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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108081, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549536

RESUMO

Artificial breeding of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) was recently achieved, providing a bright future for its commercial farming. In May 2019, a disease outbreak occurred among small yellow croakers in an aquaculture farm near Xiangshan Bay, charactering by white spots spotted on the surface of fish skin, gills and fins. The parasite was preliminarily identified as Cryptocaryon irritans based on morphological feature of the parasite and the symptoms on fish. However, the previously published specific primer pairs failed to confirm the existence of C. iriitans. Six nucleotides mismatches were discovered after mapping specific forward primer back to targeted gene. Therefore, an updated PCR specific primer was developed within the 9th highly variable region of 18S rRNA gene and conserved in all C. irritans sequences available in GenBank database. The specificity was verified in silico by Primer-BLAST against GenBank nucleotide. Laboratory cultured ciliates (Mesanophrys, Pseudokeronopsis and Uronema) as well as natural microbial community samples collected from sea water and river water was used as negative control to verify the specificity of the primer in situ. Besides, tank transfer method was used to evaluate the treatment of the parasite infection. By tank transfer method, 2.00 ± 0.61 out of 10 fish that already sever infected were successfully survived after 8 days treatment, meanwhile the control group died out at d 6. More loss to the treatment group during first five days was observed and may attribute to the combined effect from infection and stress the recent domesticated fish suffered during rotation. Therefore, tank transfer method was also effective to prevent small yellow croaker from further infection, however the loss of the small yellow croaker suffered from stress during rotation also needs to be carefully concerned. In conclusion, this study reported the first diagnose of C. irritans infection on small yellow croaker, provided updated specific primer to detect C. irritans infection on fish body and reported the effect of tank transfer on small yellow croaker treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/patologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Infecções por Cilióforos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/terapia , Pesqueiros , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3075-3081, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656656

RESUMO

Balantioides coli (syn. Balantidium coli) is an important zoonotic but usually neglected protozoa infecting human and a great number of animals, and the pig was considered to be the most important natural host and reservoir. However, no information about the infection of B. coli in pigs in northwestern China was available. In the present study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of B. coli in pigs in Shaanxi province were investigated. A total of 560 fecal samples were collected from pigs of four age groups in five different geographical regions and analyzed by using PCR targeting the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 gene fragment. The infection of B. coli was detected in all age groups and regions, with the total prevalence of 16.8% (94/560). Significant differences (P < 0.01) in prevalence were found among four investigated age groups, with the highest in fatteners (38.8%) and the lowest in adults (5.7%). The prevalence was also significantly (P < 0.01) different among pigs from five sampling regions. Sequence analysis revealed two genetic variants, namely, A and B, in these investigated pigs, and both of them were detected in all age groups and regions, with the latter as the predominant one. Further, sixty-eight different haplotypes were found, with 19 and 49 belonged to genetic variants A and B, respectively. The findings in the present study indicated wide distribution and high diversity of B. coli in pigs in Shaanxi province and provided fundamental data for implementing control strategies on B. coli infection in pigs as well as other hosts in this province.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichostomatida/genética , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Trichostomatida/classificação , Trichostomatida/isolamento & purificação
3.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102093, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120050

RESUMO

Miamiensis avidus causes scuticociliatosis in cultured olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), leading to economic losses in aquaculture in Korea. Quantitative evaluation of the viability of M. avidus is important to develop an effective vaccine or chemotherapeutic agent against it. We used a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of 2-(4-Iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1) to quantify the viability of M. avidus. Using this method, we investigated the effect of protease inhibitors on the viability of M. avidus. The assay showed a clear difference in the optical density (OD) of over 104 ciliates, and the metalloprotease inhibitors 1, 10-phenanthroline and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced the viability of M. avidus by more than 90% when used at concentration of 5 mM and 100 µM, respectively. However, different morphological changes in the parasite were observed when exposed to these two inhibitors. These results indicate that the WST-1 assay is a simple and reliable method to quantify the viability of M. avidus, and metalloproteases are excellent targets for the development of agents and vaccines to control M. avidus infection.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Colorimetria/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Sais de Tetrazólio/química , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoimenóforos/fisiologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e018319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049149

