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1.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126071, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085936

RESUMO

The spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is an endangered Mediterranean tortoise that lives in North Africa, Southern Europe and Southwest Asia. In the wake of recent legislation making their keeping as domestic animals illegal, many of these animals have been returned to wildlife recovery centers in Spain. In the present study, a population of such tortoises showing signs of ocular disease and nasal discharge was examined for the presence of Chlamydia spp. Cloacal, conjunctival and/or choanal swabs were collected from 58 animals. Using a real-time PCR specific for the family Chlamydiaceae, 57/58 animals tested positive in at least one sample. While only a few samples proved positive for C. pecorum, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a sequence identical to previously published sequences from specimens of German and Polish tortoises. Whole-genome sequences obtained from two conjunctival swab samples, as well as ANIb, TETRA values and a scheme based on 9 taxonomic marker genes revealed that the strain present in the Spanish tortoises represented a new yet non-classified species, with C. pecorum being its closest relative. We propose to designate the new species Candidatus Chlamydia testudinis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/classificação , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
2.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 505-508, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588995

RESUMO

Chlamydial infections in dairy cattle are common and have been sporadically associated with reduced performance and severe disease manifestations. While chlamydial infections are well described in sheep, very little is known about the epidemiology of these infections in dairy cattle in Australia. In this study, we screened for chlamydial infections and assessed on-farm risks in dairy cattle herds from Southeast Queensland (SE Qld) region of Australia. In total, 228 paired vaginal and rectal swabs were collected from 114 visually healthy dairy cows from four farms in SE Qld. Risk factors were rated by observational study and included: hygiene and cleanliness of cows, walkway and parlour, incidence of perinatal mortality, external replacements, mode of breeding, calving pen management, heat reduction strategies, and feed ration usage. Testing for chlamydial pathogens (Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus) was done using species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Detected rates of chlamydial infection were evaluated against the on-farm risk factors. C. pecorum infection was widespread in all four farms, with 56.1% (64/114) of individual animals shedding this organism from vaginal and rectal, or both sites. C. abortus and C. psittaci were not detected in any animals. No association was found to exist with risk factors and C. pecorum infection rates in our study, however the number of Chlamydia positive animals was statistically different between the herds. This study suggests that subclinical chlamydial infections may impact on dairy herd health at the production level rather than affecting individual animal.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vagina/microbiologia
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 199-206, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539797

RESUMO

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus causes abortion and constitutes a worldwide threat for livestock. Plant-derived flavonoids have antimicrobial effects against veterinary and human pathogens and may be of help in the fight against C. abortus. The anti-infective efficacy against C. abortus of the flavonoids apigenin and naringenin, and of four of their derived metabolites was explored using an in vitro model of ovine trophoblast cells. Overall, the anti-infective effectiveness was apigenin > naringenin > benzoic acid > 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid ~ 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid ~ 4-hydroxybenzoic. At the lowest concentration tested (10 µM), apigenin, naringenin and benzoic acid inhibited the formation of C. abortus inclusions by 80%, 67%, and 39%, respectively. The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects on the trophoblast host cells also differed greatly between the tested compounds. Our findings suggest that flavonoids may be of therapeutic value against C. abortus infection but metabolic conversion has a substantial and variable effect on their anti-chlamydial activity. Our results also support the notion that the mechanisms of anti-infective action may involve combined effects of the compounds against the host cells and the bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Apigenina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Trofoblastos
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 259, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular pathogen with an affinity for placenta, causes reproductive failure. In non-pregnant animals, an initial latent infection is established until the next gestation, when the microorganism is reactivated, causing abortion. The precise mechanisms that trigger the awakening of C. abortus are still unknown. Sexual hormones such as estradiol and progesterone have been shown to affect the outcome of infection in other species of the family Chlamydiaceae, while estrogens increase chlamydial infection, progesterone has the opposite effect. To try to establish whether there is a relationship between these events and the latency/ reactivation of C. abortus in the reproductive tract of small ruminants, ovine endometrial (LE) and trophoblastic (AH-1) cells were treated with estradiol or progesterone prior to their infection with C. abortus. The results are compared with those obtained for treatment with penicillin prior to infection, which is a well-established model for studying persistent infection in other chlamydial species. Cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy, and an mRNA expression analysis of 16 genes related to the chlamydial developmental cycle was made. RESULTS: The changes observed in this study by the action of sex hormones seem to depend on the type of cell where the infection develops. In addition, while the changes are morphologically similar to those induced by treatment with penicillin, the patterns of gene expression are different. Gene expression patterns therefore, seem to depend on the persistence induced models of C. abortus used. Hormone treatments induced aberrant forms in infected endometrial cells but did not affect the chlamydial morphology in trophoblast cells. At the genetic level, hormones did not induce significant changes in the expression of the studied genes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that penicillin induces a state of persistence in in vitro cultured C. abortus with characteristic morphological features and gene transcriptional patterns. However, the influence of hormones on the C. abortus developmental cycle is mediated by changes in the host cell environment. Furthermore, a persistent state in C. abortus cannot be characterised by a single profile of gene expression pattern, but may change depending on the model used to induce persistence.


