63 % in 2018. For commensal E. coli isolated from the caecal content of broilers at slaughterhouses, the resistance to ciprofloxacin - assessed using an epidemiological cut-off value - increased in broiler isolates from 30.7 % in 2010 to 38.1 % in 2018. In turkeys, the percentage of resistant E. coli isolates decreased from 21.3 % in 2014 to 15.2 % in 2018, whereas in pigs, it increased from 1.9 % in 2009 to 5.5 % in 2017. However, for E. coli isolated from diseased animals, when the breakpoints of 2018 were applied, resistance to fluoroquinolones significantly decreased between 2010 and 2018 from 9.0%-5.4% for broilers/hens, from 7.4 % to 3.4 % for turkeys and from 9.4 % to 3.6 % for pigs. These data show that the major, rapid decrease in the exposition to fluoroquinolones had contrasting effects on resistance in the diverse bacterial collections. Co-selection or fitness of resistant strains may explain why changes in AMR do not always closely mirror changes in use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , França , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Perus/microbiologia
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2157-2161, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241501

RESUMO

Oral administration of antibodies is a promising strategy against various infectious diseases. Previously, it was demonstrated that passive immunization by providing hyperimmune egg yolk through the feed reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers. Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported bacterial foodborne zoonosis worldwide, and poultry products are the number one origin of these bacteria for human infection. To date, no effective control measures exist to limit Campylobacter colonization in the chicken's intestinal tract. Here, the effect of lyophilization of hyperimmune egg yolk on protection of broilers against C. jejuni was investigated. During an in vivo trial, broiler chickens were prophylactically given feed with lyophilized hyperimmune or non-immunized egg yolk powder starting from day 1 after hatch. At day 11, broilers were inoculated with C. jejuni according to a seeder model. Five days later, all broilers were euthanized and cecal content was examined for C. jejuni colonization. No decrease in C. jejuni colonization was found. The freeze-drying resulted in a 16-fold decrease of the antibody titer in the yolk powder compared to the fresh yolks, presumably caused by structural changes in the antibodies. In conclusion, applying freeze-dried hyperimmune egg yolk failed to protect broilers against C. jejuni colonization, possibly because lyophilization affected the antibodies' functionality.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Liofilização/veterinária , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória
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