RESUMO

Scuticociliatosis, caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema spp., parasitizing ten species of marine reef fish at an ornamental fish wholesaler: Blue green damselfish (Chromis viridis), Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti), Pennant coralfish (Heniochus acuminatus), Threespot angelfish (Apolemichthys trimaculatus), Goldspotted angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus), Sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), Orchid dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani), Threadfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon auriga), Vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus), and Bluecheek butterflyfish (Chaetodon semilarvatus). Diseased fish showed disorders such as hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis of the muscle, liver, gut, kidney, spleen, gills, and stomach revealed hemorrhages and degeneration of muscle fiber, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocyte, inflammatory process and granuloma in the liver, atrophy of intestinal villi, inflammatory process and granuloma in the kidney, melanomacrophage centers, as well as inflammatory process in the spleen, epithelial cells hyperplasia and granuloma formation in the gills, and vacuolar degeneration and eosinophils in the stomach. Due to the severity of the disease, it is necessary to implement biosecurity measures with rapid and accurate diagnosis to minimize the risk of economic losses caused by Uronema spp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 107-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805410

RESUMO

In fish, interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) is a regulator of the type I IFN-dependent immune response, thereby playing a crucial role in innate immunity. However, the specific mechanism by which IRF2 regulates type II IFN in fish remains unclear. In the present study, first, to analyse the potential role of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) IRF2 (ToIRF2) in the immune response, the mRNA level of ToIRF2 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after parasite infection. ToIRF2 was upregulated at early time points in both local infection sites (skin and gill) and system immune tissues (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) after stimulation with Cryptocaryon irritans. Second, to investigate the modulation effect of ToIRF2 on type II IFN (interferon gamma, IFNγ) expression, a promoter analysis was performed using progressive deletion mutations of ToIFNγ. The expression level of IFNγ-5 was highest among the five truncated mutants in response to ToIRF2, indicating that the core promoter region was located from -189 bp to +120 bp, which included the IRF2 binding sites. Mutation analyses showed that the activity of the ToIFNγ promoter dramatically decreased after the targeted mutation of the M1, M2 or M3 binding sites. Additionally, electrophoretic mobile shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that IRF2 interacted with the M1 binding site in the ToIFNγ promoter region to dominate ToIFNγ expression. Finally, overexpressing ToIRF2 in vitro notably increased ToIFNγ and the transcription of several type II IFN/IRF-based signalling pathway genes. These results suggested that ToIRF2 might be involved in the host defence against C. irritans infection and contribute to a better understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms by which ToIRF2 regulates type II IFN in fish.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator Regulador 2 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 2 de Interferon/imunologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 819-831, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751659

RESUMO

Massive infection caused by Cryptocaryon irritans is detrimental to the development of marine aquaculture. Recently, our lab found that Nibea albiflora has low sensitivity and low mortality to C. irritans infection. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of the N. albiflora response to C. irritans infection by analyzing transcriptome changes in the skin. Skin samples of control and experimental groups with C. irritans infection were collected at 24 and 72 h (24 h control, 24 h post-infection, 72 h control, and 72 h post-infection). Three parallels were set for each group and sample time, and a total of 12 skin samples were collected for sequencing. Overall, 297,489,843 valid paired-end reads and 48,817 unigenes were obtained with an overall length of 59,010,494 nt. In pairwise comparisons, changes in expression occurred in 1621 (764 upregulated and 857 downregulated), 285 (180 upregulated and 105 downregulated), 993 (489 upregulated and 504 downregulated), and 37 (8 upregulated and 29 downregulated) genes at 24 h control vs 24 h post-infection, 72 h control vs 72 h post-infection, 24 h post-infection vs 72 h post-infection, and 24 h control vs 72 h control, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that the number of genes enriched in GO sub-categories were ordered 24 h control vs 24 h post-infection > 24 h post-infection vs 72 h post-infection >72 h control vs 72 h post-infection > 24 h control vs 72 h control. Further analysis showed that immune-related GO terms (including immune system process, complement activation, and humoral immunity) were significantly enriched at both 72 h control vs 72 h post-infection and 24 h post-infection vs 72 h post-infection, but no immune-related GO terms were significantly enriched in the 24 h control vs 72 h control and at 24 h control vs 24 h post-infection, indicating that C. irritans infection mainly affected the physiological metabolism of N. albiflora at an early stage (24 h), and immune-related genes play an important role at a later stage (72 h) of infection. In KEGG pathway analysis, the complement and coagulation cascade pathway are involved in early infection. Hematopoietic cell lineage, natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and the intestinal immune network for IgA production are involved in later infection. Further analysis showed that the alternative pathway of complement and coagulation cascades plays an important role in the resistance of N. albiflora to early C. irritans infection. During late infection, CD34, IgM, and IgD were significantly upregulated in the hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. CCR9 was significantly downregulated, and IGH and PIGR were significantly upregulated in the intestinal immune network for IgA production. GZMB and IGH were significantly downregulated in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that acquired immunity at the mRNA level was initiated during later infection. In addition, the IL-17 signaling pathway was enriched by downregulated DEGs at 24 h post-infection vs 72 h post-infection, suggesting the inflammatory response at 24 h was stronger than at 72 h and the invasion of the parasite has a greater impact on the host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Perciformes , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/parasitologia
7.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(8): e12675, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587318

