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1.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China is currently recognized as a public health emergency of global concern. METHODS: We reviewed the currently available literature to provide up-to-date guidance on control measures to be implemented by public health authorities. RESULTS: Some of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV have been identified. However, there remain considerable uncertainties, which should be considered when providing guidance to public health authorities on control measures. CONCLUSIONS: Additional studies incorporating more detailed information from confirmed cases would be valuable.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 140-146, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027631

RESUMO

On December 31, 2019, Chinese health officials reported a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness in persons associated with the Hunan seafood and animal market in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, in central China. On January 7, 2020, Chinese health officials confirmed that a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was associated with this initial cluster (1). As of February 4, 2020, a total of 20,471 confirmed cases, including 2,788 (13.6%) with severe illness,* and 425 deaths (2.1%) had been reported by the National Health Commission of China (2). Cases have also been reported in 26 locations outside of mainland China, including documentation of some person-to-person transmission and one death (2). As of February 4, 11 cases had been reported in the United States. On January 30, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared that the 2019-nCoV outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.† On January 31, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary declared a U.S. public health emergency to respond to 2019-nCoV.§ Also on January 31, the president of the United States signed a "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus," which limits entry into the United States of persons who traveled to mainland China to U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents and their families (3). CDC, multiple other federal agencies, state and local health departments, and other partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States (4,5). These measures require the identification of cases and their contacts in the United States and the appropriate assessment and care of travelers arriving from mainland China to the United States. These measures are being implemented in anticipation of additional 2019-nCoV cases in the United States. Although these measures might not prevent the eventual establishment of ongoing, widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare health care systems and the general public to be ready if widespread transmission with substantial associated illness occurs; and 3) better characterize 2019-nCoV infection to guide public health recommendations and the development of medical countermeasures including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC and state and local health departments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(6): 166-170, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053579

RESUMO

In December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia emerged in Wuhan City in central China's Hubei Province. Genetic sequencing of isolates obtained from patients with pneumonia identified a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as the etiology (1). As of February 4, 2020, approximately 20,000 confirmed cases had been identified in China and an additional 159 confirmed cases in 23 other countries, including 11 in the United States (2,3). On January 17, CDC and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection began health screenings at U.S. airports to identify ill travelers returning from Wuhan City (4). CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center on January 21 and formalized a process for inquiries regarding persons suspected of having 2019-nCoV infection (2). As of January 31, 2020, CDC had responded to clinical inquiries from public health officials and health care providers to assist in evaluating approximately 650 persons thought to be at risk for 2019-nCoV infection. Guided by CDC criteria for the evaluation of persons under investigation (PUIs) (5), 210 symptomatic persons were tested for 2019-nCoV; among these persons, 148 (70%) had travel-related risk only, 42 (20%) had close contact with an ill laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV patient or PUI, and 18 (9%) had both travel- and contact-related risks. Eleven of these persons had laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Recognizing persons at risk for 2019-nCoV is critical to identifying cases and preventing further transmission. Health care providers should remain vigilant and adhere to recommended infection prevention and control practices when evaluating patients for possible 2019-nCoV infection (6). Providers should consult with their local and state health departments when assessing not only ill travelers from 2019-nCoV-affected countries but also ill persons who have been in close contact with patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection in the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rio de Janeiro; SES/RJ; 28 jan. 2020. 4 p. (Nota Técnica-SVS/SES-RJ, 01).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, CONASS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1048858

RESUMO

Os Coronavírus (CoV) compõem uma grande família de vírus, conhecidos desde meados da década de 1960. Podem causar desde um resfriado comum até síndromes respiratórias graves, como a síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) e a síndrome respiratória do Oriente Médio (MERS - Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). Os casos agora identificados estão relacionados a uma nova variante do Coronavírus, denominada 2019-nCoV, até então não identificada em humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(3)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992388

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing severe acute respiratory disease emerged recently in Wuhan, China. Information on reported cases strongly indicates human-to-human spread, and the most recent information is increasingly indicative of sustained human-to-human transmission. While the overall severity profile among cases may change as more mild cases are identified, we estimate a risk of fatality among hospitalised cases at 14% (95% confidence interval: 3.9-32%).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
14.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 54-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513753