Assuntos
Chlamydia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlamydia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlamydia/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Penicilinas/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro , Ovinos
5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109887, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307668

RESUMO

Chlamydia abortus produces ovine enzootic abortion (OEA). Symptoms are not observed until the organism colonises the placenta, eventually causing abortion. Infected animals become carriers and will shed the organism in the following oestruses. This process suggests that sex hormones might play an important role in the physiopathology of OEA, affecting the success of chlamydial clearance and also jeopardising the effectiveness of vaccination. However, the mechanisms through which sex hormones are involved in chlamydial pathogenicity remain unclear. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effect of progesterone on the immune response against C. abortus and on the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine in sheep. Eighteen sheep were ovariectomised and divided into four groups: vaccinated and progesterone-treated (V-PG), vaccinated and non-treated (V-NT), non-vaccinated and non-treated (NV-NT) and non-vaccinated and progesterone-treated sheep (NV-PG). Animals from both PG groups were treated with commercial medroxyprogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges before and during the vaccination (V-PG) or just before challenge (NV-PG). The animals from both V groups were subcutaneously immunised with an experimental inactivated vaccine, which was seen to confer high protection in previous studies. All sheep were challenged intratracheally with C. abortus strain AB7 and were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. Morbidity was measured as the variation in rectal temperature and samples of sera were collected for antibody and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-10) analysis by commercial ELISA. In addition, lung and lymph node samples were collected for chlamydial detection by qPCR and for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Sheep from the V-PG group showed less severe or no lesions and lower morbidity than the other groups. They also had the highest abundance of regulatory T-cells. The sheep from V-NT also manifested high antibody levels against C. abortus and less severe lesions than those observed in non-vaccinated sheep, which showed high morbidity, low antibody levels and severe lesions, especially in NV-NT. These results confirm the effectiveness of the experimental vaccine employed and suggest that progesterone could enhance the effect.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Aborto Animal/imunologia , Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
6.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 398-400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310011