RESUMO

The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis causes white spot disease in freshwater fish worldwide. The theront penetrates external surfaces of the naïve fish where it develops into the feeding trophont stage and elicits a protective immune response both at the affected site as well as at the systemic level. The present work compiles data and presents an overall model of the protective reactions induced. A wide spectrum of inflammatory reactions are established upon invasion but the specific protection is provided by adaptive factors. Immunoglobulin IgT is involved in protection of surfaces in several fish species and is thereby one of the first adaptive immune molecules reacting with the penetrating theront. IgT producing lymphocytes occur in epithelia, dispersed or associated with lymphoid cell aggregations (skin epidermis, fins, gills, nostrils and buccal cavities) but they are also present in central immune organs such as the head kidney, spleen and liver. When theronts invade immunized fish skin, they are encountered by host factors which opsonize the parasite and may result in complement activation, phagocytosis or cell-mediated killing. However, antibody (IgT, IgM and IgD) binding to parasite cilia has been suggested to alter parasite behaviour and induce an escape reaction, whereby specific IgT (or other classes of immunoglobulin in fish surfaces) takes a central role in protection against the parasite.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Hymenostomatida/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Brânquias/imunologia , Imunização , Baço/imunologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 755-758, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811426

RESUMO

The ciliate species Balantioides coli can be cross-transmitted between humans and several animal species. Usually harmless, sometimes it can be pathogenic and cause the death of the host. In birds, B. coli has been confirmed in ostriches by genetic analysis, but the identification from South American greater rheas (Rhea americana) and lesser rheas (Rhea pennata pennata) is tentative. Since these species are reared for commercial purposes and for reintroduction into the wild, it is necessary to elucidate whether the ciliate from rheas is B. coli to minimize health risks for humans and for other domestic and wild animals. Individual parasite cells are collected from Argentinean isolates of reared greater rheas and of wild and reared lesser rheas, and their ITS region was PCR amplified; the cloning products were sequenced and compared with sequences available in public databases. The results have shown that several sequence types are expressed at the same time in the parasite cells, and all correspond to B. coli, confirming the possibility of cross-transmission of the parasite between wild and reared South American rheas and several mammal species and humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Reiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Humanos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e018319, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058008

RESUMO

Abstract Scuticociliatosis, caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema spp., parasitizing ten species of marine reef fish at an ornamental fish wholesaler: Blue green damselfish (Chromis viridis), Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti), Pennant coralfish (Heniochus acuminatus), Threespot angelfish (Apolemichthys trimaculatus), Goldspotted angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus), Sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), Orchid dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani), Threadfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon auriga), Vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus), and Bluecheek butterflyfish (Chaetodon semilarvatus). Diseased fish showed disorders such as hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis of the muscle, liver, gut, kidney, spleen, gills, and stomach revealed hemorrhages and degeneration of muscle fiber, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocyte, inflammatory process and granuloma in the liver, atrophy of intestinal villi, inflammatory process and granuloma in the kidney, melanomacrophage centers, as well as inflammatory process in the spleen, epithelial cells hyperplasia and granuloma formation in the gills, and vacuolar degeneration and eosinophils in the stomach. Due to the severity of the disease, it is necessary to implement biosecurity measures with rapid and accurate diagnosis to minimize the risk of economic losses caused by Uronema spp.


