Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.547
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma elimination efforts are hampered by limited understanding of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) transmission routes. Here we aimed to detect Ct DNA at non-ocular sites and on eye-seeking flies. METHODS: A population-based household survey was conducted in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Ocular and non-ocular (faces, hands, clothing, water containers and sleeping surfaces) swabs were collected from all individuals. Flies were caught from faces of children. Flies, ocular swabs and non-ocular swabs were tested for Ct by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In total, 1220 individuals in 247 households were assessed. Active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation-follicular) and ocular Ct were detected in 10% and 2% of all-ages, and 21% and 3% of 1-9-year-olds, respectively. Ct was detected in 12% (95% CI:8-15%) of tested non-ocular swabs from ocular-positive households, but in none of the non-ocular swabs from ocular-negative households. Ct was detected on 24% (95% CI:18-32%) of flies from ocular-positive households and 3% (95% CI:1-6%) of flies from ocular-negative households. CONCLUSION: Ct DNA was detected on hands, faces and clothing of individuals living in ocular-positive households suggesting that this might be a route of transmission within Ct infected households. In addition, we detected Ct on flies from ocular-positive households and occasionally in ocular-negative households suggesting that flies might be a vector for transmission within and between Ct infected and uninfected households. These potential transmission routes may need to be simultaneously addressed to suppress transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Vestuário , Estudos Transversais , Dípteros/microbiologia , Etiópia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fômites/microbiologia , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
2.
Public Health Rep ; 135(2): 270-281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity is linked to poor sexual health outcomes, especially among persons engaged in sexual behaviors that are associated with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We examined this link using nationally representative data. METHODS: We used data on adolescents and adults aged 15-44 who reported sexual activity in the past year from 6 years (September 2011-September 2017) of cross-sectional, weighted public-use data from the National Survey of Family Growth. We compared data on persons who did and did not report food insecurity, accounting for demographic characteristics, markers of poverty, and past-year STI risk indicators (ie, engaged in 1 of 4 high-risk activities or diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea). RESULTS: Respondents who reported at least 1 past-year STI risk indicator were significantly more likely to report food insecurity (females: adjusted risk ratio [ARR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.97; P < .001; males: ARR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.16-1.85) than respondents who did not report food insecurity. This finding was independent of the association between food insecurity and markers of poverty (≤100% federal poverty level [females: ARR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.23-1.72; P < .001; males: ARR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.49-2.20; P < .001]; if the respondent or someone in the household had received Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits in the past year [females: ARR = 3.37; 95% CI, 2.81-4.02; P < .001; males: ARR = 3.27; 95% CI, 2.76-3.87; P < .001]). Sex with opposite- and same-sex partners in the past year was significantly associated with food insecurity (females: ARR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.85; P = .01; males: ARR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.15-3.42; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity should be considered a social determinant of health independent of poverty, and its effect on persons at highest risk for STIs, including HIV, should be considered when planning interventions designed to decrease engagement in higher-risk sexual behaviors.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 135-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050884

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important as a public health problem all over the world. There are some difficulties in prevention and control programs of STIs due to clinical and laboratory diagnostic problems.The most common STIs are Chlamydia trachomatis infections, trichomoniasis and gonorrhea. The study aimed to investigate the direct microscopic examination, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection; to determine other microbiological agents that may cause vaginal discharge and to evaluate the various social variables in women with vaginal discharge admitted to the outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Akdeniz University Hospital. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The socio-demographic features of the patients were recorded. Vaginal/endocervical swab specimens taken from patients were evaluated by microscopic examination. Swab specimens were inoculated into blood agar, MacConkey agar and chocolate agar for bacterial culture. Modified Trichosel broth with 5% horse blood (Becton Dickinson, USA) was used for Trichomonas spp. culture. The presence of C.trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and T.vaginalis in swab samples were investigated by multiplex PCR assay (BD Max CT/GC/TV, Becton Dickinson, USA). At least one pathogen was detected among 65 (30.3%) samples. T.vaginalis was detected by microscopic examination and PCR in four of 215 (1.9%) patients. Existence of yeast morphology was observed in 21 (9.8%) specimens by microscopic examination. Twenty four (11.2%) patients were diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis microscopically according to Nugent score system. Candida species grew in 32 (14.9%) and Streptococcus agalactiae grew in 2 (0.9%) of the specimens. C.trachomatis was detected in 2 (0.9%) samples and N.gonorrhoeae in 1 (0.5%) sample by PCR. In this study, 95.3% of the patients were married and 96.7% had only one sexual partner in the mean time. The rate of detection of pathogens were statistically higher in women who have had two or more pregnancies (p<0.05). In our study, T.vaginalis together with N.gonorrhoeae and C.trachomatis were investigated by PCR method in women with vaginal discharge. The use of multiplex PCR test allowed simultaneous investigation of multiple pathogens in the patient samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Gonorreia , Tricomoníase , Vaginite por Trichomonas , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Microscopia/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Gravidez , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética
4.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(2): 79-85, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019451

