Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57.830
Filtrar
1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56037, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151921

RESUMO

Objetivo: mapear as evidências disponíveis na literatura acerca dos manejos e desfechos da infecção pelo novo coronavírus no puerpério. Método: revisão de escopo conforme o Institute Joanna Briggs, desenvolvida em quatro fontes de dados eletrônicas. A extração, análise e síntese dos dados foi realizada por quatro pesquisadores independentes. Resultados: Nove publicações foram revisadas de 188 localizadas. Seis foram os países produtores das evidências, todas obtidas e publicadas em 2020. Vinte e um casos de COVID-19 no puerpério estiveram tratados nestas publicações, sendo 15 (71,4%) relativos a evoluções graves/exacerbação da doença e seis (28,6%) diagnosticados após a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: O mapeamento aponta para a ocorrência da infecção ou seu agravamento no período pós-parto, com indicativas ao monitoramento de sinais e sintomas, exploração diagnóstica e tratamento acurado e necessidade de acompanhamento próximo das mulheres diagnosticadas com COVID-19, sintomáticas ou não, no período pós-parto.


Objective: to map the evidence available in the literature about management and outcomes of postpartum infection by the new coronavirus. Method: scoping review conducted in four electronic sources, following Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized by four researchers independently. Results: nine of the 188 publications located were reviewed. The evidence, all obtained and published in 2020, was produced in six countries. These publications considered 21 cases of postpartum COVID-19, 15 (71.4%) of which related to severe developments / exacerbation of the disease and six (28.6%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. Conclusion: the mapping points to the occurrence of infection or worsening of the disease in the postpartum period, indicating the need for monitoring of signs and symptoms, diagnostic exploration and accurate treatment and the need for close monitoring of postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19, whether symptomatic or not.


Objetivo: mapear las evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre el manejo y los resultados de la infección por el nuevo coronavirus en el período posparto. Método: revisión del alcance según el Instituto Joanna Briggs, desarrollada en cuatro fuentes de datos electrónicas. La extracción, el análisis y la síntesis de los datos fueron realizados por cuatro investigadores independientes. Resultados: se revisaron nueve publicaciones de 188 encontradas. Fueron seis los países que produjeron las evidencias, obtenidas y publicadas en 2020. En estas publicaciones se trataron 21 casos de COVID-19 en el período posparto, 15 (71,4%) de los cuales estaban relacionados con evoluciones graves/exacerbación de la enfermedad y seis (28,6%) diagnosticados tras el alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: el mapeo apunta hacia la ocurrencia de la infección o su agravamiento en el posparto, con indicaciones de seguimiento de indicios y síntomas, exploración diagnóstica, tratamiento preciso y la necesidad de un seguimiento cercano a las mujeres diagnosticadas con COVID-19, sintomáticas o no, en el período posparto.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher , Período Pós-Parto , COVID-19 , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Revisão , Infecções por Coronavirus , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico
2.
Estima (Online) ; 19(1): e0521, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1178332

RESUMO

Objetivo:relatar o caso de um paciente crítico com COVID-19 e mostrar os principais achados relacionados à lesão considerada Acute skin failure (ASF), bem como realizar seu diagnóstico diferencial com lesão por pressão (LP) evitável. Método: estudo observacional do tipo relato de caso, desenvolvido em um hospital de São Paulo, na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) exclusiva a pessoas diagnosticadas com COVID-19. Os dados foram coletados de um único paciente, entre os meses de março e setembro de 2020. Resultados: paciente com complicações da COVID-19 evoluiu com lesão de pele, inicialmente definida como LP e posteriormente reclassificada como ASF. Os seguintes achados corroboraram o diagnóstico: ventilação mecânica invasiva prolongada, insuficiências respiratória, renal e cardíaca e sepse de foco respiratório. Além disso, outros fatores agravantes, como o uso de droga vasoativa, instabilidade hemodinâmica com intolerância ao mínimo reposicionamento, jejum prolongado e coagulopatia intravascular disseminada associada à infecção pelo coronavírus. Conclusão: o relato mostra que existem dificuldades para o diagnóstico diferencial entre ASF e LP na prática clínica. Trata-se de conceito novo, sendo fundamental que o profissional de saúde reconheça os principais fatores associados ao aparecimento da ASF, muitos dos quais também estão relacionados ao desenvolvimento das LP, ressaltando a necessidade de análise individualizada dessas lesões, e garantia da implementação de intervenções adequadas para prevenção e tratamento.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Lesão por Pressão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados de Enfermagem
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2603-2613, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472281