Resumo Scuticociliatose, causada pelo protozoário ciliado oportunista, é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas em peixes marinhos ornamentais. O estudo relata a ocorrência de Uronema spp., parasitando dez espécies de peixes de recife em um distribuidor de peixes ornamentais: "Blue green damselfish" (Chromis viridis), "Vanderbilt's Chromis" (Chromis vanderbilti), "Pennant coralfish" (Heniochus acuminatus), "Threespot angelfish" (Apolemichthys trimaculatus), "Goldspotted angelfish" (Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus), "Sea goldie" (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), "Orchid dottyback" (Pseudochromis fridmani), "Threadfin butterflyfish" (Chaetodon auriga), "Vagabond butterflyfish" (Chaetodon vagabundus), e "Bluecheek butterflyfish" (Chaetodon semilarvatus). Peixes doentes apresentaram distúrbios como hemorragias e lesões ulcerativas na superfície do corpo. A análise histopatológica do músculo, fígado, intestino, rim, baço, brânquias e estômago revelou hemorragias e degeneração das fibras musculares, degeneração vacuolar de hepatócitos, processo inflamatório e granuloma no fígado, atrofia das vilosidades intestinais, processo inflamatório e granuloma no rim, centros de melanomacrófagos e processo inflamatório no baço, hiperplasia das células epiteliais, bem como formação de granuloma nas brânquias e degeneração vacuolar e eosinófilos no estômago. Devido à gravidade da doença, é necessário implementar medidas de biossegurança com diagnóstico rápido e preciso para minimizar o risco de perdas econômicas causadas por Uronema spp.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brasil , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 661-674, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521785

RESUMO

The yellow drum Nibea albiflora is less susceptible to Cryptocaryon irritans infection than is the case with other marine fishes such as Larimichthys crocea, Lateolabrax japonicus, and Pagrus major. To investigate further their resistance mechanism, we infected the N. albiflora with the C. irritans at a median lethal concentration of 2050 theronts/g fish. The skins of the infected and the uninfected fishes were sampled at 24 h and 72 h followed by an extensive analysis of metabolism. The study results revealed that there were 2694 potential metabolites. At 24 h post-infection, 12 metabolites were up-regulated and 17 were down-regulated whereas at 72 h post-infection, 22 metabolites were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated. Pathway enrichment analysis shows that the differential enriched pathways were higher at 24 h with 22 categories and 58 subcategories (49 up, 9 down) than at 72 h whereby the differential enriched pathways were 6 categories and 8 subcategories (4 up, 4 down). In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) plot shows that at 24 h the metabolites composition of infected group were separately clustered to uninfected group while at 72 h the metabolites composition in infected group were much closer to uninfected group. This indicated that C. irritans caused strong metabolic stress on the N. albiflora at 24 h and restoration of the dysregulated metabolic state took place at 72 h of infection. Also, at 72 h post infection a total of 17 compounds were identified as potential biomarkers. Furthermore, out of 2694 primary metabolites detected, 23 metabolites could be clearly identified and semi quantified with a known identification number and assigned into 66 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Most of the enriched KEGG pathways were mainly from metabolic pathway classes, including the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, purine metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis. Others were glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Moreover, out of the identified metabolites, only 6 metabolites were statistically differentially expressed, namely, L -glutamate (up-regulated) at 24 h was important for energy and precursor for other glutathiones and instruments of preventing oxidative injury; 15-hydroxy- eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), (S)-(-)-2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid, and adenine (up-regulated) at 72 h were important for anti-inflammatory and immune responses during infection; others were delta-valerolactam and betaine which were down-regulated compared to uninfected group at 72 h, might be related to immure responses including stimulation of immune system such as production of antibodies. Our results therefore further advance our understanding on the immunological regulation of N. albiflora during immune response against infections as they indicated a strong relationship between skin metabolome and C. irritans infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Metaboloma/imunologia , Perciformes , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 802-812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284047

RESUMO

Like other ciliates, Philasterides dicentrarchi, the scuticociliate parasite of turbot, produces a feeding-only or growing stage called a trophont during its life cycle. Exposure of the trophonts to heat-inactivated serum extracted from the turbot host and containing specific antibodies that induce agglutination/immobilization leads to the production of a mucoid capsule from which the trophonts later emerge. We investigated how these capsules are generated, observing that the mechanism was associated with the process of exocytosis involved in the release of a matrix material from the extrusomes. The extruded material contains mucin-like glycoproteins that were deposited on the surface of the cell and whose expression increased with time of exposure to the heat-inactivated immune serum, at both protein expression and gene expression levels. Stimulation of the trophonts with the immune serum also caused an increase in discharge of the intracellular storage compartments of calcium necessary for the exocytosis processes in the extrusomes. The results obtained suggest that P. dicentrarchi uses the extrusion mechanism to generate a physical barrier protecting the ciliate from attack by soluble factors of the host immune system. Data on the proteins involved and the potential development of molecules that interfere with this exocytic process could contribute to improving the prevention and control of scuticociliatosis in turbot.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Oligoimenóforos/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
12.
Parasite ; 26: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359860

