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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22828, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic revealed many social disparities that already exist in countries that have social inequalities in their historical context. Studies have already been published on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of population groups considered to be at risk where they reveal that Black people are at greater risk of becoming ill and dying from this cause. In this context, this protocol describes a systematic review that aims to analyze the association of race as the higher risk for illness and death due to COVID-19. METHODS: This protocol will be developed based on the recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-P). For this, we will conduct searches in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and ScienceDirect databases in the search for cross-sectional studies. All cross-sectional studies that analyzed hospitalization and death by COVID-19 as race in its determinant will be included. The search will be carried out by 2 independent researchers who will carry out the selection of articles, then the duplicate studies will be removed and screened using the Rayyan QCRI application. To assess the risk of bias, the instrument proposed by Downs and Black will be used. Meta-analyzes and subgroup analyzes will be carried out according to included data conditions. RESULTS: Based on this review, it will be possible to carry out a high-quality synthesis of available evidence that brings race as a factor for illness and death by COVID-19 and to verify which race is most affected by this disease. CONCLUSION: The relevance of this systematic review to the current context is considered, as it has a high potential to assist in the development of public health strategies and policies that address existing racial differences.Record of systematic review: CRD42020208767.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
2.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 845-849, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148042

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed, and intensified, health inequities faced by Latinx in the United States. Washington was one of the first U.S. states to report cases of COVID-19. Public health surveillance shows that 31% of Washington cases are Latinx, despite being only 13% of the state population. Unjust policies related to immigration, labor, housing, transportation, and education have contributed to both past and existing inequities. Approximately 20% of Latinx are uninsured, leading to delays in testing and medical care for COVID-19, and early reports indicated critical shortages in professional interpreters and multilingual telehealth options. Washington State is taking action to address some of these inequities. Applying a health equity framework, we describe key factors contributing to COVID-19-related health inequities among Latinx populations, and how Washington State has aimed to address these inequities. We draw on these experiences to make recommendations for other Latinx communities experiencing COVID-19 disparities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Betacoronavirus , Barreiras de Comunicação , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Habitação/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Tradução , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1654-1659, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151922

RESUMO

On June 3, 2020, a woman aged 73 years (patient A) with symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1) was evaluated at the emergency department of the Hopi Health Care Center (HHCC, an Indian Health Services facility) and received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The patient's symptoms commenced on May 27, and a sibling (patient B) of the patient experienced symptom onset the following day. On May 23, both patients had driven together and spent time in a retail store in Flagstaff, Arizona. Because of their similar exposures, symptom onset dates, and overlapping close contacts, these patients are referred to as co-index patients. The co-index patients had a total of 58 primary (i.e., direct) and secondary contacts (i.e., contacts of a primary contact); among these, 27 (47%) received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Four (15%) of the 27 contacts who became ill were household members of co-index patient B, 14 (52%) had attended family gatherings, one was a child who might have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to six contacts, and eight (30%) were community members. Findings from the outbreak investigation prompted the HHCC and Hopi Tribe leadership to strengthen community education through community health representatives, public health nurses, and radio campaigns. In communities with similar extended family interaction, emphasizing safe ways to stay in touch, along with wearing a mask, frequent hand washing, and physical distancing might help limit the spread of disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153162

RESUMO

As of 18 October 2020, over 39.5 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 1.1 million associated deaths have been reported worldwide. It is crucial to understand the effect of social determination of health on novel COVID-19 outcomes in order to establish health justice. There is an imperative need, for policy makers at all levels, to consider socioeconomic and racial and ethnic disparities in pandemic planning. Cross-sectional analysis from COVID Boston University's Center for Antiracist Research COVID Racial Data Tracker was performed to evaluate the racial and ethnic distribution of COVID-19 outcomes relative to representation in the United States. Representation quotients (RQs) were calculated to assess for disparity using state-level data from the American Community Survey (ACS). We found that on a national level, Hispanic/Latinx, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and Black people had RQs > 1, indicating that these groups are over-represented in COVID-19 incidence. Dramatic racial and ethnic variances in state-level incidence and mortality RQs were also observed. This study investigates pandemic disparities and examines some factors which inform the social determination of health. These findings are key for developing effective public policy and allocating resources to effectively decrease health disparities. Protective standards, stay-at-home orders, and essential worker guidelines must be tailored to address the social determination of health in order to mitigate health injustices, as identified by COVID-19 incidence and mortality RQs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720965080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084496