RESUMO

Chlamydia gallinacea is a recently described bacterial species in a genus known to infect and cause disease in animals and humans. Our report describes the identification of C. gallinacea infection in free-range laying chickens (Gallus gallus) in Australia, and the identification of C. gallinacea infection in a parrot, a wild Australian galah (Eolophus roseicapillus). There is currently little knowledge of the effects of C. gallinacea infection on avian hosts, but it has been linked to respiratory disease in humans and could potentially cause similar disease in other species. Our report highlights the need for further study and surveillance of Chlamydia species in both wild and domestic hosts in Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papagaios , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vitória/epidemiologia
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 222-226, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia (C.) felis can cause infection which may be associated with conjunctivitis and/or respiratory tract disease, particularly in kittens, but could also be the cause of the disease in adult cats. Infection is more common in multi-cat environments. The zoonotic potential of C. felis appears low, but exposure to this microorganism is possible by handling the affected cats, by contact with their aerosol, and also via fomites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, 140 cats of various breeds from Kosice region in Slovakia were studied. Conjunctival samples were obtained from 71 clinically healthy cats (50.7%) and 69 cats with clinical signs of conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract impairment (49.3%). Cats were divided into 4 groups according to breed and type of environment in which they lived. In the 1st group were cats kept inside only (n=33), in the 2nd group, free-roaming cats (n=50), the 3rd group comprised stray cats, taken from the streets (n=28), and the 4th group included cats kept in shelters or deposit devices (n=29). Molecular method PCR and DNA sequencing was used as the diagnostic method. RESULTS: Overall positivity was 17.1%. Of the 24 positive cats, the highest positivity was detected in the population of stray cats (35.7%) and shelter cats (31%). In the group of free-roaming cats, 10% had positivity. No positive animals were detected in the group of cats kept inside only. It was also found that the risk of C. felis in cats with clinical signs of disease was more than 7-fold higher than in cats without clinical signs of conjunctivitis and respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that cats, especially stray and shelter cats, can be important sources of feline chlamydiosis, and due to their close contact with people they can present a risk for transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Zoonoses/microbiologia
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(7): 1072-1080, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Koala retrovirus (KoRV-A) is 100  % prevalent in northern Australian (Queensland and New South Wales) koala populations, where KoRV-B has been associated with Chlamydia pecorum disease and the development of lymphosarcoma. In southern populations (Victoria and South Australia), KoRV-A is less prevalent and KoRV-B has not been detected in Victoria, while the current prevalence in South Australian populations is unknown but is thought to be low. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of KoRV in the two largest South Australian koala populations [Kangaroo Island (KI) and Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR)], (ii) KoRV subtype and (iii) if an association between KoRV and C. pecorum exists. METHODOLOGY: Wild koalas were sampled in KI ( n =170) between 2014 and 2017 and in MLR ( n =75) in 2016. Clinical examinations were performed, with blood collected for KoRV detection and typing by PCR. RESULTS: KoRV prevalence was 42.4  % [72/170, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 34.9-49.8  %] in KI and 65.3  % (49/75, 95 % CI: 54.6-76.1  %) in MLR. Only KoRV-A, and not KoRV-B, was detected in both populations. In MLR, there was no statistical association between KoRV and C. pecorum infection (P =0.740), or KoRV and C. pecorum disease status ( P=0.274), although KoRV-infected koalas were more likely to present with overt C. pecorum disease than subclinical infection (odds ratio: 3.15, 95 % CI: 0.91-5.39). CONCLUSION: KoRV-A is a prevalent pathogen in wild South Australian koala populations. Future studies should continue to investigate KoRV and C. pecorum associations, as the relationship is likely to be complex and to differ between the northern and southern populations.


Assuntos
Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Retroviridae/genética , Envelhecimento , Animais , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Retroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832350

RESUMO

Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are native Australian marsupials whose populations are in decline from a range of threats. Infectious diseases caused by the bacterium Chlamydia pecorum and other pathogens are of particular concern. We analysed 26 poly-A selected RNA-sequencing libraries from a data set designed to study the immune response of koalas to ocular chlamydial infection. Using virus discovery techniques, we identified the coding-complete genome sequence of a novel picorna-like virus, denoted Burpengary virus, that was most common in south-east Queensland. Notably, abundance measurements of the virus across all 26 libraries revealed an inverse relationship between abundance and ocular disease in koalas, suggesting that the co-infection of Burpengary virus and Chlamydia pecorum is inhibited.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Interações Microbianas , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Animais , Austrália , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/virologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Olho/imunologia , Olho/microbiologia , Olho/virologia , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 90-94, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827411

RESUMO

Chlamydia gallinacea is an endemic Chlamydia agent in poultry with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. gallinacea can be transmitted via fecal-oral, respiratory and vertical routes. After co-housing with C. gallinacea-inoculated broilers (n = 10) for 15 days, over 90.0% of SPF broilers (n = 10) became C. gallinacea-positive in their oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Connection of isolators with ventilation tubing resulted in transmission of infectious bronchitis virus, but not of C. gallinacea, from infected broilers in one isolator to uninfected ones in the other isolator. Chlamydia-qPCR determined that 97.6% of shells of embryonated eggs (287/294) from a breeding farm were positive for C. gallinacea. C. gallinacea positivity in egg albumen increased significantly from 7.6% (10/128) before incubating to 44.4% (8/18) of 7-day incubation, and from 5.5% (7/128) to 38.9% (7/18) in egg yolk. After incubating for 19 days, C. gallinacea DNA was detected in heart (5/55, 9.1%), liver (3/55, 5.5%), spleen (7/55, 12.7%), lung (6/55, 10.1%), kidney (8/55; 14.5%) and intestine (4/55, 7.3%) of chicken embryos. Taken together, our data indicate that C. gallinacea can be efficiently transmitted by the fecal-oral route, but not via aerosol. Additionally, vertical transmission can occur via penetration of C. gallinacea from eggshell to albumen, yolk, and the growing embryo. Our findings provide essential information for the control of C. gallinacea in poultry farms.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Coração/microbiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Ovalbumina , Óvulo/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(4): 627-632, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839254