RESUMO

Trichodinids, which are ciliate protists, are causative agents of an aquatic animal disease, trichodiniasis, especially among both captive and wild fish. This disease can adversely affect aquaculture and have economic impacts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and mean intensity of Trichodina unionis infection, describe qualitative and quantitative morphological characters, and perform a molecular phylogenetic analysis. The gastropod samples were randomly collected by hand-picking and a hand net. Trichodina unionis was collected by the crushing method under a stereomicroscope. Among all 4977 examined gastropods, 55 individuals of two gastropod species, Gyraulus siamensis and Physella acuta, were found to be infected by T. unionis, with overall prevalence and mean intensity of infection of 1.11% and 16.65, respectively. The characteristics of the denticles indicated T. unionis as having moderately wide blades and moderately curved blade margins, with distinctive bend angles near the distal end. The quantitative characters showed some variations, which could be due to food availability. Molecular phylogenetic analysis conducted with 18S rRNA provided a monophyletic tree of our specimens and previously identified T. unionis, confirming species identification. This study represents the first record of T. unionis in Thailand.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Oligoimenóforos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Animais , Água Doce/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 229-237, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271640

RESUMO

Massive occurrence of trichodinids is frequently accompanied by serious disease in fish farms. In this study, trichodinid species from the gills and skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in the central-western region of Brazil (state of Goiás) were morphologically characterized. Dried slides were prepared from the parasites and were impregnated with silver nitrate (2%). Morphometric characteristics were determined and schematic drawings of the denticles were made using photomicrographs produced from the slides. Seven species of trichodinid ectoparasites (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) were found parasitizing the gills: four of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838; one of Tripartiella Lom, 1959; one of Paratrichodina Lom, 1963; and one of Trichodinella Srámek-Husek, 1953. On the body surface, three specimens of the genus Trichodina were identified. This study presents new geographical records of trichodinids in Brazil, thus confirming that Trichodina centrostrigeata, Trichodina compacta, Trichodina heterodentata, Paratrichodina africana and Tripartiella orthodens are widely distributed worldwide. Additionally, the first record of the genus Trichodinella in Brazil is presented.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aquicultura , Brasil , Cilióforos/classificação , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Pesqueiros , Oligoimenóforos/classificação
14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217927, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185032

RESUMO

Treated wastewater (TWW) constitutes a sustainable water resource and has been used for fish culture in some countries around the world, although there are no comprehensive data on the effect of TWW on fish growth and health in the context of aquaculture production. Our objectives were to examine how fish culture in TWW affected fish growth and fitness, as well as compliance with the international standards for safe consumption. Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fingerlings were reared in 0%, 50% and 100% tertiary TWW (TTWW), from the age of five days, for a period of four months. In water analyses, 33 out of 67 tested organic micropollutants (OMPs) were detected in the TTWW samples at least once, at concentrations that are typically reported in domestic TTWW. Fish survival ranged between 77-80% and did not differ between treatment groups. Fish growth and mortality following challenge infection with Tetrahymena sp. (which ranged between 64-68%), were similar among treatment groups. Of tested immunological parameters, lysozyme and anti-protease was similar among treatments while complement activity was highest in the 50% TTWW-reared fish. No abnormalities were observed in the histopathological analysis. Levels of heavy metals, polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorines (OCs) in fish were below the detection limit and below the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the European Union EU maximal permitted levels in food fish. Results suggest that the yield of fish grown in TTWW is potentially similar to that in freshwater, and the produced fish comply with the standards of consumer safety. The results are in line with previous studies that examined the feasibility of TWW-fed aquaculture.


