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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656138

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection causes lethal diseases with neurological, visual, auditory and systemic injuries, including the hemophagocytic syndrome. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can be caused by primary hereditary immunological defects, as well as several infectious triggering factors, such as viruses, bacteria and fungus, among them the cytomegalovirus (CMV). Here we present the case report of a male newborn male, delivered by cesarean at term (gestation age of 39 weeks), weighing 3,250 g, with suffusion skin lesions spread throughout the body, anemia, generalized edema, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia associated with grunts and difficulty breathing, treated with ganciclovir after receiving the diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. After a few days of hospitalization, the patient presented with high fever, persistent hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, in addition to elevated ferritin and triglycerides, receiving the diagnosis of HLH treated with immunosuppressive therapy, corticosteroids and intravenous human immunoglobulin. The present case report highlights the importance for health professionals to carry out the investigation of congenital diseases, especially in developing countries, as well as their complications, such as HLH.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Cesárea , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 252, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen among immunocompromised hosts. Typically, CMV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes diseases of the retina, digestive tract, lungs and liver, but there are few cases of CMV infection of the pharynx and larynx. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man with HIV infection was admitted because of pharyngeal pain. Before and after admission, pharyngeal biopsies guided by laryngeal endoscopy were performed four times, but pathological examination showed nonspecific inflammation, and the cause of pharyngeal ulceration was unclear. Additionally, the ulceration deteriorated after initiation of retroviral therapy. Laryngomicrosurgery was conducted under general anesthesia to remove tissue, and pathological diagnosis confirmed CMV infection. Pathological features included enlargement of the cytoplasm and nucleus in infected cells, and intranuclear bodies called owl's eye inclusions. Ganciclovir dramatically improved the symptoms and laryngoscopic findings. CONCLUSIONS: This case was diagnosed as pharyngitis and pharyngeal ulceration caused by CMV infection, related to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. In previous reports of CMV-induced pharyngeal or laryngeal ulceration in HIV infection, we found six cases similar to our present case. All cases were diagnosed by biopsy. The present case indicates the importance of biopsy for definitive diagnosis. CMV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis of pharyngeal ulceration in patients with HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Doenças Faríngeas/virologia , Úlcera/virologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Faríngeas/etiologia , Úlcera/etiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24914, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663126

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection coexisting with or followed by a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is infrequently reported. Not recognizing this condition may delay IBD diagnosis in patients with GI-CMV disease who do not or partially respond to antiviral agents, which could consequently result in unsatisfied treatment outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two immunocompetent patients with no known underlying GI conditions presented with acute bloody diarrhea. The first patient developed diarrhea and hematochezia after admission to intensive care unit (ICU) because of severe alcoholic pancreatitis for 10 days duration. Computed tomography abdomen showed segmental jejunal thickening. The other patient presented with a 1-week history of severe bloody diarrhea which required ICU admission. Colonoscopy showed multiple ulcers along terminal ileum and colon. DIAGNOSIS: These 2 patients were initially diagnosed with CMV jejunitis and ileocolitis, respectively, based on endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Both had partial response to treatment with 3 weeks of intravenous ganciclovir. Crohn disease was suspected because of persistent ulcerations on the follow-up endoscopy with the presence of pathological features of chronic inflammation and disappearance of previously detected CMV-infected cells. INTERVENTION: Both patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids and azathioprine. OUTCOMES: Both patients had complete clinical improvement. Prednisolone could be tapered off in 6 months. Follow-up video capsule endoscopy (VCE) at 6 months showed improvement of mucosal inflammation and ulcers, but neither were completely healed in the first patient. Follow-up colonoscopy at 6 months showed complete resolution of ulcers and inflammation in the second patient. LESSONS: IBD should be suspected in patients with a diagnosis of GI-CMV disease who are immunocompetent and have a partial response to antiviral agents. This clinical scenario could be caused by either CMV infection activating immune response resulting in IBD onset, or CMV infection superimposed on pre-existing latent IBD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem
4.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(1): 13-15, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541018