RESUMO

Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia abortus are related ruminant pathogens endemic to different global regions. Potential co-infections combined with the lack of species-specific serological assays challenge accurate diagnosis. Serological screening revealed low C. abortus seropositivity with the peptide-based ELISA (1/84; 1.2%) in Australian sheep yet moderate seropositivity in a Swiss flock with history of C. abortus-associated abortions (17/63; 26.9%). By whole cell antigen complement fixation tests (CFT) and ELISA, chlamydial seropositivity was significantly higher in all groups, suggesting cross-reactivity between these two chlamydial species and non-specificity of the tests. However, only C. pecorum DNA could be detected by qPCR in Chlamydia seropositive Australian animals screened, suggesting chlamydial seropositivity was due to cross-reactivity with endemic C. pecorum infections. These results suggest ascribing Chlamydia seropositivity to chlamydial species in livestock using whole-cell antigen CFT or ELISA should be treated with caution; and that peptide-based ELISA and qPCR provide greater chlamydial species-specificity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Imunoensaio/normas , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/patogenicidade , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Testes de Fixação de Complemento/métodos , Testes de Fixação de Complemento/normas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Imunoensaio/métodos , Gado/microbiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ovinos
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 264-270, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853132

RESUMO

Chlamydiosis, caused by Chlamydia pecorum, is regarded as an important threat to koala populations. Across the koala's geographical range, disease severity associated with C. pecorum infection varies, with pathogen diversity and strain pathogenicity being likely important factors. To examine C. pecorum diversity on a sub-population level a Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme, containing the housekeeping genes; gatA, oppA_3, hflX, gidA, enoA, hemN and fumC, was used to type strains from two sub-populations of koalas from the Liverpool Plains, NSW, Australia, with different disease expressions. Typing of samples from 2015 to 2017, revealed a significant association between sequence type ST 69 and clinical disease and a significant difference in sequence type frequencies between sub-populations. Sequence type ST 69 has previously been identified in both subclinical and clinically diseased koalas indicating that these markers alone are not illustrative of pathogenicity. However, recent emergence of this sequence type in a naïve population may explain the differing disease expressions. Sequence types ST 73 and ST 69 have been described in koalas across a broad geographic range, indicating multiple introduction events and/or a limited veracity of the MLST loci to explore fine scale epidemiological investigations, particularly those examining the interface between pathogenic strain and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Chlamydia/classificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(3): 1132-1137, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873753

RESUMO

Chlamydiae are globally widespread obligate intracellular bacteria, which several species are a well-recognized threat to human and animal health. In Australia, the most successful chlamydial species are the infamous koala pathogen C. pecorum, and C. psittaci, an emerging pathogen associated with zoonotic events. Little is known about infections caused by other chlamydial organisms in Australian livestock or wildlife. Considering that these hosts can be encountered by humans at the animal/human interface, in this study, we investigated genetic diversity of chlamydial organisms infecting Australian domesticated and wild ungulates. A total of 185 samples from 129 domesticated (cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs) and 29 wild (deer) ungulate hosts were screened with C. pecorum and C. psittaci species-specific assays, followed by a screen with pan-Chlamydiales assay. Overall, chlamydial DNA was detected in 120/185 (65%) samples, including all ungulate hosts. Species-specific assays further revealed that C. pecorum and C. psittaci DNA were detected in 27% (50/185) and 6% (11/185) of the samples, respectively, however from domesticated hosts only. A total of 46 "signature" 16S rRNA sequences were successfully resolved by sequencing and were used for phylogenetic analyses. Sequence analyses revealed that genetically diverse novel as well as traditional chlamydial organisms infect an expanded range of ungulate hosts in Australia. Detection of the C. psittaci and C. pecorum in livestock, and novel taxa infecting horses and deer raises questions about the genetic make-up and pathogenic potential of these organisms, but also concerns about risks of spill-over between livestock, humans, and native wildlife.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Chlamydia/classificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Cervos , Cavalos , Humanos , Gado , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Suínos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615687