Assuntos
Poecilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Masculino , Poecilia/parasitologia , Tetrahymena/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052454

RESUMO

Identification and characterization of protein complexes and interactomes has been essential to the understanding of fundamental nuclear processes including transcription, replication, recombination, and maintenance of genome stability. Despite significant progress in elucidation of nuclear proteomes and interactomes of organisms such as yeast and mammalian systems, progress in other models has lagged. Protists, including the alveolate ciliate protozoa with Tetrahymena thermophila as one of the most studied members of this group, have a unique nuclear biology, and nuclear dimorphism, with structurally and functionally distinct nuclei in a common cytoplasm. These features have been important in providing important insights about numerous fundamental nuclear processes. Here, we review the proteomic approaches that were historically used as well as those currently employed to take advantage of the unique biology of the ciliates, focusing on Tetrahymena, to address important questions and better understand nuclear processes including chromatin biology of eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteômica , Tetrahymena thermophila/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/parasitologia , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/parasitologia , Humanos , Tetrahymena thermophila/patogenicidade
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 321-325, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989452

RESUMO

Abstract Recently, the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa is being found inside aquaculture ponds, and even though there are a few studies on their parasite fauna, there is still much to be reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to report parasitism by trichodinids in L. paradoxa, as these ciliate protozoa are related to injuries and mortality in fish farming. The lungfish were collected from experimental tanks, had their tegument scraped and the resultant mucus was analyzed under an optical microscope for morphological and morphometrical analyses in Giemsa and silver nitrate stained slides. The species found was identified as Trichodina quelleni. This is the first report of this parasite in L. paradoxa, and the second report in cultivated fish in Brazil.


Resumo Recentemente, o peixe pulmonado sul-americano Lepidosiren paradoxa tem sido encontrado em tanques de cultivo da aquicultura e, embora existam alguns estudos sobre a fauna de parasitas neste hospedeiro, ainda há muito a ser relatado. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é relatar o parasitismo por tricodinídeos em L. paradoxa, pois esses protozoários ciliados estão relacionados a lesões e mortalidade na piscicultura. Os peixes foram coletados de tanques experimentais, tiveram seu tegumento raspado e o muco resultante foi analisado sob um microscópio óptico para análises morfológicas e morfométricas em lâminas impregnadas com Nitrato de Prata e com Giemsa. Os espécimes encontrados foram identificados como Trichodina quelleni. Este é o primeiro registro deste parasita em L. paradoxa, e a segunda ocorrência de Trichodina quelenii em peixes cultivados no Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoimenóforos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Peixes/parasitologia , Brasil
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 229-237, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013746

RESUMO

Abstract Massive occurrence of trichodinids is frequently accompanied by serious disease in fish farms. In this study, trichodinid species from the gills and skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in the central-western region of Brazil (state of Goiás) were morphologically characterized. Dried slides were prepared from the parasites and were impregnated with silver nitrate (2%). Morphometric characteristics were determined and schematic drawings of the denticles were made using photomicrographs produced from the slides. Seven species of trichodinid ectoparasites (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) were found parasitizing the gills: four of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838; one of Tripartiella Lom, 1959; one of Paratrichodina Lom, 1963; and one of Trichodinella Ṧrámek-Huṧek, 1953. On the body surface, three specimens of the genus Trichodina were identified. This study presents new geographical records of trichodinids in Brazil, thus confirming that Trichodina centrostrigeata, Trichodina compacta, Trichodina heterodentata, Paratrichodina africana and Tripartiella orthodens are widely distributed worldwide. Additionally, the first record of the genus Trichodinella in Brazil is presented.


Resumo O parasitismo intenso por tricodinídeos está frequentemente relacionado à doença grave em fazendas de peixes. Neste estudo, espécies de tricodinídeos das brânquias e da pele de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivadas na região centro-oeste do Brasil (estado de Goiás) foram caracterizadas morfologicamente. As lâminas secas foram preparadas a partir dos parasitas e impregnadas com nitrato de prata (2%). As características morfométricas foram determinadas e desenhos esquemáticos dos dentículos foram confeccionados com fotomicrografias produzidas a partir das lâminas. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos tricodinídeos (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) foram encontradas parasitando as brânquias: quatro do gênero Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838; um de Tripartiella Lom, 1959; um de Paratrichodina Lom, 1963; e um de Trichodinella Ṧrámek-Huṧek, 1953. Na superfície do corpo, três espécimes do gênero Trichodina foram identificados. Este estudo apresenta novos registros geográficos de tricodinídeos no Brasil, confirmando que Trichodina centrostrigeata, Trichodina compacta, Trichodina heterodentata, Paratrichodina africana e Tripartiella orthodens estão amplamente distribuídas mundialmente. Adicionalmente, é apresentado o primeiro registro do gênero Trichodinella no Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoimenóforos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brasil , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Aquicultura , Pesqueiros
18.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 161: 40-46, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684497