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis, especially infants with cholestatic liver disease or abnormal liver function, is of great concern to pediatricians. Previously, cytomegalovirus infection was the recognized cause of the disease. Therefore, a comprehensive scientific understanding of cytomegalovirus hepatitis requires an understanding of the basic knowledge of cytomegalovirus infection. Concurrently, it is necessary to standardize the indications of antiviral treatment in combination with the child's age, immune status and other potential diseases to avoid the abuse of antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Hepatite , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608341

RESUMO

A 61-year-old male patient presented with decreased vision and recurrent redness in his right eye since the past 4 years. He had been diagnosed elsewhere as HLA-B27 positive anterior uveitis and was on oral methotrexate and topical corticosteroids for recurrent disease. He was on maximal medical therapy for glaucoma. Examination showed prominent inferior corneal oedema with pigmented keratic precipitates and elevated intraocular pressure. He underwent combined trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and cataract surgery. The aqueous sample tested positive for cytomegalovirus. He responded well to oral valganciclovir with resolution of uveitis, the intraocular pressure was well controlled and the corneal oedema resolved completely.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Epitélio Posterior/virologia , Glaucoma/complicações , Uveíte/complicações , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Epitélio Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Posterior/cirurgia , Antígeno HLA-B27 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/cirurgia , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402369

RESUMO

A 58-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) presented with 2 weeks of fever and haematuria following chemo-immunotherapy. CT scan showed thickening of her left urethra and bladder, suggesting pyleo-ureteritis with cystitis. The patient was initially treated for suspected bacterial urinary tract infection although repeated blood and urine cultures remained negative. She then received multiple transfusions for chemotherapy-induced pancytopenia while her urinary symptoms did not improve. Due to her immunocompromised status, she was tested for viral infection, which revealed, BK polyomavirus, adenovirus and cytomegalovirus in serum and urine. Cidofovir was initially administered to treat these infections while ganciclovir was used with filgrastim due to neutropenia. The patient subsequently improved. This case represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the multiple concurrent viral infections causing haematuria as well as the combined post-chemo-immunotherapy and antiviral myelotoxicity in a CLL patient.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Vírus BK , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/complicações , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/terapia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Polyomavirus/terapia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/diagnóstico , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/terapia
7.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(4): 375-382, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377883

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease which rapidly disseminated due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Clinical presentations of COVID-19 are fever, non-productive cough, and dyspnea. Although the diagnosis establishment is done by detecting the viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, CT scan has an important role in detection and treatment of COVID-19 especially in high prevalence regions. Chest CT scan has high sensitivity yet low specificity because there are a lot of other pathological spectrums that also present features of COVID-19 such as ground glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation, one of them is CMV infection. The objective of this case report is to raise vigilance towards other diseases that have radiological image similarities with COVID-19, especially in the immunocompromised patients who are susceptible to viral infections like CMV infection so that the delay in the disease treatment can be prevented.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(12): 1326-1330, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328005

RESUMO

A boy, aged 6 years and 11 months, was admitted due to nephrotic syndrome for 2 years, cough for 1 month, and shortness of breath for 15 days. The boy had a history of treatment with hormone and immunosuppressant. Chest CT after the onset of cough and shortness of breath showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Serum (1, 3)-beta-D glucan was tested positive, and the nucleic acid of cytomegalovirus was detected in respiratory secretions. After the anti-fungal and anti-viral treatment, the child improved temporarily but worsened again within a short period of time. Pneumocystis jirovecii was identified by Gomori's methenamine silver staining in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The child was diagnosed with severe pneumonia (Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus infection), acute respiratory distress syndrome, and nephrotic syndrome. After anti-infective therapy with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ganciclovir and respiratory support, the child still experienced progressive aggravation of dyspnea and tension pneumothorax, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was given on day 13 of invasive ventilation. Anti-infective therapy with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ganciclovir, and linezolid, anticoagulation therapy, sedation therapy, nutrition, and comprehensive management of the respiratory tract were given during ECMO. The child was successfully weaned from ECMO after 72 days, resulting in a length of hospital stay of 134 days. The child was followed up for 6 months after discharge, and there was a significant improvement on lung CT, without organ dysfunction. It is concluded that Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a potential lifethreatening infection for children with low immunity, and that ECMO can effectively improve the prognosis of children with severe respiratory distress syndrome.