RESUMO

Hospitals and health systems suffer an over-reliance on elective surgeries to remain profitable. As a result, systems report record losses, while demand for emergency room, hospital, and intensive care beds have surged. Studies have admitted that many surgeries are unnecessary, and physician leaders admit that profit plays a role in driving such needless cost and risk. Most diseases are better managed with medications and lifestyle changes. But it pays more to replace a knee than to prevent that replacement. We must bring surgical and medical value closer in-line. Communities of color are suffering disproportionately from coronavirus. The social determinants of health that lead to higher concentrations of hypertension and diabetes can be mitigated by investment in primary care. Such investment has been proven to decrease cost and increase quality of life. However, the United States spends 50% less on primary care, than other developed countries. While showing promise, telehealth is not a panacea. It relies on continued reimbursement parity, and there remains a digital divide. Any meaningful fix will draw the ire from those who profit from such a profligate system. If we want to improve quality, access and equity, while avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations, risky surgeries, and runaway costs, we must invest in primary care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Medicina Preventiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1522-1527, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090978

RESUMO

As of October 15, 216,025 deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported in the United States*; however, this number might underestimate the total impact of the pandemic on mortality. Measures of excess deaths have been used to estimate the impact of public health pandemics or disasters, particularly when there are questions about underascertainment of deaths directly attributable to a given event or cause (1-6).† Excess deaths are defined as the number of persons who have died from all causes, in excess of the expected number of deaths for a given place and time. This report describes trends and demographic patterns in excess deaths during January 26-October 3, 2020. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated using overdispersed Poisson regression models with spline terms to account for seasonal patterns, using provisional mortality data from CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) (7). Weekly numbers of deaths by age group and race/ethnicity were assessed to examine the difference between the weekly number of deaths occurring in 2020 and the average number occurring in the same week during 2015-2019 and the percentage change in 2020. Overall, an estimated 299,028 excess deaths have occurred in the United States from late January through October 3, 2020, with two thirds of these attributed to COVID-19. The largest percentage increases were seen among adults aged 25-44 years and among Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons. These results provide information about the degree to which COVID-19 deaths might be underascertained and inform efforts to prevent mortality directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, such as efforts to minimize disruptions to health care.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1517-1521, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090984

RESUMO

During February 12-October 15, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in approximately 7,900,000 aggregated reported cases and approximately 216,000 deaths in the United States.* Among COVID-19-associated deaths reported to national case surveillance during February 12-May 18, persons aged ≥65 years and members of racial and ethnic minority groups were disproportionately represented (1). This report describes demographic and geographic trends in COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the National Vital Statistics System† (NVSS) during May 1-August 31, 2020, by 50 states and the District of Columbia. During this period, 114,411 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported. Overall, 78.2% of decedents were aged ≥65 years, and 53.3% were male; 51.3% were non-Hispanic White (White), 24.2% were Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), and 18.7% were non-Hispanic Black (Black). The number of COVID-19-associated deaths decreased from 37,940 in May to 17,718 in June; subsequently, counts increased to 30,401 in July and declined to 28,352 in August. From May to August, the percentage distribution of COVID-19-associated deaths by U.S. Census region increased from 23.4% to 62.7% in the South and from 10.6% to 21.4% in the West. Over the same period, the percentage distribution of decedents who were Hispanic increased from 16.3% to 26.4%. COVID-19 remains a major public health threat regardless of age or race and ethnicity. Deaths continued to occur disproportionately among older persons and certain racial and ethnic minorities, particularly among Hispanic persons. These results can inform public health messaging and mitigation efforts focused on prevention and early detection of infection among disproportionately affected groups.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1528-1534, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090987

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, although increasing evidence indicates that infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can affect multiple organ systems (1). Data that examine all in-hospital complications of COVID-19 and that compare these complications with those associated with other viral respiratory pathogens, such as influenza, are lacking. To assess complications of COVID-19 and influenza, electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,948 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (March 1-May 31, 2020) and 5,453 hospitalized patients with influenza (October 1, 2018-February 1, 2020) from the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated health care system in the United States,* were analyzed. Using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, complications in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were compared with those in patients with influenza. Risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions; proportions of complications were stratified among patients with COVID-19 by race/ethnicity. Patients with COVID-19 had almost 19 times the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than did patients with influenza, (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 18.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.40-28.00), and more than twice the risk for myocarditis (2.56; 1.17-5.59), deep vein thrombosis (2.81; 2.04-3.87), pulmonary embolism (2.10; 1.53-2.89), intracranial hemorrhage (2.85; 1.35-6.03), acute hepatitis/liver failure (3.13; 1.92-5.10), bacteremia (2.46; 1.91-3.18), and pressure ulcers (2.65; 2.14-3.27). The risks for exacerbations of asthma (0.27; 0.16-0.44) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.37; 0.32-0.42) were lower among patients with COVID-19 than among those with influenza. The percentage of COVID-19 patients who died while hospitalized (21.0%) was more than five times that of influenza patients (3.8%), and the duration of hospitalization was almost three times longer for COVID-19 patients. Among patients with COVID-19, the risk for respiratory, neurologic, and renal complications, and sepsis was higher among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) patients, patients of other races, and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) patients compared with those in non-Hispanic White (White) patients, even after adjusting for age and underlying medical conditions. These findings highlight the higher risk for most complications associated with COVID-19 compared with influenza and might aid clinicians and researchers in recognizing, monitoring, and managing the spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations. The higher risk for certain complications among racial and ethnic minority patients provides further evidence that certain racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionally affected by COVID-19 and that this disparity is not solely accounted for by age and underlying medical conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis. It is becoming increasingly clear that people's behavioural responses in the USA during this fast-changing pandemic are associated with their preferred media sources. The polarisation of US media has been reflected in politically motivated messaging around the coronavirus by some media outlets, such as Fox News. This resulted in different messaging around the risks of infection and behavioural changes necessary to mitigate that risk. This study determined if COVID-related behaviours differed according to trust in left-leaning or right-leaning media and how differences changed over the first several months of the pandemic. METHODS: Using the nationally representative Understanding America Study COVID-19 panel, we examine preventive and risky behaviours related to infection from COVID-19 over the period from 10 March to 9 June for people with trust in different media sources: one left-leaning, CNN and another right-leaning, Fox News. People's media preferences are categorised into three groups: (1) those who trust CNN more than Fox News; (2) those who have equal or no preferences and (3) those who trust Fox News more than CNN. RESULTS: Results showed that compared with those who trust CNN more than Fox news, people who trust Fox News more than CNN engaged in fewer preventive behaviours and more risky behaviours related to COVID-19. Out of five preventive and five risky behaviours examined, people who trust Fox News more than CNN practised an average of 3.41 preventive behaviours and 1.25 risky behaviours, while those who trust CNN more than Fox News engaged in an average of 3.85 preventive and 0.94 risky behaviours, from late March to June. The difference between these two groups widened in the month of May (p≤0.01), even after controlling for access to professional information and overall diversity of information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that behavioural responses were divided along media bias lines. In such a highly partisan environment, false information can be easily disseminated, and health messaging, which is one of the few effective ways to slowdown the spread of the virus in the absence of a vaccine, is being damaged by politically biased and economically focused narratives. During a public health crisis, media should reduce their partisan stance on health information, and the health messaging from neutral and professional sources based on scientific findings should be better promoted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056951

RESUMO

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003402, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (NHAIAN) populations experience excess COVID-19 mortality, compared to the non-Hispanic White (NHW) population, but racial/ethnic differences in age at death are not known. The release of national COVID-19 death data by racial/ethnic group now permits analysis of age-specific mortality rates for these groups and the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (NHAPI) population. Our objectives were to examine variation in age-specific COVID-19 mortality rates by racial/ethnicity and to calculate the impact of this mortality using years of potential life lost (YPLL). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study used the recently publicly available data on US COVID-19 deaths with reported race/ethnicity, for the time period February 1, 2020, to July 22, 2020. Population data were drawn from the US Census. As of July 22, 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths equaled 68,377 for NHW, 29,476 for NHB, 23,256 for Hispanic, 1,143 for NHAIAN, and 6,468 for NHAPI populations; the corresponding population sizes were 186.4 million, 40.6 million, 2.6 million, 19.5 million, and 57.7 million. Age-standardized rate ratios relative to NHW were 3.6 (95% CI 3.5, 3.8; p < 0.001) for NHB, 2.8 (95% CI 2.7, 3.0; p < 0.001) for Hispanic, 2.2 (95% CI 1.8, 2.6; p < 0.001) for NHAIAN, and 1.6 (95% CI 1.4, 1.7; p < 0.001) for NHAP populations. By contrast, NHB rate ratios relative to NHW were 7.1 (95% CI 5.8, 8.7; p < 0.001) for persons aged 25-34 years, 9.0 (95% CI 7.9, 10.2; p < 0.001) for persons aged 35-44 years, and 7.4 (95% CI 6.9, 7.9; p < 0.001) for persons aged 45-54 years. Even at older ages, NHB rate ratios were between 2.0 and 5.7. Similarly, rate ratios for the Hispanic versus NHW population were 7.0 (95% CI 5.8, 8.7; p < 0.001), 8.8 (95% CI 7.8, 9.9; p < 0.001), and 7.0 (95% CI 6.6, 7.5; p < 0.001) for the corresponding age strata above, with remaining rate ratios ranging from 1.4 to 5.0. Rate ratios for NHAIAN were similarly high through age 74 years. Among NHAPI persons, rate ratios ranged from 2.0 to 2.8 for persons aged 25-74 years and were 1.6 and 1.2 for persons aged 75-84 and 85+ years, respectively. As a consequence, more YPLL before age 65 were experienced by the NHB and Hispanic populations than the NHW population-despite the fact that the NHW population is larger-with a ratio of 4.6:1 and 3.2:1, respectively, for NHB and Hispanic persons. Study limitations include likely lag time in receipt of completed death certificates received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for transmission to NCHS, with consequent lag in capturing the total number of deaths compared to data reported on state dashboards. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed racial variation in age-specific mortality rates not fully captured with examination of age-standardized rates alone. These findings suggest the importance of examining age-specific mortality rates and underscores how age standardization can obscure extreme variations within age strata. To avoid overlooking such variation, data that permit age-specific analyses should be routinely publicly available.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade Prematura , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2025197, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084902