RESUMO

Black spot gill syndrome in the northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, is caused by an apostome ciliate, Synophrya sp., found within the gill lamellae. Whole mount staining, thin section histology, electron microscopy, and molecular studies were carried out on infected gills. The Synophrya 18S rRNA from Pandalus borealis (Genbank accession no. KX906568) and from two portunid crab species, Achelous spinimanus (Genbank accession no. MH395150) and Achelous gibbesii (Genbank accession no. MH395151) was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of these ciliates as apostomes. The 18S rRNA sequence recovered from P. borealis shared 95% nucleotide similarity with the sequences recovered from the portunid crab species suggesting that it is a different species of Synophrya. The invasive hypertrophont stages, with a distinctive macronuclear reticulum, ranged in size from 300 to 400 µm with as many as 5 large forms/mm2 of gill tissue. Histotrophic hypertrophont stages and hypertomont stages were observed in these studies. The presence of the parasite was linked to the formation of melanized nodules (up to 9 nodules/mm2 of gill tissue) by the host and in some cases to extensive necrosis. Other studies have reported Synophrya sp. infections in P. borealis from Greenland, Labrador and Newfoundland, but further studies are necessary to determine the prevalence of this parasite in the dense schools of northern shrimp in the North Atlantic. Questions remain as to the possibility of epizootics of this pathogen and its impact on northern shrimp populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Oligoimenóforos , Pandalidae/parasitologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Braquiúros/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Oligoimenóforos/genética , Oligoimenóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Alimentos Marinhos
19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 93: 93-102, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630003

RESUMO

The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), which infects almost all freshwater fish species, provides an optimal model for the study of immunity against extracellular protozoa. Ich invades the epithelia of mucosal tissues, forms white spots covering the whole body, and induces high mortality, while survivor fish develop both innate and adaptive immunity against Ich attack in systemic and mucosal tissues. Besides the protective roles of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immune response, the critical immune functions of novel IgT in the skin, gut, gill, and olfactory organ of teleosts have been demonstrated in recent years, and all this information contributes to the ontogeny of the mucosal immune response in vertebrates. Especially in rainbow trout, Ich-infected fish exhibited higher IgT concentrations and titers in the mucosa and increased IgT+ B-lymphocyte proliferation in mucosal tissues. IgM mainly functions in the adaptive immune response in the systemic tissues of rainbow trout, accompanied with increased IgM+ B-lymphocyte proliferation in the head kidney of Ich-infected trout. However, little is known about the interaction between these mucosal tissues and systemic immune organs and the interaction between the inductive immune organs and functional immune organs. Immobilization antigens (Iags), located on the parasite cell and ciliary membranes, have been characterized to be targeted by specific antibodies produced in the host. The crosslinking of antigens mediated by antibodies triggers either an escape response or the immobilization of Ich. With more knowledge about the Iags of Ich and the immunity of teleosts, a more targeted vaccine, even a DNA vaccine, can be developed for the immune control strategy of Ich. Due to the high frequency of clinical fish ichthyophthiriasis, the study of fish immune responses to Ich provides an optimal experimental model for understanding immunity against extracellular protozoa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Hymenostomatida/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Brânquias/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/parasitologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 265: 74-84, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638524

RESUMO

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliate parasite of freshwater fish with a global distribution and results in severe economic losses in aquaculture. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and antiparasitic mechanism of active compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale against I. multifiliis. Three compounds were isolated from the Z. officinale extract and identified as 10-gingerol, 6-dehydroshogaol, and 6-dehydro-10-gingerol. 10-gingerol demonstrated the greatest antiparasitic efficacy in vitro. 10-gingerol resulted in 100% mortalities of theronts, nonencysted tomonts, and encysted tomonts at concentrations of 2, 8, and 16 mg/L, respectively. 10-gingerol significantly reduced theronts infectivity (p < 0.05) at a concentration of 1 mg/L, and it was effective in treating infected grass carp and protecting naïve fish from I. multifiliis infestation at a concentration of 4 mg/L. The antiparasitic mechanism might be attributed to the increase of intracellular osmotic pressure, accumulation of free radicals, and membrane damage of I. multifiliis post 10-gingerol treatment. The study demonstrated that 10-gingerol had the potential as a therapeutic agent against I. multifiliis.


Assuntos
Carpas , Catecóis/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cilióforos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Álcoois Graxos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gengibre/química , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Distribuição Aleatória
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