RESUMO

Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) in New Zealand dogs, and to explore associations with age, sex, breed, month, and geographical region of sampling and reported presence of clinical signs suggestive of respiratory disease.Methods: A total of 1,015 canine serum samples were randomly selected from submissions to a diagnostic laboratory between March and December 2014, and were analysed for CRCoV antibodies using a competitive ELISA. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between seroprevalence of CRCoV and breed category, age, sex, sampling month, region, and reported health status of dogs.Results: Overall, 538/1,015 (53.0%) samples were seropositive for CRCoV, with 492/921 (53.4%) positive dogs in the North Island and 46/94 (49%) in the South Island. Age of dog, sampling month, region, and presence of abnormal respiratory signs were included in the initial logistic regression model. Seroprevalence was higher in dogs aged ≥3 compared with ≤2 years (p < 0.01). The lowest seroprevalence was observed in July (30/105; 28.5%) and August (32/100; 32%), and the highest in June (74/100; 74%). Seroprevalence in dogs from Auckland was higher than in dogs from the Hawkes Bay, Manawatu, Marlborough, and Waikato regions (p < 0.05). Abnormal respiratory signs (coughing, nasal discharge, or sneezing) were reported for 28/1,015 (2.8%) dogs sampled. Seroprevalence for CRCoV tended to be higher among dogs with respiratory signs (67.9 (95% CI = 47.6-83.4)%) than dogs with no reported respiratory signs (52.6 (95% CI = 49.5-55.7)%).Conclusions: Serological evidence of infection with CRCoV was present in more than half of the dogs tested from throughout New Zealand. Differences in CRCoV seroprevalence between regions and lack of seasonal pattern indicate that factors other than external temperatures may be important in the epidemiology of CRCoV in New Zealand.Clinical relevance: Our data suggest that CRCoV should be included in investigations of cases of infectious canine tracheobronchitis, particularly if these occur among dogs vaccinated with current vaccines, which do not include CRCoV antigens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Canino/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Modelos Logísticos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 63, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533860

RESUMO

Widespread geographic movement and extensive comingling of exhibition swine facilitates the spread and transmission of infectious pathogens. Nasal samples were collected from 2862 pigs at 102 exhibitions and tested for five pathogens. At least one pathogen was molecularly detected in pigs at 63 (61.8%) exhibitions. Influenza A virus was most prevalent and was detected in 498 (17.4%) samples. Influenza D virus was detected in two (0.07%) samples. More than one pathogen was detected in 165 (5.8%) samples. Influenza A virus remains a top threat to animal and human health, but other pathogens may be disseminated through the exhibition swine population.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus 1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Respirovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(11): 1136-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are six human pathogenic coronaviruses (CoV), which mainly cause infections of the respiratory system. In everyday clinical practice, it is helpful to know the relevance and characteristics of these pathogens. OBJECTIVE: To present the epidemiology, clinical picture and differences of human pathogenic CoV and to provide information on the diagnostics and treatment of patients suspected of having CoV infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Selective literature search, presentation of results and discussion of fundamental works and expert recommendations, including publications by the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Robert Koch Institute. RESULTS: The four endemic human CoVs (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1) mainly cause mild respiratory tract infections. In addition to these four endemic HCoV, the two epidemic CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV can cause severe pneumonia. The SARS-CoV has not been detected in humans in the last 15 years and MERS-CoV has been circulating mainly on the Arabian Peninsula since 2012; however, neither a specific treatment nor approved vaccines exist for any of the six human pathogenic CoVs. CONCLUSION: All six human CoVs can be diagnosed using RT-PCR on respiratory specimens but this is rarely necessary for the four endemic strains. In current clinical practice SARS-CoV has no importance as it has not been detected in humans for 15 years; however, a possible MERS-CoV infection should be taken into account in patients with typical symptoms and travel history to endemic regions. In this case, rapid diagnostic and general hygiene practices are important to prevent further transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Infecções Respiratórias , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Humano 229E , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63 , Coronavirus Humano OC43 , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2715-2724, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456086

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a recognized cause of severe neonatal calf diarrhea, with a negative impact on animal welfare, leading to economic losses to the livestock industry. Cattle production is one of the most important economic sectors in Uruguay. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BCoV infections and their genetic diversity in Uruguayan calves and to describe the evolutionary history of the virus in South America. The overall detection rate of BCoV in Uruguay was 7.8% (64/824): 7.7% (60/782) in dairy cattle and 9.5% (4/42) in beef cattle. The detection rate of BCoV in samples from deceased and live calves was 10.0% (6/60) and 7.6% (58/763), respectively. Interestingly, there was a lower frequency of BCoV detection in calves born to vaccinated dams (3.3%, 8/240) than in calves born to unvaccinated dams (12.2%, 32/263) (OR: 4.02, 95%CI: 1.81-8.90; p = 0.00026). The frequency of BCoV detection was higher in colder months (11.8%, 44/373) than in warmer months (1.5%, 3/206) (OR: 9.05, 95%CI: 2.77-29.53, p = 0.000013). Uruguayan strains grouped together in two different lineages: one with Argentinean strains and the other with Brazilian strains. Both BCoV lineages were estimated to have entered Uruguay in 2013: one of them from Brazil (95%HPD interval: 2011-2014) and the other from Argentina (95%HPD interval: 2010-2014). The lineages differed by four amino acid changes, and both were divergent from the Mebus reference strain. Surveillance should be maintained to detect possible emerging strains that can clearly diverge at the antigenic level from vaccine strains.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/veterinária , Disenteria/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Vacinação
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 261, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asian countries, including Myanmar, poultry farming is a major industry. In order to manage and maintain stable productivity, it is important to establish policies for biosecurity. Infectious respiratory diseases are a major threat to poultry farming. Avian influenza and Newcastle disease have been reported in Myanmar, but no scientific information is available for other respiratory pathogens, such as mycoplasmas and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Identifying the genotypes and serotypes of IBVs is especially important to inform vaccination programs. In this study, we detected Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and IBV in several poultry farms in Myanmar. RESULTS: Samples were collected from 20 farms in three major poultry farming areas in Myanmar, and MG, MS, and IBV were detected on two, four, and eight farms, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the observed MG and MS isolates were not identical to vaccine strains. Three different genotypes of IBV were detected, but none was an unknown variant. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasmas and IBV were detected on poultry farms in Myanmar. Periodic surveillance is required to establish the distribution of each pathogen, and to institute better vaccine protocols.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2621-2625, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350613

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a deadly epizootic swine coronavirus that is of importance to the world pork industry. Since the re-emergence of the virulent genotype 2b (G2b) in 2014, Jeju Island in South Korea has faced periodic outbreaks, leading to the occurrence of endemics in provincial herds. In this study, we examined the complete genome sequences and molecular characteristics of novel G2b PEDV variants with a two-amino-acid deletion in the neutralizing epitope of the spike (S) gene, which were concurrently identified on a re-infected farm and its neighboring farm on Jeju Island. Whole-genome sequencing of the Jeju S-DEL isolates KNU-1829 and KNU-1830 revealed the presence of a continuous 9-nucleotide deletion within the nonstructural protein coding region. Their genomes were 28,023 nucleotides in length, 15 nucleotides shorter than those of the classical G2b PEDV strains. The two S-DEL isolates had 96.4-99.2% and 98.3-99.7% identity at the S-gene and full-genome level, respectively, to other global G2b PEDV strains. Genetic and antigenic analyses indicated that the S-DEL isolates are most closely related to the primary strain identified from the initial exposure at the same farm, but the virus appears to undergo continuous evolution, possibly leading to antigenic drift under recurrent or endemic pressure. This study provides important information about the antigenic diversity of PEDV circulating in the endemic areas, which arises from continuous non-lethal mutations to ensure viral fitness in the host environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fazendas , Ordem dos Genes , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
20.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1288-1293, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318592

RESUMO

Objectives. To explore complex associations among demographic factors, risk factors, health care, and fatality rates of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods. We based this study on analysis of a publicly accessible line listing of 1256 MERS-CoV cases (2013 to October 2018) available on the World Health Organization's Web site. For analyses of demographic factors (e.g., age, gender), access to health care, promptness of laboratory services, risk factors (comorbidity, exposure to camels and persons with MERS-CoV), occupation (health care), and outcome (fatality), we used descriptive statistics, risk ratio (RR), and the Pearson χ2 test.Results. Presence of comorbidity (RR = 3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 3.9), being male (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.1), exposure to dromedary camels (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3), and consumption of camel milk (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9, 1.7) can significantly increase risk for fatality. Health care workers have significantly lower fatality (P < .001) than the rest of the persons with MERS-CoV.Conclusions. Policies that promote health awareness for the high-risk population and their prompt seeking of health care should be considered. Publicly accessible line lists of infectious diseases such as MERS-CoV can be valuable sources for epidemiological analysis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
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