RESUMO

Importance: Black patients are overrepresented in the number of COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths in the US. Reasons for this disparity may be due to underlying comorbidities or sociodemographic factors that require further exploration. Objective: To systematically determine patient characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used comparative groups of patients tested or treated for COVID-19 at the University of Michigan from March 10, 2020, to April 22, 2020, with an outcome update through July 28, 2020. A group of randomly selected untested individuals were included for comparison. Examined factors included race/ethnicity, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and residential-level socioeconomic characteristics. Exposure: In-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, commercial antibody tests, nasopharynx or oropharynx PCR deployed by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and reverse transcription-PCR tests performed in external labs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were being tested for COVID-19, having test results positive for COVID-19 or being diagnosed with COVID-19, being hospitalized for COVID-19, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission for COVID-19, and COVID-19-related mortality (including inpatient and outpatient). Medical comorbidities were defined from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and were aggregated into a comorbidity score. Associations with COVID-19 outcomes were examined using odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of 5698 patients tested for COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 47.4 [20.9] years; 2167 [38.0%] men; mean [SD] BMI, 30.0 [8.0]), most were non-Hispanic White (3740 patients [65.6%]) or non-Hispanic Black (1058 patients [18.6%]). The comparison group included 7168 individuals who were not tested (mean [SD] age, 43.1 [24.1] years; 3257 [45.4%] men; mean [SD] BMI, 28.5 [7.1]). Among 1139 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 492 (43.2%) were White and 442 (38.8%) were Black; 523 (45.9%) were hospitalized, 283 (24.7%) were admitted to the ICU, and 88 (7.7%) died. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity score, Black patients were more likely to be hospitalized compared with White patients (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.15-2.58]; P = .009). In addition to older age, male sex, and obesity, living in densely populated areas was associated with increased risk of hospitalization (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.19]; P = .02). In the overall population, higher risk of hospitalization was also observed in patients with preexisting type 2 diabetes (OR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.25-2.64]; P = .02) and kidney disease (OR, 2.87 [95% CI, 1.87-4.42]; P < .001). Compared with White patients, obesity was associated with higher risk of having test results positive for COVID-19 among Black patients (White: OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.01-1.84]; P = .04. Black: OR, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.64-5.90]; P < .001; P for interaction = .02). Having any cancer was associated with higher risk of positive COVID-19 test results for Black patients (OR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.19-2.78]; P = .005) but not White patients (OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.84-1.40]; P = .53; P for interaction = .04). Overall comorbidity burden was associated with higher risk of hospitalization in White patients (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.11-1.53]; P = .001) but not in Black patients (OR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.83-1.17]; P = .88; P for interaction = .02), as was type 2 diabetes (White: OR, 2.59 [95% CI, 1.49-4.48]; P < .001; Black: OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.66-2.06]; P = .59; P for interaction = .046). No statistically significant racial differences were found in ICU admission and mortality based on adjusted analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that preexisting type 2 diabetes or kidney diseases and living in high-population density areas were associated with higher risk for COVID-19 hospitalization. Associations of risk factors with COVID-19 outcomes differed by race.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 855-860, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090052

RESUMO

The concept of "double jeopardy"-being both older and Black-describes how racism and ageism together shape higher risks for coronavirus exposure, COVID-19 disease, and poor health outcomes for older Black adults. Black people and older adults are the two groups most affected by COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Double jeopardy, as a race- and age-informed analysis, demonstrates how Black race and older age are associated with practices and policies that shape key life circumstances (e.g., racial residential segregation, family and household composition) and resources in ways that embody elevated risk for COVID-19. The concept of double jeopardy underscores long-standing race- and age-based inequities and social vulnerabilities that produce devastating COVID-19 related deaths and injuries for older Black adults. Developing policies and actions that address race- and age-based inequities and social vulnerabilities can lower risks and enhance protective factors to ensure the health of older Black Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Religião , Isolamento Social , Segregação Social/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2026010, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095253

RESUMO

Importance: To cope with the continuing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, state and local officials need information on the effectiveness of policies aimed at curbing disease spread, as well as state-specific characteristics, like the racial mix, associated with increased risks related to the disease. Objective: To investigate whether state-imposed stay-at-home orders (SAHOs) and the proportion of African American population in a state were associated with the state-level COVID-19 cases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used daily, state-level data on COVID-19 cases, tests, and fatalities from the COVID Tracking Project. Data from March 1 to May 4, 2020, for all states (except Washington state) as well as the District of Columbia were used. Exposures: The key exposure variables were state-level SAHO (1 if in place, 0 otherwise), and proportion of state population who are African American. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was daily cumulative COVID-19 case rates. A secondary outcome was subsequent COVID-19 fatality rates, derived using mean cumulative fatality rates 21 to 28 days after each date. Multivariate regression models were estimated. Results: The final sample included 3023 pooled state- and day-level observations. The mean (SD) cumulative positive case rate was 103.186 (200.067) cases per 100 000 state population, the mean (SD) cumulative test rate was 744.23 (894.944) tests per 100 000 state population, and the mean (SD) subsequent cumulative fatality rate was 12.923 (21.737) deaths per 100 000 state population. There was a negative association of SAHOs with cumulative case rates (ß = -1.166; 95% CI, -1.484 to -0.847; P < .001) and subsequent fatality rates (ß = -0.204; 95% CI, -0.294 to -0.113; P < .001). Estimation analyses indicated that expected cumulative case rates would have been more than 200% higher and fatality rates approximately 22% higher if there were no SAHOs, as compared with SAHOs fully in place. A higher proportion of African American population was associated with higher case rates (ß = 0.045; 95% CI, 0.014 to 0.077; P = .001) and fatality rates (ß = 0.068; 95% CI, 0.044 to 0.091; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, SAHOs were associated with reductions in COVID-19 case rates. These findings could help inform policy makers to address the continued COVID-19 pandemic in the US. The proportion of African American population was positively associated with COVID-19 case rates, and this state-level finding adds to evidence from existing ecological studies using county-level data on racial disparities in COVID-19 infection rates and underlines the urgency of better understanding and addressing these disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095841

RESUMO

Kidney disease is a recognised risk factor for poor COVID-19 outcomes. Up to 30 June 2020, the UK Renal Registry (UKRR) collected data for 2,385 in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) patients with COVID-19 in England and Wales. Overall unadjusted survival at 1 week after date of positive COVID-19 test was 87.5% (95% CI 86.1-88.8%); mortality increased with age, treatment vintage and there was borderline evidence of Asian ethnicity (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.44) being associated with higher mortality. Compared to the general population, the relative risk of mortality for ICHD patients with COVID-19 was 45.4 and highest in younger adults. This retrospective cohort study based on UKRR data supports efforts to protect this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise de Dados , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2026064, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104209

RESUMO

Importance: An immediate research priority is to investigate and monitor the psychological well-being among high-risk groups during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To examine levels of severity of depressive symptoms over time among individuals with high risk in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study is part of an ongoing large panel study of adults aged 18 years and older residing in the UK, the COVID-19 Social Study, established on March 21, 2020. Data analysis was conducted in May 2020. Exposures: Sociodemographic risk factors included belonging to the Black, Asian, and minority racial/ethnic communities, low socioeconomic position (SEP), and essential worker roles (eg, workers in health and social care, education, childcare, or key public services). Health-related and psychosocial risk factors included preexisting physical and mental health conditions, experience of psychological or physical abuse, and low social support. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptoms were measured on 7 occasions from March 21 to April 2, 2020, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Group-based depressive symptom trajectories were derived using latent growth mixture modeling. Results: The analytical sample comprised 51 417 adults aged 18 years and older (mean [SD] age, 48.8 [16.8] years; 26 276 [51.1%] women; 6145 members [12.0%] of Black, Asian, and minority racial/ethnic communities). Among these, 17 143 participants (33.3%) were in the lowest SEP quartile, and 11 342 participants (22.1%) were classified as essential workers. Three levels of severity of depressive symptoms were identified: low (30 850 participants [60.0%]), moderate (14 911 participants [29.0%]), and severe (5656 participants [11.0%]). After adjusting for covariates, experiences of physical or psychological abuse (odds ratio [OR], 13.16; 95% CI, 12.95-13.37; P < .001), preexisting mental health conditions (OR, 12.99; 95% CI, 12.87-13.11; P < .001), preexisting physical health conditions (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 3.29-3.54; P < .001), low social support (OR, 12.72; 95% CI, 12.57-12.86; P < .001), and low SEP (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 5.08-5.36; P < .001) were significantly associated with severe depressive symptoms. No significant association was found for race/ethnicity (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85-1.28; P = .56). Participants with essential worker roles were less likely to experience severe depressive symptoms (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P < .001). Similar patterns of associations were found for the group of participants with moderate depressive symptoms (abuse: OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 5.15-5.54; P < .001; mental health condition: OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 4.24-4.24; P < .001; physical health condition: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.80-1.98; P < .001; low social support: OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 4.60-4.82; P < .001; low SEP: OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.87-2.08; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of UK adults participating in the COVID-19 Social Study, people with psychosocial and health-related risk factors, as well as those with low SEP, were at the most risk of experiencing moderate or severe depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Nível de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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