RESUMO

Chlamydia pecorum is responsible for causing ocular infection and disease which can lead to blindness in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Antibiotics are the current treatment for chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, however, they can be detrimental for the koala's gastrointestinal tract microbiota and in severe cases, can lead to dysbiosis and death. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects provided by a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) vaccine on ocular disease in koalas. Koalas with ocular disease (unilateral or bilateral) were vaccinated and assessed for six weeks, evaluating any changes to the conjunctival tissue and discharge. Samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination to evaluate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We further assessed the infecting C. pecorum genotype, host MHC class II alleles and presence of koala retrovirus type (KoRV-B). Our results clearly showed an improvement in the clinical ocular disease state of all seven koalas, post-vaccination. We observed increases in ocular mucosal IgA antibodies to whole C. pecorum elementary bodies, post-vaccination. We found that systemic cell-mediated immune responses to interferon-γ, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17A were not significantly predictive of ocular disease in koalas. Interestingly, one koala did not have as positive a clinical response (in one eye primarily) and this koala was infected with a C. pecorum genotype (E') that was not used as part of the vaccine formula (MOMP genotypes A, F and G). The predominant MHC class II alleles identified were DAb*19, DAb*21 and DBb*05, with no two koalas identified with the same genetic sequence. Additionally, KoRV-B, which is associated with chlamydial disease outcome, was identified in two (29%) ocular diseased koalas, which still produced vaccine-induced immune responses and clinical ocular improvements post-vaccination. Our findings show promise for the use of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP vaccine for the therapeutic treatment of ocular disease in koalas.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/imunologia , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle , Phascolarctidae/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Vacinação
15.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(2): 162-167, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663870

RESUMO

Infectious abortions of goats in Argentina are mainly associated with brucellosis and toxoplasmosis. In this paper, we describe an abortion outbreak in goats caused by Chlamydia abortus. Seventy out of 400 goats aborted. Placental smears stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed many chlamydia-like bodies within trophoblasts. One stillborn fetus was necropsied and the placenta was examined. No gross lesions were seen in the fetus, but the inter-cotyledonary areas of the placenta were thickened and covered by fibrino-suppurative exudate. The most consistent microscopic finding was found in the placenta and consisted of fibrinoid necrotic vasculitis, with mixed inflammatory infiltration in the tunica media. Immunohistochemistry of the placenta was positive for Chlamydia spp. The results of polymerase chain reaction targeting 23S rRNA gene performed on placenta were positive for Chlamydia spp. An analysis of 417 amplified nucleotide sequences revealed 99% identity to those of C. abortus pm225 (GenBank AJ005617) and pm112 (GenBank AJ005613) isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abortion associated with C. abortus in Argentina.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(4): 957-969, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681773

RESUMO

Wildlife diseases are a recognized driver of global biodiversity loss, have substantial economic impacts, and are increasingly becoming a threat to human health. Disease surveillance is critical but remains difficult in the wild due to the substantial costs and potential biases associated with most disease detection methods. Noninvasive scat surveys have been proposed as a health monitoring methodology to overcome some of these limitations. Here, we use the known threat of Chlamydia disease to the iconic, yet vulnerable, koala Phascolarctos cinereus to compare three methods for Chlamydia detection in scats: multiplex quantitative PCR, next generation sequencing, and a detection dog specifically trained on scats from Chlamydia-infected koalas. All three methods demonstrated 100% specificity, while sensitivity was variable. Of particular interest is the variable sensitivity of these diagnostic tests to detect sick individuals (i.e., not only infection as confirmed by Chlamydia-positive swabs, but with observable clinical signs of the disease); for koalas with urogenital tract disease signs, sensitivity was 78% with quantitative PCR, 50% with next generation genotyping and 100% with the detection dog method. This may be due to molecular methods having to rely on high-quality DNA whereas the dog most likely detects volatile organic compounds. The most appropriate diagnostic test will vary with disease prevalence and the specific aims of disease surveillance. Acknowledging that detection dogs might not be easily accessible to all, the future development of affordable and portable "artificial noses" to detect diseases from scats in the field might enable cost-effective, rapid and large-scale disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Phascolarctidae , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Saúde da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Vet Pathol ; 56(2): 300-306, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381016