RESUMO

Recurrent Urogynecological Infections Abstract. Changes in the urogenital microbiome of the bladder, urethra, vagina and cervix can cause recurrent infections. We distinguish between obligate and facultative pathogens. In the case of facultative pathogens, treatment with antibiotic, antiviral or antifungal drugs should only be considered in cases with attributable symptoms. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) manifest either urogenitally alone or in association with an ascending infection of the adnexa as a pelvic inflammatory disease. STD may be asymptomatic, as in cases of chlamydia, or may cause a high burden of symptoms, impairment of quality of life or infertility. The aim of this minireview is to give an overview of the pathogenicity of the different germs and their treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Hautarzt ; 71(4): 275-283, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the anorectal region are disproportionally detected in risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). However, due to changes in sexual behaviour they are increasingly diagnosed in heterosexual individuals. Due to the recent implementation of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis together with lack of condom use, a further rise in STIs is expected. OBJECTIVES: This review addresses epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnostic pitfalls and current therapy guidelines of "classical" bacterial STIs involving the anorectum. CONCLUSIONS: STI manifestations in the anal region are frequently nonspecific or asymptomatic so that the diagnosis may be missed. In an endoscopic examination of the rectum, they can even mimic inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy. Therefore, knowledge of possible symptoms of bacterial STIs in this area is helpful for early diagnosis. Coinfections with other STIs are common and should prompt a search of other pathogens including HIV and hepatitis B/C.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sexo sem Proteção , Doenças do Ânus/epidemiologia , Doenças do Ânus/terapia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/terapia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/terapia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/diagnóstico , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiologia , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/terapia , Masculino , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/terapia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/terapia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 110, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) might have influenced sexual behaviour and STI-prevalence of HIV- MSM. We estimated STI-prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV- and HIV+ MSM in Germany to plan effective interventions. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional study between February and July 2018. Thirteen MSM-friendly STI-practices screened MSM for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and urine samples. APTIMA™ STI-assays (Hologic™ Inc., San Diego, USA) were used for diagnostics, and samples were not pooled. We collected information on socio-demographics, HIV-status, clinical symptoms, sexual behaviour within the last 6 months, and PrEP use. We combined HIV status and PrEP use for defining risk groups, and used directed acyclic graphs and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for STI. RESULTS: Two thousand three hundred three MSM were included: 50.5% HIV+, median age 39 [18-79] years. Median number of male sex partners within the last 6 months was five. Sex without condom was reported by 73.6%, use of party drugs by 44.6%. 80.3% had a STI history, 32.2% of STI+ MSM reported STI-related symptoms. 27.6% of HIV- MSM used PrEP. Overall STI-prevalence was 30.1, 25.0% in HIV-/PrEP- MSM (CT:7.2%; MG:14.2%; NG:7.4%; TV:0%), 40.3% in HIV-/PrEP+ MSM (CT:13.8%; MG:19.4%; NG:14.8%; TV:0.4%), and 30.8% in HIV+ MSM (CT:10.1%; MG:18.4%; NG:8.6%; TV:0.1%). Being HIV+ (OR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.3-2.2), using PrEP (OR 2.0, 95%-CI 1.5-2.7), having > 5 sex partners (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.01.9), having condomless sex (OR:2.11.9; 95%-CI:1.65-2.86), and using party drugs (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.0) were independent risk factors for being tested positive for at least one STI. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high STI-prevalence in MSM in Germany, especially in PrEP users, frequently being asymptomatic. As a relevant proportion of PrEP users will not use a condom, counselling and comprehensive STI screening is essential and should be low threshold and preferably free of cost. Counselling of PrEP users should also address use of party drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Preservativos , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Life Sci ; 248: 117444, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084433