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a major disease of pigs that inflicts heavy losses on the global pig industry. The etiologic agent is the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is assigned to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. This review consists of five parts, the first of which provides a brief introduction to PEDV and its epidemiology. Part two outlines the passive immunity in new born piglets and the important role of colostrum, while the third part summarizes the characteristics of the immune systems of pregnant sows, discusses the concept of the "gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA(sIgA) axis" and the possible underpinning mechanisms, and proposes issues to be addressed when designing a PEDV live vaccine. The final two parts summarizes the advances in the R&D of PEDV vaccines and prospects future perspectives on prevention and control of PEDV, respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Feminino , Imunização , Gravidez , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2779-2785, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472295

RESUMO

To investigate whether the engineered Lactobacillus plantarum expressing the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S1 gene can protect animals against PEDV, guinea pigs were fed with recombinant L. plantarum containing plasmid PVE5523-S1, with a dose of 2×108 CFU/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Guinea pigs fed with wild type L. plantarum and the engineered L. plantarum containing empty plasmid pVE5523 were used as negative controls. For positive control, another group of guinea pigs were injected with live vaccine for porcine epidemic diarrhea and porcine infectious gastroenteritis (HB08+ZJ08) by intramuscular injection, with a dose of 0.2 mL/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Blood samples were collected from the hearts of the four groups of guinea pigs at 0 d, 7 d, 14 d, 24 d, 31 d, 41 d and 48 d, respectively, and serum samples were isolated for antibody detection and neutralization test analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spleens of guinea pigs were also aseptically collected to perform spleen cells proliferation assay. The results showed that the engineered bacteria could stimulate the production of secretory antibody sIgA and specific neutralizing antibody, and stimulate the increase of IL-4 and IFN-γ, as well as the proliferation of spleen cells. These results indicated that the engineered L. plantarum containing PEDV S1 induced specific immunity toward PEDV in guinea pigs, which laid a foundation for subsequent oral vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cobaias , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos , Vacinas Virais/genética
5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by high contagiousness, as well as variable clinical manifestations and immune responses. The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 is directly related to viral clearance and the antibodies' ability to neutralize the virus and confer long-term immunity. Nevertheless, the response can also be associated with disease severity and evolution. This study correlated the clinical characteristics of convalescent COVID-19 patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: This study included 51 COVID-19 health care professionals who were candidates for convalescent plasma donation from April to June 2020. The subjects had symptomatic COVID-19 with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed diagnosis. We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies after symptom recovery, and the subjects were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe symptoms. RESULTS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were positive in most patients (90.2%). The antibody indexes for IgA and IgG did not differ significantly between patients presenting with mild or moderate symptoms. However, they were significantly higher in patients with severe symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed an association between higher antibody indexes and severe COVID-19 cases, and several hypotheses regarding the association of the antibody dynamics and severity of the disease in SARS-CoV-2 infection have been raised, although many questions remain unanswered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-09-03. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/21-0073).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54794

RESUMO

Este guia destina-se a apoiar os governos nacionais na elaboração de um plano nacional de implementação e operacionalização (NDVPs) para vacinas contra a COVID-19, definindo responsabilidades, necessidades e oportunidades de contribuição dos agentes comunitários de saúde (ACSs).Esta nota foi baseada e estruturada no documento Guidance on developing a national deployment and vaccination plan for COVID-19 vaccines [Orientação para a elaboração de um plano nacional de implementação e operacionalização de vacinas contra a COVID-19](1). Ao fornecer considerações relevantes sobre ACSs para a Ferramenta VIRAT (2), este documento visa apoiar os governos nacionais na elaboração de NDVPs robustos para introdução das vacinas contra a COVID-19, que aproveitem as ferramentas de operacionalização, implementação e monitoramento de base comunitária atualmente disponíveis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra COVID-19
7.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-09-03. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/21-0068).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54793