Assuntos
Tosse/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Síndrome Nefrótica , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico , Criança , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/terapia , /terapia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 828, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe and disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are frequently linked to a genetic predisposition but acquired defects of the interferon gamma (IFNγ) / interleukin 12 (IL-12) pathway need to be considered in adult patients with persistent or recurrent infections. Neutralizing anti-IFNγ autoantibodies disrupting IFNγ signalling have been identified as the cause of a severe and unique acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to NTM and other intracellular pathogens. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult Asian female with a previous history of recurrent NTM infections presented with persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, night sweats and weight loss. Severe colitis due to a simultaneous infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella typhimurium was diagnosed, with both pathogens also detectable in blood samples. Imaging studies further revealed thoracic as well as abdominal lymphadenopathy and a disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection was diagnosed after a lymph node biopsy. Further diagnostics revealed the presence of high-titer neutralizing anti-IFNγ autoantibodies, allowing for the diagnosis of adult-onset immunodeficiency with anti-IFNγ autoantibodies (AIIA). CONCLUSIONS: We here present a severe case of acquired immunodeficiency with anti-IFNγ autoantibodies with simultaneous, disseminated infections with both viral and microbial pathogens. The case illustrates how the diagnosis can cause considerable difficulties and is often delayed due to unusual presentations. Histological studies in our patient give further insight into the pathophysiological significance of impaired IFNγ signalling. B-cell-depleting therapy with rituximab offers a targeted treatment approach in AIIA.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Interferon gama/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biópsia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia/complicações , Linfadenopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/complicações , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 531-540, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144247

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Para los pacientes receptores de trasplante hepático (TH) la hepatitis por citomegalovirus (CMV) constituye una entidad de difícil diagnóstico. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la real incidencia de hepatitis por CMV aplicando técnicas diagnósticas más específicas. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo/ prospectivo, en un centro de trasplante hepático. Período de estudio: años 2009 al 2019. Se incluyeron los TH que presentaron elementos sugestivos y/o específicos de CMV en la histopatología de la punción biopsia hepática (PBH), a los que se les realizó inmunohistoquimica (IHQ) en la PBH. Población control n = 17. Resultados: 41 casos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La IHQ fue positiva en n = 6 (14,6%). En la población control, la IHQ fue negativa en el 100% de los casos. Esto traduce un valor predictor negativo de 100% para la histopatología en el diagnóstico de hepatitis por CMV, con un valor predictor positivo de 14,6%. En 85% de los pacientes con IHQ negativa, hubo diagnósticos alternativos. La terapia antiviral en la fase retrospectiva se indicó en 48% y en la prospectiva en 21%. Conclusiones: Combinar la histopatología con la IHQ optimiza el diagnóstico de hepatitis por CMV; lo que permite la racionalización del uso de antivirales de alto costo y la búsqueda de etiologías diferenciales.


Abstract Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis constitutes a challenging diagnostic entity in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Aim: To determine the real incidence of CMV hepatitis using more specific diagnostic tools as those currently used before. Methods: Retrospective/prospective study conducted in a hepatic transplant unit from 2009 to 2019. LT recipients with CMV specific or suggestive elements in histopathology of hepatic biopsies were included. Immunohistochemistry (IHQ) was performed in tissue samples of the studied cohort as well as in a control one. Results: 41 patients met the inclusion criteria. IHQ was diagnostic in 6 (14.6%), and was negative in 100% of the control population. The negative predictive value of the histopathology for CMV hepatitis diagnosis was 100% and the positive predictive value was 14.6%. 85% of patients in whom the IHQ was negative had alternative diagnosis Antiviral therapy in the retrospective analysis was indicated in 48% of patients and in 21% of the prospectively analyzed cohort. Conclusions: Histopathology and IHQ combination improves the diagnostic accuracy of CMV hepatitis which translates into a rational us of expensive antiviral therapy and to search for differential diagnosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Citomegalovirus , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 768, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double stranded DNA virus and ubiquitous in nature. Association of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and CMV is well known but CMV acute myositis is a rare condition. Restriction of movements of limbs due to severe pain in myositis may obscure the diagnosis of GBS and this may easily miss. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a 29-year-old male presenting with pain and swelling of bilateral lower limbs which progressed rapidly with increasing serum creatine kinase levels with positive IgM CMV antibodies. In view of no improvement in clinical condition, patient was further evaluated and found to have concurrent GBS. He was treated with plasmapheresis and improved. CONCLUSION: Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute myositis is a uncommon and further association with GBS is a rare occurrence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Miosite/complicações , Miosite/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Miosite/terapia , Miosite/virologia , Dor , Plasmaferese , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952811