RESUMO

AIMS: Nonhuman primates have been used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and evaluate immune responses following Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation. This study aimed to systemically profile antibody responses to C. trachomatis infection in nonhuman primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 4 pig-tailed and 8 long-tailed macaques which were intravaginally or ocularly infected with live C. trachomatis organisms, and analyzed by C. trachomatis proteome array of antigens. KEY FINDINGS: The sera from 12 macaques recognized total 172 C. trachomatis antigens. While 84 antigens were recognized by pig-tailed macaques intravaginally infected with serovar D strain, 125 antigens were recognized by long-tailed macaques ocularly infected with serovar A, and 37 antigens were recognized by both. Ocular inoculation with virulent A2497 strain induced antibodies to more antigens. Among the antigens uniquely recognized by A2497 strain infected macaques, outer membrane complex B antigen (OmcB) induced robust antibody response. Although macaques infected by less virulent A/HAR-13 strain failed to develop antibodies to OmcB, reinfection by A2497 strain induced high levels of antibodies to OmcB. SIGNIFICANCE: Proteome array has revealed a correlation of chlamydial infection invasiveness with chlamydial antigen immunogenicity, and identified antibody responses to OmcB potentially as biomarkers for invasive infection with C. trachomatis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/imunologia , Tracoma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/classificação , Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Olho/imunologia , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Soros Imunes/química , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca nemestrina , Masculino , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/sangue , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Tracoma/sangue , Tracoma/microbiologia , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia
9.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126071, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085936

RESUMO

The spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is an endangered Mediterranean tortoise that lives in North Africa, Southern Europe and Southwest Asia. In the wake of recent legislation making their keeping as domestic animals illegal, many of these animals have been returned to wildlife recovery centers in Spain. In the present study, a population of such tortoises showing signs of ocular disease and nasal discharge was examined for the presence of Chlamydia spp. Cloacal, conjunctival and/or choanal swabs were collected from 58 animals. Using a real-time PCR specific for the family Chlamydiaceae, 57/58 animals tested positive in at least one sample. While only a few samples proved positive for C. pecorum, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a sequence identical to previously published sequences from specimens of German and Polish tortoises. Whole-genome sequences obtained from two conjunctival swab samples, as well as ANIb, TETRA values and a scheme based on 9 taxonomic marker genes revealed that the strain present in the Spanish tortoises represented a new yet non-classified species, with C. pecorum being its closest relative. We propose to designate the new species Candidatus Chlamydia testudinis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/classificação , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18489, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a multitude of previous studies, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) plays an important role in the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy (EP). However, the predictive value of CT infections in the occurrence of EP has not been estimated worldwide. We thus evaluated, by means of a meta-analysis, the current status of the association between CT infections with EP and the potential predictive value of CT infections in EP. METHODS: We evaluated studies performed between the database construction time and August 2018 published in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Web of Science (SCI). The relationship between CT and EP was calculated based upon the predetermined entry criteria for control group selection and the original data. The related articles were analyzed using a random-effects model, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I index. Data were analyzed with the STATA 12.0 software. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies that recruited 11960 patients were included in the present meta-analysis, and the relation of CT infections with EP were assessed. The association between CT infections and EP risk showed an odds ratio (OR) of 3.03, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.37 to 3.89. Our results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups. The prevalence of CT infections in EP was then calculated by a subgroup analysis: African (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.14-4.31), European (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.10-4.47), North American (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.78-5.31), and Asian (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.95-5.90). CONCLUSIONS: From the results of numerous studies conducted on different continents, this meta-analysis showed a clear association between EP and prior CT infections, that is, CT infections increase the risk of EP occurrence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0008022, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide with some of the highest prevalence rates among Pacific Island Countries where syndromic management is practiced. However, little is known about the true prevalence and risk indicators for infection among neglected populations in these countries that suffer from health disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Consecutive sampling was used to enroll sexually active females, aged 18-40 years, attending 12 Fijian Ministry of Health and Medical Services Health Centers and outreach locations from February to December, 2018. A Behavioral Surveillance Survey was administered to assess risk indicators for infection. Signs and symptoms were recorded, and vaginal swabs were tested for C. trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida and bacterial vaginosis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using R-Studio. Of 577 participants, 103 (17.85%) were infected with C. trachomatis of whom 80% were asymptomatic and only 11 met criteria for syndromic management; 38.8% of infected women were 18-24 years old with a prevalence of 30.5%. 91.7% of participants intermittently or did not use condoms. C. trachomatis infection was associated with iTaukei ethnicity (OR 21.41 [95% CI: 6.38-133.53]); two lifetime partners (OR 2.12 [95% CI: 1.08-4.18]); and N. gonorrhoeae co-infection (OR 9.56 [95% CI: 3.67-28.15]) in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: A disproportionately high burden of C. trachomatis is present among young asymptomatic women in Fiji of iTaukei ethnicity despite the low number of lifetime partners. Syndromic management and lack of barrier contraceptives contribute to hyperendemic levels. Strategic STI education and screening of at-risk adolescents, young women, and their partner(s) with appropriate treatment are urgently needed to control the epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Vaginite/epidemiologia , Vaginite/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to understand the molecular epidemiology of circulating Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) strains in Sapporo, Japan. METHODS: A total of 713 endocervical samples collected from April 2016 to March 2019 were screened for Ct. The obtained Ct positive samples were analyzed by ompA genotyping and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). RESULTS: Eighty-three (11.6%) samples were positive for Ct plasmid DNA. Sequence analysis of the ompA gene from the 61 positive cases revealed eight genotypes: F (40.9%), E (19.6%), D (14.7%), G (9.8%), H (6.5%), I (3.2%), K (3.2%), and J (1.6%). The globally dominant genotype E and F strains were highly conserved with 13 ompA genetic variants being detected, whereas genotype D strains were the most diverse. Genetic characterization of D strains revealed that D1 genetic variants may be potentially specific to Sapporo. MLSA revealed 13 unique sequence types (STs) including four novel STs from 53 positive samples, with the globally dominant STs 39 and 19 being predominant. STs 39, 34, and 21 were exclusively associated with genotypes E and F indicating their global dominance. Novel ST70 and ST30 were specifically associated with genotype D. CONCLUSION: Our study has revealed the circulation of genetically diverse Ct strains in the women population of Sapporo, Japan. We suggest identifying a transmission network of those successful strains and implementing public health prevention strategies to control the spread of Ct in Sapporo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 77, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates are not reported in Japan. METHODS: We used the number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported by nationwide sentinel surveillance in 2015, together with the number of all disease outpatients in September 2014 at all medical institutions, drawn from the Survey of Medical Institutions of Japan. The number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the total population was estimated using the ratio estimation method with the number of all disease outpatients as auxiliary information. This method is currently used for estimating influenza cases from sentinel surveillance data in Japan. RESULTS: The estimated number of newly diagnosed cases per 100,000 population in 2015 in Japan was 244 (95% confidence interval 211-277) for genital chlamydial infection, 87 (95% confidence interval 74-100) for genital herpes, 61 (95% confidence interval 29-93) for condyloma acuminatum, and 89 (95% confidence interval 64-113) for gonorrhea. CONCLUSION: We estimated the nationwide number of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases in Japan from sentinel surveillance data. This provides useful information for public health policy-making.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
14.
Infect Immun ; 88(3)2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871102