RESUMO

Esta orientação para a realização de avaliações de EV para vacinas contra a COVID-19 segue, em muitos, as orientações anteriores da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre como avaliar a EV em estudos observacionais, incluindo vacinas contra rotavírus, gripe e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib) e pneumococos. Devido à sua semelhança na apresentação clínica e epidemiologia, este documento de orientação baseia-se fortemente nas orientações de EV para gripe. No entanto, várias características distintas da epidemiologia e das vacinas da COVID-19 criam dificuldades e abordagens singulares para avaliação. Este guia foi escrito principalmente para investigadores e profissionais de saúde pública que projetarão e realizarão avaliações observacionais de EV para COVID-19, e para formuladores de políticas que interpretarão e aplicarão os resultados dessas avaliações. O documento discute considerações críticas no desenho, na análise e na interpretação das avaliações de EV para COVID-19, uma vez que resultados tendenciosos podem ser produzidos mesmo em locais em que a integridade e a qualidade dos dados sejam altas. Estas recomendações também visam garantir um nível de comparabilidade e integridade dos relatórios de estudos que permitirão a comparabilidade entre os estudos.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Influenza Humana
8.
COVID-19 Daily Updates
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54806

RESUMO

SITUATION IN NUMBERS: Region of the Americas 84,756,027 cases; 2,116,981 deaths; 56 countries/areas/territories affected. | Global 219,203,210 cases; 4,543,894 deaths; 236 countries/areas/territories affected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Análise de Situação , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
9.
COVID-19 Daily Updates
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54804

RESUMO

SITUATION IN NUMBERS: Region of the Americas 84,498,889 cases; 2,112,810 deaths; 56 countries/areas/territories affected. | Global 218,205,951 cases; 4,526,583 deaths; 236 countries/areas/territories affected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Análise de Situação , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
10.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 132-146, jul.-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278993

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: las situaciones generadoras de estrés académico se refieren a los eventos ocurridos en el ámbito universitario que originan potencialmente estrés en los estudiantes: exámenes finales, cantidad de materias a estudiar, responsabilidad por labores académicas, sobrecarga de tareas, trabajos de cursos, evaluaciones frecuentes y tiempo para cumplir con las actividades, entre otras. Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento académico de residentes de especialidades quirúrgicas durante la realización del examen estatal en tiempos de COVID-19. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en residentes de especialidades quirúrgicas del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" que se presentaron a la convocatoria de exámenes estatales octubre-noviembre 2020 y que tuvieron participación directa en la atención a pacientes positivos a COVID-19. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos y empíricos. Resultados: de las diez especialidades quirúrgicas, siete tuvieron residentes examinados. Independientemente de la vía de ingreso obtuvieron calificaciones de Excelente en los exámenes realizados. Aquellos cuya vía de ingreso fue la segunda especialidad fueron los de mejor rendimiento académico pues todos obtuvieron resultados excelentes. Conclusiones: el rendimiento académico de residentes de especialidades quirúrgicas en la realización del examen estatal en tiempos de COVID-19 resultó satisfactorio.


ABSTRACT Background: situations that generate academic stress refer to events that occur in the university environment that potentially cause stress in students: final exams, number of subjects to study, responsibility for academic work, task overload, course work, evaluations frequent and time to fulfill the activities, among others. Objective: to evaluate the academic performance of residents of surgical specialties during the performance of the state exam in times of COVID-19. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in residents of surgical specialties of the Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" who presented themselves to the call for state examinations October-November 2020 and who had direct participation in the care of patients positive to COVID 19. Theoretical and empirical methods were used. Results: of the ten surgical specialties, seven had residents examined. Regardless of the route of entry, they obtained Excellent grades in the exams carried out. Those whose entry route was the second specialty were the ones with the best academic performance as they all obtained excellent results. Conclusions: the academic performance of residents of surgical specialties in the performance of the state exam in times of COVID-19 was satisfactory.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação Médica , Avaliação Educacional , Melhoria de Qualidade
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050901, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-CoV. MERS was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Every year, the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca attracts more than two million pilgrims from 184 countries, making it one of the largest annual religious mass gatherings (MGs) worldwide. MGs in confined areas with a high number of pilgrims' movements worldwide continues to elicit significant global public health concerns. MERCURIAL was designed by adopting a seroconversion surveillance approach to provide multiyear evidence of MG-associated MERS-CoV seroconversion among the Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MERCURIAL is an ongoing multiyear prospective cohort study. Every year, for the next 5 years, a cohort of 1000 Hajj pilgrims was enrolled beginning in the 2016 Hajj pilgrimage season. Pre-Hajj and post-Hajj serum samples were obtained and serologically analysed for evidence of MERS-CoV seroconversion. Sociodemographic data, underlying medical conditions, symptoms experienced during Hajj pilgrimage, and exposure to camel and untreated camel products were recorded using structured pre-Hajj and post-Hajj questionnaires. The possible risk factors associated with the seroconversion data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The primary outcome of this study is to better enhance our understanding of the potential threat of MERS-CoV spreading through MG beyond the Middle East. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has obtained ethical approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia. Results from the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented in conferences and scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NMRR-15-1640-25391.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Islamismo , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem
13.
mBio ; 12(4): e0157221, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372702

RESUMO

Tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns are highly variable within and across individuals, leading to altered host responses after acute virus infection. Unraveling key tissue-specific response patterns provides novel opportunities for defining fundamental mechanisms of virus-host interaction in disease and the identification of critical tissue-specific networks for disease intervention in the lung. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients, and little is understood about how lung cell types contribute to disease outcomes. MERS-CoV replicates equivalently in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVE) and fibroblasts (FB) and to equivalent peak titers but with slower replication kinetics in human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE). However, only infected MVE demonstrate observable virus-induced cytopathic effect. To explore mechanisms leading to reduced MVE viability, donor-matched human lung MVE, HAE, and FB were infected, and their transcriptomes, proteomes, and lipidomes were monitored over time. Validated functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV-infected MVE were dying via an unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated apoptosis. Pharmacologic manipulation of the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected primary lung cells reduced viral titers and in male mice improved respiratory function with accompanying reductions in weight loss, pathological signatures of acute lung injury, and times to recovery. Systems biology analysis and validation studies of global kinetic transcript, protein, and lipid data sets confirmed that inhibition of host stress pathways that are differentially regulated following MERS-CoV infection of different tissue types can alleviate symptom progression to end-stage lung disease commonly seen following emerging coronavirus outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe atypical pneumonia in infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis remain unknown. While much has been learned from the few reported autopsy cases, an in-depth understanding of the cells targeted by MERS-CoV in the human lung and their relative contribution to disease outcomes is needed. The host response in MERS-CoV-infected primary human lung microvascular endothelial (MVE) cells and fibroblasts (FB) was evaluated over time by analyzing total RNA, proteins, and lipids to determine the cellular pathways modulated postinfection. Findings revealed that MERS-CoV-infected MVE cells die via apoptotic mechanisms downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interruption of enzymatic processes within the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected male mice reduced disease symptoms, virus-induced lung injury, and time to recovery. These data suggest that the UPR plays an important role in MERS-CoV infection and may represent a host target for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia
14.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436052

RESUMO

Cell-based assays are a valuable tool for examination of virus-host cell interactions and drug discovery processes, allowing for a more physiological setting compared to biochemical assays. Despite the fact that cell-based SPR assays are label-free and thus provide all the associated benefits, they have never been used to study viral growth kinetics and to predict drug antiviral response in cells. In this study, we prove the concept that the cell-based SPR assay can be applied in the kinetic analysis of the early stages of viral infection of cells and the antiviral drug activity in the infected cells. For this purpose, cells immobilized on the SPR slides were infected with human coronavirus HCov-229E and treated with hydroxychloroquine. The SPR response was measured at different time intervals within the early stages of infection. Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to provide the reference data. We found that the results of the SPR and MTT assays were consistent, and SPR is a reliable tool in investigating virus-host cell interaction and the mechanism of action of viral inhibitors. SPR assay was more sensitive and accurate in the first hours of infection within the first replication cycle, whereas the MTT assay was not so effective. After the second replication cycle, noise was generated by the destruction of the cell layer and by the remnants of dead cells, and masks useful SPR signals.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coronavirus Humano 229E/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Cinética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células Vero
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2301-2311, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423762

RESUMO

After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of camels, particularly males, for breeding purposes was associated with increased MERS-CoV seroprevalence among receiving herds, suggesting a potential route of viral transmission between herds. Increasing age, herd size, and use of water troughs within herds were also associated with increased seroprevalence. Closed herd management practices were found to be protective. Future vaccination strategies among camel populations in Jordan could potentially prioritize breeding males, which are likely to be shared between herds. In addition, targeted management interventions with the potential to reduce transmission between herds should be considered; voluntary closed herd schemes offer a possible route to achieving disease-free herds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Animais , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424155

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important coronavirus, causing damaging losses to the poultry industry worldwide as the causative agent of infectious bronchitis. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein is a large type I membrane protein protruding from the surface of the virion, which facilitates attachment and entry into host cells. The IBV S protein is cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, the latter of which has been identified as a determinant of cellular tropism. Recent studies expressing coronavirus S proteins in mammalian and insect cells have identified a high level of glycosylation on the protein's surface. Here we used IBV propagated in embryonated hens' eggs to explore the glycan profile of viruses derived from infection in cells of the natural host, chickens. We identified multiple glycan types on the surface of the protein and found a strain-specific dependence on complex glycans for recognition of the S2 subunit by a monoclonal antibody in vitro, with no effect on viral replication following the chemical inhibition of complex glycosylation. Virus neutralization by monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies was not affected. Following analysis of predicted glycosylation sites for the S protein of four IBV strains, we confirmed glycosylation at 18 sites by mass spectrometry for the pathogenic laboratory strain M41-CK. Further characterization revealed heterogeneity among the glycans present at six of these sites, indicating a difference in the glycan profile of individual S proteins on the IBV virion. These results demonstrate a non-specific role for complex glycans in IBV replication, with an indication of an involvement in antibody recognition but not neutralisation.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Transporte Proteico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Avian Dis ; 65(3): 364-372, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427409

RESUMO

We previously reported that recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark)-type trimeric spike (S) ectodomain (Se; rLS/ArkSe) provides suboptimal protection against IBV challenge. We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. In the current study, we first compared protection conferred by vaccination with rLS/ArkSe and rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with virulent Ark, and protection was determined by clinical signs, viral load, and tracheal histomorphometry. Results showed that coexpression of GMCSF and the Se from rLS significantly reduced tracheal viral load and tracheal lesions compared with chickens vaccinated with rLS/ArkSe. In a second experiment, we evaluated enhancement of cross-protection of a Massachusetts (Mass) attenuated vaccine by priming or boosting with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with Ark, and protection was evaluated. Results show that priming or boosting with the recombinant virus significantly increased cross-protection conferred by Mass against Ark virulent challenge. Greater reductions of viral loads in both trachea and lachrymal fluids were observed in chickens primed with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and boosted with Mass. Consistently, Ark Se antibody levels measured with recombinant Ark Se protein-coated ELISA plates 14 days after boost were significantly higher in these chickens. Unexpectedly, the inverse vaccination scheme, that is, priming with Mass and boosting with the recombinant vaccine, proved somewhat less effective. We concluded that a prime and boost strategy by using rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and the worldwide ubiquitous Mass attenuated vaccine provides enhanced cross-protection. Thus, rLS/GMCSF coexpressing the Se of regionally relevant IBV serotypes could be used in combination with live Mass to protect against regionally circulating IBV variant strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Proteção Cruzada , Expressão Gênica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/química , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Traqueia/imunologia , Traqueia/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Carga Viral
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the expenditure resulting from hospitalizations for clinical treatment of users diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Unified Health System (SUS) between February and December 2020. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based on data from the Hospital Information System about government expenditure on hospitalizations for clinical treatment of users diagnosed with COVID-19 and causes included in the ICD-10 chapters. We obtained the number of hospitalizations, average length of stay, lethality rate, and total expenditure considering hospital services, professional services and average expenditure per hospitalization. RESULTS: In the period evaluated, SUS registered 462,149 hospitalizations, 4.9% of them for COVID-19 treatment. Total expenditure exceeded R$ 2.2 billion, with 85% allocated to hospital services and 15% to professional services. Expenditure for treating COVID-19 was distributed differently between the country's regions. The Southeast region had the highest number of hospitalizations, highest total amount spent, highest average length of stay in days, and highest lethality rate; the South region, in turn, recorded the highest percentage of spending on non-profit hospitals (58%) and corporate hospitals (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for clinical treatment of coronavirus infection were more costly compared to those for treatment of acute respiratory failure and pneumonia or influenza. Our results show the disparities in hospitalization expenditure for similar procedures between the regions of Brazil, underlining the vulnerability and the need for strategies to reduce the differences in access, use, and distribution of SUS resources, ensuring equanimity, and considering the unfair inequalities between the country's regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Despesas Públicas , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1660-1668, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350810