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported as the possible cause of acute myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease mostly caused by viral infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection is often not suspected as a cause of myocarditis in immune-competent adults. We report the case of a 37-year-old male admitted with fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest CT showed typical ground-glass changes indicative of viral pneumonia. He was tested negative for COVID-19 but had biological markers that made us still suspect it. He had elevated troponin I level (up to 111.5 ng/mL) and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). He was diagnosed with CMV myocarditis with cardiac insufficiency and totally recovered without antiviral therapy. During the COVID-19 pandemic patients may develop myocarditis, still every myocarditis is not a COVID infection. Myocarditis linked to CMV infection may be rare, but life-threatening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocardite/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections in children and adolescents with malignancy are commonly encountered and have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Studies and epidemiological data regarding viral infections in children with cancer in developing countries are lacking. This retrospective cohort study aims to assess the burden of viral infections in children and adolescents with cancer, by assessing prevalence, risk factors, as well as morbidity and mortality of common viruses over a period of 8 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medical records of cancer patients treated at the Children Cancer Center of Lebanon were reviewed and 155 participants under the age of 21 were identified with at least one documented viral infection during the period from July 2009 to November 2017. This subset included 136 participants with active malignancy and 19 participants with a history of cancer who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] and were in remission; the latter group was analyzed separately. Information regarding participant characteristics, hospital course, and complications were obtained. Associations between viral infections and certain factors were assessed. In the cohort, 64% were male, 81% were Lebanese. In participants with active malignancy, 90% received chemotherapy in the 6 months preceding the viral infection episode, 11% received radiotherapy. 51% of participants were neutropenic at the time of viral detection, and 77% were lymphopenic. 17% experienced a bacterial co-infection, and 3 experienced a viral co-infection. Among 162 viral infection episodes, clinically diagnosed skin infections, mainly herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus, were the most common [44% of cases]. These were followed by laboratory-proven systemic herpes infections: cytomegalovirus [14%] and Epstein-Barr virus [6%]. Respiratory viruses: influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, accounted for 9% and 4%, respectively, whereas rotavirus represented 11% and BK virus represented 3% of cases. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was the most prevalent neoplasia [57%]. Fever was the most common presenting symptom [55%] and febrile neutropenia was the reason for admission in 24% of cases. The mean length of stay was significantly longer in participants with cytomegalovirus infections and significantly lower in rotavirus infection. Admission to the ICU occurred in 9%, complications in 8%, and mortality in 5%. Participants with viral infections post-HSCT were noted to have a significantly longer length of hospital stay compared to non-HSCT participants, with no other significant differences in clinical course and outcome. The study was limited by its retrospective nature and by the late introduction and underuse of multiplex PCR panels, which may have led to underdiagnosis of viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Viral infections were prevalent in our sample of cancer patients and may have contributed to morbidity and mortality. Newly available viral diagnostics are likely to vastly increase the number and scope of detectable viral infections in this population. Prospective studies using multiplex PCR technology with systematic testing of patients will be more helpful in defining the burden of viral infections. Furthermore, efforts at antimicrobial stewardship would benefit from the identification of viral causes of infection and limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics in the pediatric cancer population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Líbano/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/virologia , Pediatria , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia
16.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(9): 868-871, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related colitis is an important scenario associated with high rates of colectomy and other morbidity. Due to the low incidence of CMV, testing of all patients is associated with an unacceptably high consumption of resources and delay in treatment. Therefore, several predictive scores have been developed to identify patients at risk for a CMV infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single center study in a German University hospital including all IBD patients with available data on CMV-PCR analysis in whole blood between 2010 and 2018 and evaluated 2 prognostic scores for CMV infection for their diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: In the study, 907 patients with IBD and CMV-PCR were identified. Of them, 21 patients (2.3 %) had a positive CMV-PCR (≥ 1000 copies/mL), 14 of them in ulcerative colitis and 7 in Crohn's disease. The Berlin Score identified 667 patients (73.1 %) as potentially CMV-positive, resulting in a positive predictive value of 2.5 % and a negative predictive value of 98.3 %. In contrast, the Münster Score identified 60 patients as potentially CMV-positive, resulting in a PPV of 20 % and an NPV of 99.4 %. CONCLUSIONS: Scoring systems can help to identify patients at risk for a CMV infection and minimize resource consumption and delay in treatment. Due to low incidence, a 2-step-algorithm, consisting of the Münster Score followed by a CMV-PCR if the score indicates a CMV infection, is preferable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colite Ulcerativa , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21373-21380, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801215

RESUMO

Cytometry technologies are essential tools for immunology research, providing high-throughput measurements of the immune cells at the single-cell level. Existing approaches in interpreting and using cytometry measurements include manual or automated gating to identify cell subsets from the cytometry data, providing highly intuitive results but may lead to significant information loss, in that additional details in measured or correlated cell signals might be missed. In this study, we propose and test a deep convolutional neural network for analyzing cytometry data in an end-to-end fashion, allowing a direct association between raw cytometry data and the clinical outcome of interest. Using nine large cytometry by time-of-flight mass spectrometry or mass cytometry (CyTOF) studies from the open-access ImmPort database, we demonstrated that the deep convolutional neural network model can accurately diagnose the latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in healthy individuals, even when using highly heterogeneous data from different studies. In addition, we developed a permutation-based method for interpreting the deep convolutional neural network model. We were able to identify a CD27- CD94+ CD8+ T cell population significantly associated with latent CMV infection, confirming the findings in previous studies. Finally, we provide a tutorial for creating, training, and interpreting the tailored deep learning model for cytometry data using Keras and TensorFlow (https://github.com/hzc363/DeepLearningCyTOF).


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Citometria de Fluxo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Linfócitos T/citologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756824

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections remain a neglected public health issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of HCMV congenital infections in newborns up to 1 month in the Sao Paulo State, from 2010 to 2018. The molecular characterization of HCMV-positive samples was also undertaken. Urine samples from 275 potential congenital HCMV-infected patients were tested by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). HCMV-positive samples were amplified by conventional PCR targeting the UL89 gene, sequenced and searched for mutations. A total of 32 (11.6%) positive-HCMV cases were detected (mean Ct 30.59); mean and median age of 10.3 and 6 days old, respectively. Children aged between 0-3 weeks had higher HCMV detection rates (84.4%; 27/32). UL89 gene was successfully sequenced in two samples, both classified as the human betaherpesvirus 5. No described resistance-associated mutations were identified. A routine screening in newborns coupled with the genetic characterization of key viral genes is vital to decrease sequels associated with congenital HCMV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2659-2670, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734550

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause end-organ diseases including pneumonia, gastroenteritis, retinitis, and encephalitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Potential differences among different CMV diseases remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and mortality among different CMV diseases. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed based on a cohort of 3862 patients who underwent haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at a single-center. CMV diseases occurred in 113 (2.92%) of 3862 haplo-HSCT recipients, including probable CMV pneumonia (CMVP, n = 34), proven CMV gastroenteritis (CMVG, n = 34), CMV retinitis (CMVR, n = 31), probable CMV encephalitis (CMVE, n = 7), and disseminated CMV disease (Di-CMVD, n = 7). Most (91.2%) cases of CMVG developed within 100 days, while most (90.3%) cases of CMVR were late onset. Refractory CMV infection and CMV viral load at different levels were associated with an increased risk of CMVP, CMVG, and CMVR. Compared with patients without CMV diseases, significantly higher non-relapse mortality at 1 year after transplantation was observed in patients with CMVP and CMVR, rather than CMVG. Patients with CMVP, Di-CMVD, and CMVE had higher overall mortality after diagnosis than that of patients with CMVG and CMVR (61.7%, 57.1%, 40.0% vs 27.7%, 18.6%, P = 0.001). In conclusion, the onset time, viral dynamics, and mortality differ among different CMV diseases. The mortality of CMV diseases remains high, especially for CMVP, Di-CMVD, and CMVE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
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