RESUMO

Chlamydiosis is the most documented and serious disease of koalas, characterized by ocular, urinary, and reproductive lesions. Since little attention has been paid to the pathological effects of this infection in the male reproductive system, we aimed to determine the incidence and severity of reproductive pathology associated with chlamydial infection in male koalas submitted to koala hospitals in southeast Queensland. The entire reproductive tract from 62 sexually mature male koalas not suitable for rehabilitation was evaluated and 677 tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 178 of 677 (26.3%) tissue samples from the upper and lower reproductive tract, mainly in the prostatic, penile, and membranous urethra. IHC was positive for the chlamydial antigen in 19 of 451 normal samples (4.2%) and 46 of 178 samples with inflammation (25.8%), located within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and the prostatic membranous and penile urethra. Chlamydia pecorum was detected via qPCR in 319 of 451 normal samples (70.7%) and 159 of 178 samples with inflammation (89.3%), with the highest incidence in the penile urethra, prostate, membranous urethra, and bulbourethral glands. This study suggests that Chlamydia infection in the male reproductive tract is more widespread than originally thought. Furthermore, the male reproductive tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections in koalas, with important implications for prophylactic strategies and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Animais , Glândulas Bulbouretrais/microbiologia , Glândulas Bulbouretrais/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Epididimo/microbiologia , Epididimo/patologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Próstata/microbiologia , Próstata/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/patologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Uretra/patologia
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(2): 522-525, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376393

RESUMO

A free-ranging adult Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) captured in Switzerland presented with a severe purulent unilateral conjunctivitis. Chlamydia felis was detected in conjunctival swabs by real-time quantitative PCR. Systemic treatment with oxytetracycline and ketoprofen led to complete recovery. Infection with C. felis has not been previously reported in Eurasian lynx.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/veterinária , Lynx/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino
20.
Theriogenology ; 126: 114-120, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551017

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia (C.) abortus would adhere to the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vitro produced bovine embryos; (ii) whether the bacteria would adhere to the embryos (ZP-free) after in vitro infection; and (iii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol. The experimentation was made twice. For each replicate 100 (8-16-cell) bovine embryos produced in vitro were randomly divided into 10 batches. Height batches (4 ZP-intact and 4 ZP-free) of 10 embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 107Chlamydia/ml of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 h at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in accordance with the IETS guidelines. In parallel, two batches (1 ZP-intact and 1 ZP-free) of 10 embryos were subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus as a control group. The 10 washing fluids from each batch were collected and centrifuged for 1 h at 13,000×g. Each batch of washed embryos and each wash pellets were tested using PCR. C. abortus DNA was found in all ZP-intact and ZP-free batches of 10 embryos after 10 successive washes. For ZP-intact infected embryos, Chlamydia-DNA was also detected in all 10 wash baths for two batches (2/8) of embryos, whereas for ZP-free infected embryos, Chlamydia-DNA was detected in all 10 wash baths for 6/8 batches of embryos. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches was DNA positive. The bacterial load for batches of 10 embryos after the 10 wash baths was significantly higher for batches of ZP-free embryos (20.7 ±â€¯9 × 103 bacteria/mL) than for batches of ZP-intact embryos (0.47 ±â€¯0.19 × 103 bacteria/mL). These results demonstrate that C. abortus adheres to the ZP as well as the early embryonic cells of in vitro produced bovine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS fails to remove it.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Chlamydia/patogenicidade , Chlamydia/fisiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Embrião de Mamíferos/microbiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Medição de Risco , Zona Pelúcida/microbiologia
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