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a major challenge worldwide. However, the epidemic potential of common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and co-infection characteristics of common HCoVs in individuals with influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). This retrospective, observational, multicentre study used data collected from patients admitted to nine sentinel hospitals with ILI and SARI from January 2015 through December 2020 in Shanghai, China. We prospectively tested patients for a total of 22 respiratory pathogens using multi-real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 4541 patients tested, 40.37% (1833/4541) tested positive for respiratory pathogens and 3.59% (163/4541) tested positive for common HCoVs. HCoV infection was more common in the non-endemic season for respiratory pathogens (odds ratio: 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.64-3.31). HCoV-OC43 (41.72%, 68/163) was the most common type of HCoV detected. The co-infection rate was 31.29% (51/163) among 163 HCoV-positive cases, with HCoV-229E (53.13%, 17/32), the HCoV type that was most frequently associated with co-infection. Respiratory pathogens responsible for co-infections with HCoVs included parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza A virus, and adenovirus. Furthermore, we identified one patient co-infected with HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63/HKU1. The prevalence of common HCoVs remains low in ILI/SARI cases, in Shanghai. However, the seasonal pattern of HCoVs may be opposite to that of other respiratory pathogens. Moreover, HCoVs are likely to co-exist with specific respiratory pathogens. The potential role of co-infections with HCoVs and other pathogenic microorganisms in infection and pathogenesis of ILI and SARI warrants further study.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/história , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/história , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estações do Ano
20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372557

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, are known to spread mainly via close contact and respiratory droplets. However, other potential means of transmission may be present. Fomite-mediated transmission occurs when viruses are deposited onto a surface and then transfer to a subsequent individual. Surfaces can become contaminated directly from respiratory droplets or from a contaminated hand. Due to mask mandates in many countries around the world, the former is less likely. Hands can become contaminated if respiratory droplets are deposited on them (i.e., coughing or sneezing) or through contact with fecal material where human coronaviruses (HCoVs) can be shed. The focus of this paper is on whether human coronaviruses can transfer efficiently from contaminated hands to food or food contact surfaces. The surfaces chosen were: stainless steel, plastic, cucumber and apple. Transfer was first tested with cellular maintenance media and three viruses: two human coronaviruses, 229E and OC43, and murine norovirus-1, as a surrogate for human norovirus. There was no transfer for either of the human coronaviruses to any of the surfaces. Murine norovirus-1 did transfer to stainless steel, cucumber and apple, with transfer efficiencies of 9.19%, 5.95% and 0.329%, respectively. Human coronavirus OC43 transfer was then tested in the presence of fecal material, and transfer was observed for stainless steel (0.52%), cucumber (19.82%) and apple (15.51%) but not plastic. This study indicates that human coronaviruses do not transfer effectively from contaminated hands to contact surfaces without the presence of fecal material.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Microbiologia de Alimentos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Resfriado Comum/transmissão , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano OC43/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Fezes/virologia , Fômites , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Aço Inoxidável
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...