RESUMO

The cryptic plasmid is important for chlamydial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract. We used a combination of intragastric, intrajejunal, and intracolon inoculations to reveal the impact of the plasmid on chlamydial colonization in distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract. Following an intragastric inoculation, the plasmid significantly improved chlamydial colonization. At the tissue level, plasmid-positive Chlamydia produced infectious progenies throughout gastrointestinal tract. However, to our surprise, plasmid-deficient Chlamydia failed to produce infectious progenies in small intestine, although infectious progenies were eventually detected in large intestine, indicating a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial differentiation into infectious particles in small intestine. The noninfectious status may represent persistent infection, since Chlamydia genomes proliferated in the same tissues. Following an intrajejunal inoculation that bypasses the gastric barrier, plasmid-deficient Chlamydia produced infectious progenies in small intestine but was 530-fold less infectious than plasmid-positive Chlamydia, suggesting that (i) the noninfectious status developed after intragastric inoculation might be induced by a combination of gastric and intestinal effectors and (ii) chlamydial colonization in small intestine was highly dependent on plasmid. Finally, following an intracolon inoculation, the dependence of chlamydial colonization on plasmid increased over time. Thus, we have demonstrated that the plasmid may be able to improve chlamydial fitness in different gut regions via different mechanisms, which has laid a foundation to further reveal the specific mechanisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia muridarum/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Chlamydia muridarum/genética , Chlamydia muridarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlamydia muridarum/patogenicidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Especificidade de Órgãos
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 91: 232-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a difficult to diagnose respiratory pathogen. This study was performed to systematically characterize humoral immune responses to selected C. pneumoniae antigens in order to provide novel serodiagnostic perspectives for clinical and epidemiological issues. METHODS: Based on a literature search, gene library screening, and serological proteome analysis, 15 immunogenic surface-associated, virulence-associated, and hypothetical C. pneumoniae antigens were selected, recombinantly expressed, and lined on a nitrocellulose strip. Specific IgM and IgG reactivity was measured in a total of 172 PCR- and micro-immunofluorescence testing (MIF)-characterized serum samples from patients with respiratory infections. A theoretical model was conceived to approximate a putative course of C. pneumoniae antigen expression and assess the potential of early and late antigens. RESULTS: While surface antigens performed poorly, the virulence-associated TARP was a reliable antigen for IgM detection, with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a diagnostic specificity of 90.2%. The hypothetical protein YwbM proved powerful for IgG detection with MIF-correlative sensitivities of up to 94.4% and a diagnostic specificity of 95.1%. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into antibody profiles to immunogenic proteins in C. pneumoniae infection. The study findings offer antigen candidates for more reliable and standardized serological investigations of C. pneumoniae infections, including studies on seroprevalence and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(12): e1008207, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790512

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and a major cause of sexually transmitted disease and preventable blindness. In women, infections with C. trachomatis may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. In addition to infecting the female reproductive tract (FRT), Chlamydia spp. are routinely found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of animals and humans and can be a reservoir for reinfection of the FRT. Whether Chlamydia disseminates from the FRT to the GI tract via internal routes remains unknown. Using mouse-specific C. muridarum as a model pathogen we show that Chlamydia disseminates from the FRT to the GI tract in a stepwise manner, by first infecting the FRT-draining iliac lymph nodes (ILNs), then the spleen, then the GI tract. Tissue CD11c+ DCs mediate the first step: FRT to ILN Chlamydia transport, which relies on CCR7:CCL21/CCL19 signaling. The second step, Chlamydia transport from ILN to the spleen, also relies on cell transport. However, this step is dependent on cell migration mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. Finally, spleen to GI tract Chlamydia spread is the third critical step, and is significantly hindered in splenectomized mice. Inhibition of Chlamydia dissemination significantly reduces or precludes the induction of Chlamydia-specific serum IgG antibodies, presence of which is correlated with FRT pathology in women. This study reveals important insights in context of Chlamydia spp. pathogenesis and will inform the development of therapeutic targets and vaccines to combat this pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1041, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most pervasive sexually transmitted infections and has high prevalence in urogenital and extra-urogenital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated anatomical site-specific prevalence and genotypes of CT among MSM recruited from three geographic areas in China. METHODS: We collected urine specimens and anorectal, pharyngeal swab specimens from 379 MSM. CT infection was identified using polymerase chain reaction and CT genotyping was determined by sequences of the ompA gene. RESULTS: The results indicated that the overall prevalence of CT infection was 18.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 13.9-22.5%) and significantly different between the cities (p = 0.048). The infection was most common at the anorectal site (15.6, 95%CIs 11.6-19.5%) followed by urethral (3.2, 95%CIs 1.4-5.0%) and oropharyngeal sites (1.6, 95%CIs 0.3-2.9%). Genotypes D and G were the most common CT strains in this population but genotype D was significantly predominated in Nanjing while genotype G was in Wuhan. No genotype related to lymphogranuloma venereum was found. CT infection was significantly related to the infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.27, 95%CIs 6.02-33.83, p < 0.001) and age. Men older than 40 years old were less likely to have a CT infection as compared to men under 30 years old (aOR 0.37, 95% CIs 0.15-0.93, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The high CT infection prevalence, particularly in the anorectal site, among MSM suggests the necessity to development an integrated CT screening and treatment program specifically focusing on this high-risk population. Surveillance of CT infections should be improved by including both infection and genotype based surveys into the current surveillance programs in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Genótipo , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 471-478, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185065

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is considered as a public health problem due to its high prevalence and increased rates of gynecological disorders. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of this bacterium is the most abundant protein in its membrane and has been evaluated not only as a vaccine development candidate but also is used in many diagnostic tests. The MOMP weighs 69 kDa and contains four variable segments (VS 1-4) separated by constant regions. Several research groups have developed recombinant single-variable segments of MOMP expressed in Escherichia coli cytoplasm. But, all variable segments have been used minimally for the diagnosis of a chlamydial infection. In this experiment, the authors obtained the recombinant MOMP of C. trachomatis (rMOMP) in E. coli rMOMP and extracted, purified, and partially characterized it. This was later used to identify anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in sera of infertile patients by immunodetection assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and indirect immunofluorescence tests. The ELISA test showed high sensitivity and low specificity of 100 and 58.3%, respectively. The above results obtained were linked to the cross-reactivity of antibodies against C. pneumoniae or C. psittaci. Hence, an evaluation was performed to obtain an optimized test for the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection


No disponible


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA