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1.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198852

RESUMO

Epithelial characteristics underlying the differential susceptibility of chronic asthma to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and other viral infections are currently unclear. By revisiting transcriptomic data from patients with Th2 low versus Th2 high asthma, as well as mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics, we characterized the changes in expression of human coronavirus and influenza viral entry genes relative to sex, airway location, and disease endotype. We found sexual dimorphism in the expression of SARS-CoV-2-related genes ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and SLC6A19. ACE2 receptor downregulation occurred specifically in females in Th2 high asthma, while proteases broadly assisting coronavirus and influenza viral entry, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4, were highly upregulated in both sexes. Overall, changes in SARS-CoV-2-related gene expression were specific to the Th2 high molecular endotype of asthma and different by asthma severity and airway location. The downregulation of ACE2 (COVID-19, SARS) and ANPEP (HCoV-229E) viral receptors wascorrelated with loss of club and ciliated cells in Th2 high asthma. Meanwhile, the increase in DPP4 (MERS-CoV), ST3GAL4, and ST6GAL1 (influenza) was associated with increased goblet and basal activated cells. Overall, this study elucidates sex, airway location, disease endotype, and changes in epithelial heterogeneity as potential factors underlying asthmatic susceptibility, or lack thereof, to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Asma/genética , Asma/virologia , COVID-19/genética , Coronavirus Humano 229E/genética , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Células Epiteliais/classificação , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/genética , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Caracteres Sexuais
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48256

RESUMO

O estudo liderado pela pesquisadora do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da UFJF, Rossana Melo, foi selecionado entre sete projetos brasileiros que serão financiados pelo Fundo de Pesquisa Lemann Harvard Brazil 2021. O objetivo da proposta contemplada é investigar os papéis desempenhados pelos eosinófilos no combate à infecção causada pela Covid-19 no corpo humano. Os eosinófilos são um tipo de leucócito, células responsáveis pela defesa do sistema imunológico humano que agem diretamente contra os mais diversos agentes infecciosos. Como os processos agressivos da doença provocada pela Covid-19 ainda são desconhecidos pela ciência, a pesquisa explora se os eosinófilos têm papel principal no combate à replicação do vírus no corpo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Pesquisa em Sistemas de Saúde Pública
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48248

RESUMO

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, chamou a atenção para a baixa taxa de vacinação contra a COVID-19 na América Latina e no Caribe e alertou que o controle do vírus levará anos se as atuais tendências persistirem.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , América , Vacinação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48236

RESUMO

A Fiocruz recebeu, nesta quarta-feira (2/6), dois bancos, um de células e outro de vírus, para a produção do Ingrediente Farmacêutico Ativo (IFA) nacional da vacina Covid-19 Fiocruz


Assuntos
Vacinas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Células/imunologia
6.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070971

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Camelus/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Zoonoses/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/fisiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelus/genética , Camelus/imunologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 173, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105037

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a lethal respiratory disease with its first case reported back in 2012 (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia). It is a novel, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA beta coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that was isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness. Later, it was found that this patient was infected with MERS. MERS is endemic to countries in the Middle East regions, such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. It has been reported that the MERS virus originated from bats and dromedary camels, the natural hosts of MERS-CoV. The transmission of the virus to humans has been thought to be either direct or indirect. