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1.
Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 471-478, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185065

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is considered as a public health problem due to its high prevalence and increased rates of gynecological disorders. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of this bacterium is the most abundant protein in its membrane and has been evaluated not only as a vaccine development candidate but also is used in many diagnostic tests. The MOMP weighs 69 kDa and contains four variable segments (VS 1-4) separated by constant regions. Several research groups have developed recombinant single-variable segments of MOMP expressed in Escherichia coli cytoplasm. But, all variable segments have been used minimally for the diagnosis of a chlamydial infection. In this experiment, the authors obtained the recombinant MOMP of C. trachomatis (rMOMP) in E. coli rMOMP and extracted, purified, and partially characterized it. This was later used to identify anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in sera of infertile patients by immunodetection assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and indirect immunofluorescence tests. The ELISA test showed high sensitivity and low specificity of 100 and 58.3%, respectively. The above results obtained were linked to the cross-reactivity of antibodies against C. pneumoniae or C. psittaci. Hence, an evaluation was performed to obtain an optimized test for the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection


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Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 991, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male urethritis is primary sexually transmitted. Northern Territory (NT) has the highest rates of gonococcal infection in Australia and local guidelines recommend empiric treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone for all men presenting with urethritis. As gonococcal drug resistance is a growing concern, this study aims to improve empiric use of ceftriaxone through examining local patterns of male urethritis, comparing cases of gonococcal urethritis (GU) to controls with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of all men with symptomatic urethritis presenting to Darwin sexual health clinic from July 2015 to July 2016 and aetiology of urethritis in this population was described. Demographic, risk profile, and clinical features of GU cases were compared to NGU controls. RESULTS: Among n = 145 men, the most common organisms identified were Chlamydia trachomatis (23.4%, SE 3.5%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (17.2%, SE 3.1%). The main predictors of GU were any abnormalities on genital examination (aOR 10.4, 95% CI 2.1 to 50.8) and a history of urethral discharge (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 22.6). Aboriginal patients (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.6) and those over 30 years of age (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 7.0) were more likely to have GU in the unadjusted analysis, but not in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: This is the first study looking at patterns of male urethritis in urban NT and the results support a move towards adopting national guidelines to use ceftriaxone for empiric management of syndromic urethritis only in high-risk patients. In addition to traditional demographic risk factors, clinical features remain an important component of risk stratification.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Uretrite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Uretrite/microbiologia
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1926-1931, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643153

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most frequent notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Switzerland. The infection is most frequently observed in 15 to 24 year-old-women and in 25 to 34 year-old-men. 50-75 % of the Chlamydia trachomatis carriage are asymptomatic, making the infection difficult to diagnose and increasing the untreated specimen, leading to complications like infertility, ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite having a sexual prevention at school, the youths seem to have a lack of knowledge about CT, her transmission and her complications. We performed a survey, which showed that 60.5 % of the participants ignored that this bacteria is mostly asymptomatic. We also found that 11 % of the participants believed that there is no possible relapse of the infection. The prevention must be strengthened, mostly because there is no program in Switzerland, letting every physician to his own beliefs. The medical consultation is an ideal opportunity for this prevention and the youths shared their wish to discuss more about it with health professionals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Metas , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Masculino , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/epidemiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Infect Immun ; 87(11)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427450

RESUMO

Salmonella infection can cause gastroenteritis in healthy individuals or a serious, systemic infection in immunocompromised patients and has a global impact. CD4 Th1 cells represent the main lymphocyte population that participates in bacterial clearance during both primary and secondary infections in mice of the H-2b haplotype. Previous studies have used congenic mice to examine the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in elimination of this pathogen from the host. In this study, we further characterized the ability of H-2b, H-2k, and H-2u molecules to influence adaptive immunity to Salmonella in MHC congenic mice. By depleting different cell populations during infection, we unexpectedly found that CD8 T cells, in addition to CD4 T cells, play a major role in accelerated clearance of bacteria from H-2k congenic hosts. Our data suggest that CD8 T cells accelerate clearance in some MHC congenic mouse strains and could therefore represent an unexpected contributor to the protective efficacy of Salmonella vaccines outside the typical studies in C57BL/6 mice.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/fisiologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia muridarum , Haplótipos , Interferon gama , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Camundongos
7.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 398-400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310011

RESUMO

Chlamydia gallinacea is a recently described bacterial species in a genus known to infect and cause disease in animals and humans. Our report describes the identification of C. gallinacea infection in free-range laying chickens (Gallus gallus) in Australia, and the identification of C. gallinacea infection in a parrot, a wild Australian galah (Eolophus roseicapillus). There is currently little knowledge of the effects of C. gallinacea infection on avian hosts, but it has been linked to respiratory disease in humans and could potentially cause similar disease in other species. Our report highlights the need for further study and surveillance of Chlamydia species in both wild and domestic hosts in Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papagaios , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vitória/epidemiologia
9.
Infect Immun ; 87(9)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285254

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Modeling infection in animals can be challenging, as mice naturally clear C. trachomatis when it is deposited in the lower genital tract. However, C. trachomatis can productively infect mice when the lower genital tract is bypassed and bacteria are deposited directly into the upper genital tract via transcervical inoculation. Interestingly, the mouse-adapted Chlamydia species C. muridarum can infect mice both by transcervical inoculation and by natural ascension if introduced into the vaginal vault. In this study, we investigated whether the route of infection plays a role in the downstream immune responses to C. muridarum infection. We found that transcervical infection with C. muridarum results in higher bacterial burdens in the upper genital tract at earlier time points, correlating with levels of innate immune cells. When bacterial burdens were equivalent in intravaginally and transcervically infected mice at later time points, we observed substantially higher levels of adaptive immune cells in transcervically infected mice. Our data suggest that different routes of infection with the same organism can elicit different immune responses in the same tissue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum/imunologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(10): 832-834, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the major pathogens causing acute epididymitis. Azithromycin (AZM) has a good efficacy against C. trachomatis; however, the ability of AZM to penetrate into human epididymal tissue has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we examined the appropriate dosage of oral AZM for human epididymal tissue by site-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. METHODS: Patients with prostate cancer who underwent orchiectomy were included in this study. All patients received a 1-g dose of AZM before orchiectomy. Both epididymal tissue and blood samples were collected during surgery, and the drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All concentration-time data were analyzed with a three-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination processes to simulate AZM concentrations in serum and epididymal tissue. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients were enrolled in the current study. For the observed values, the ratio of the epididymal concentration to the serum concentration was 5.13 ± 3.71 (mean ± standard deviation). For the simulated values, the maximum concentrations were 0.64 µg/mL at 2.42 h in serum and 1.96 µg/g at 4.10 h in epididymal tissue. The 24-h concentrations were 0.239 µg/mL in serum and 0.795 µg/g in epididymal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The penetration of oral AZM into human epididymal tissue was examined to assess the potential application of AZM for the treatment of acute epididymitis. Based on the previous reports mentioning drug-susceptibility of C. trachomatis, multiple doses of oral AZM 1 g would be recommended for epididymitis based on the site-specific PK/PD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Azitromicina/farmacocinética , Epididimo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Epididimo/microbiologia , Epididimite/tratamento farmacológico , Epididimite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis causes the most prevalent bacterial Sexual Transmitted Infection. In pregnant women, untreated chlamydial infections are associated with abortions, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum endometritis, low birth weight and transmission to the newborn. In Córdoba, Argentina, there is little knowledge about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, so, the aim of this study was to evaluate Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and genotypes present in Cordovan pregnant women with different age and socioeconomic status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Design: prospective study. Settings: Women population from Cordoba city, Argentina. Population: Pregnant women having 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. Methods: Five hundred and nine cervical swabs were collected. Each sample was subjected to DNA extraction and PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis using primers NRO/NLO and CTP1/CTP2. Positives samples were sequenced to determine genotype. Main outcome measures: Demographic data of the patients were collected to detect a population at risk for this infection. RESULTS: A prevalence of 6.9% (35/509) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection was detected, with 32/295 and 3/214 from pregnant women with low or better economic resources respectively (p = 0,0001). Results showed a significantly increased rate of 11.6% (30/258) in women under 25 years compared with 2% (5/251) in patients over that age (p = 0,00003). Genotype E was the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: With these results, we can say that pregnant women under 25 years old and low economic resources are one of the populations in which the screening programs of Chlamydia trachomatis should focus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 222-226, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia (C.) felis can cause infection which may be associated with conjunctivitis and/or respiratory tract disease, particularly in kittens, but could also be the cause of the disease in adult cats. Infection is more common in multi-cat environments. The zoonotic potential of C. felis appears low, but exposure to this microorganism is possible by handling the affected cats, by contact with their aerosol, and also via fomites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, 140 cats of various breeds from Kosice region in Slovakia were studied. Conjunctival samples were obtained from 71 clinically healthy cats (50.7%) and 69 cats with clinical signs of conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract impairment (49.3%). Cats were divided into 4 groups according to breed and type of environment in which they lived. In the 1st group were cats kept inside only (n=33), in the 2nd group, free-roaming cats (n=50), the 3rd group comprised stray cats, taken from the streets (n=28), and the 4th group included cats kept in shelters or deposit devices (n=29). Molecular method PCR and DNA sequencing was used as the diagnostic method. RESULTS: Overall positivity was 17.1%. Of the 24 positive cats, the highest positivity was detected in the population of stray cats (35.7%) and shelter cats (31%). In the group of free-roaming cats, 10% had positivity. No positive animals were detected in the group of cats kept inside only. It was also found that the risk of C. felis in cats with clinical signs of disease was more than 7-fold higher than in cats without clinical signs of conjunctivitis and respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that cats, especially stray and shelter cats, can be important sources of feline chlamydiosis, and due to their close contact with people they can present a risk for transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2747, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227715

RESUMO

Many intracellular bacteria, including Chlamydia, establish a parasitic membrane-bound organelle inside the host cell that is essential for the bacteria's survival. Chlamydia trachomatis forms inclusions that are decorated with poorly characterized membrane proteins known as Incs. The prototypical Inc, called IncA, enhances Chlamydia pathogenicity by promoting the homotypic fusion of inclusions and shares structural and functional similarity to eukaryotic SNAREs. Here, we present the atomic structure of the cytoplasmic domain of IncA, which reveals a non-canonical four-helix bundle. Structure-based mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulation, and functional cellular assays identify an intramolecular clamp that is essential for IncA-mediated homotypic membrane fusion during infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Corpos de Inclusão/microbiologia , Fusão de Membrana , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Proteínas SNARE/química
15.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(6): 536-541, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074362

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey of 295 persons attending a major sexually transmitted infection clinic in Jamaica's capital city showed that the Ministry of Health's syndromic algorithm has moderate sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing cervicitis. In the absence of diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections, a syndromic algorithm continues to be useful for diagnosing sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Cervicite Uterina/diagnóstico , Cervicite Uterina/microbiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Síndrome , Cervicite Uterina/epidemiologia
16.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 361-367, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been considerable discussion about anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in women, with some calling for anorectal CT screening, but little about anorectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Given that urogenital NG is more strongly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, this is an evidence gap. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the associations between anorectal CT in women and CT positivity at other sites (urogenital/oropharyngeal) and with anal intercourse, and compares these with anorectal NG within the same study populations. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for English-language studies published to October 2018 using the following terms: ("Chlamydia" OR "Chlamydia trachomatis") AND (("anal" OR "rect*" OR "anorect*") OR ("extra?genital" OR "multi?site")). Studies were included if anorectal NG data were available. Random-effects meta-analyses calculated pooled estimates; heterogeneity was investigated using meta-regression. RESULTS: 25 studies were eligible. Anorectal CT positivity ranged from 0% to 17.5%, with a summary estimate of 8.0% (95% CI 7.0 to 9.1; I2=88.5%). Anorectal NG positivity ranged from 0% to 17.0%, with a summary estimate of 2.1% (95% CI 1.6 to 2.8; I2=92.7%). The association between urogenital and anorectal positivity was stronger for NG than CT (summary prevalence ratio (PR)=89.3 (95% CI 53.1 to 150.3; I2=80.1%), PR=32.2 (95% CI 25.6 to 40.7; I2=70.3%), respectively), and between oropharyngeal and anorectal positivity it was stronger for NG than CT (PR=34.8 (95% CI 10.2 to 118.2; I2=89.9%), PR=8.8 (95% CI 6.8 to 11.5; I2=58.1%), respectively). Anal intercourse was associated with anorectal NG (PR=4.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 8.6; I2=0.0%) but not with anorectal CT (PR=1.0; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.4; I2=0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal CT is more common than anorectal NG, but anorectal NG is more strongly associated with anal intercourse, urogenital and oropharyngeal NG, suggesting that ongoing discussion about anorectal CT should also include NG. Longitudinal data are required to further understanding of the aetiology of anorectal STIs and assess whether anorectal screening is needed in women. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42df017080188.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Reto/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/psicologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Feminino , Gonorreia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 317-321, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most international STI guidelines recommend Chlamydia trachomatis anorectal testing in women after self-reported sexual exposure or symptoms in women. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of anorectal C. trachomatis is as high (7%-17 %) in women who do not report anorectal intercourse (AI) as in women who do. This study assessed the correlation between the genital and anorectal C. trachomatis load in concurrently infected women for increased microbiological insight. METHODS: A convenience sample of 105 women with a concurrent (genital and anorectal) C. trachomatis infection was included from the STI clinic in South Limburg, the Netherlands. Women provided self-collected vaginal and anorectal swabs. The C. trachomatis load was quantified with qPCR and the human cell load was assessed to ensure sample adequacy. Genital and anorectal C. trachomatis loads were divided into tertiles for comparison. The χ2 test and linear regression were used to compare genital and anorectal C. trachomatis loads and identify determinants associated with load. RESULTS: The overall median C. trachomatis load was higher in genital (median 5.3 log10 C. trachomatis/ml) than anorectal samples (median 3.4, p ≤ 0.001), but both loads were within the same range. The genital and anal load categories were not related within one woman (p = 0.99), both in women with and without AI. The anorectal C. trachomatis load was in the same or higher load category than the genital load in 56% of women without AI, and 79% of women with AI. CONCLUSIONS: Although no cut-off for clinical relevance is known, an anorectal C. trachomatis load in the same or higher load category than the genital C. trachomatis load is likely to be clinically relevant. Other measurements should also be taken into account, such as leucocytes or bacterial viability to distinguish infection from contamination or exposure.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Chlamydia trachomatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(6)2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142036

RESUMO

Host immunogenetic factors can affect late complications of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. These findings are creating new avenues for updating existing risk prediction models for C. trachomatis-associated tubal factor infertility (TFI). Research into host factors and its utilization may therefore have future implications for diagnosing C. trachomatis-induced infertility. We outline the epidemiological situation regarding C. trachomatis and TFI in high-income countries. Thereupon, we review the main characteristics of the population undergoing fertility work-up and identify screening and diagnostic strategies for TFI currently in place. The Netherlands is an exemplary model for the state of the art in high-income countries. Within the framework of existing clinical approaches, we propose a scenario for the translation of relevant genome-based information into triage of infertile women, with the objective of implementing genetic profiling in the routine investigation of TFI. Furthermore, we describe the state of the art in relevant gene- and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based clinical prediction models and place our perspectives in the context of these applications. We conclude that the introduction of a genetic test of proven validity into the assessment of TFI should help reduce patient burden from invasive and costly examinations by achieving a more precise risk stratification.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Testes Genéticos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/microbiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215606, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bacterial load of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is assumed to play a role in transmission and sequelae. We assessed urogenital CT cycle quantification (Cq) values, as an indicator for CT load, of men and women diagnosed by general practitioners (GPs), hospital physicians and the STI clinic. METHODS: Urogenital CT-positive samples (n = 2,055 vaginal swabs, n = 77 cervical swabs, n = 1,519 urine samples and n = 19 urethral swabs) diagnosed by GPs, hospital physicians and the STI clinic from the Maastricht Medical Microbiology Laboratory were included (2012-2016). The outcome measure 'urogenital Cq values' was used as an inversely proportional measure for CT load. Among all patients, multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess primary determinants for mean urogenital Cq values, stratified by sex. Additional clinical determinants were assessed among STI clinic patients. RESULTS: In men, mean urogenital Cq values were similar between GPs, hospital physicians and the STI clinic (32.7 and 33.5 vs. 32.7; p>0.05). Women visiting the GP had lower urogenital Cq values than women visiting the STI clinic (30.2 vs. 30.9; p = <0.001). Women visiting the hospital had higher urogenital Cq values than women visiting the STI clinic (32.4 vs. 30.9; p = <0.001). Among STI clinic women, urogenital Cq values were lower in women with concurrent anorectal CT and in rectally untested women compared to anorectal CT-negative women (30.7 and 30.6 vs. 33.9; p = <0.001). CONCLUSION: Men visiting different STI care providers had similar urogenital Cq values, which could be an indicator for similar CT loads. The lower Cq values of women visiting the GP compared to women visiting the STI clinic could be an indicator for higher CT loads and likely higher transmission potential. Notably, urogenital Cq values of STI clinic women were much lower (>3 Cq) when STI clinic women also had anorectal CT. This finding could indicate higher urogenital CT loads and likely higher chances of transmission and sequelae.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urogenital/patologia , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Infect Immun ; 87(7)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988057

RESUMO

Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells against Chlamydia are crucial for driving bacterial clearance and mediating protection against reinfection. Although the Chlamydia trachomatis protein Cta1 has been identified to be a dominant murine CD4+ T cell antigen, its level of expression during the bacterial developmental cycle and precise localization within the host cell are unknown. Newly developed tools for Chlamydia genetic manipulation have allowed us to generate a C. trachomatis strain expressing a heterologous CD4+ T cell epitope from ovalbumin (OVA) consisting of OVA residues 323 to 339 (OVA323-339). By tagging proteins expressed in C. trachomatis with OVA323-339, we can begin to understand how protein expression, developmental regulation, and subcellular compartmentalization affect the potential of those proteins to serve as antigens. When OVA323-339 was expressed as a fusion with green fluorescent protein, we found that we were able to elicit an OT-II T cell response in an antigen-dependent manner, but surprisingly, these T cells were unable to reduce bacterial burden in mice. These data suggest that the subcellular localization of antigen, the level of antigen expression, or the timing of expression within the developmental cycle of Chlamydia may play a crucial role in eliciting a protective CD4+ T cell response.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Ovalbumina/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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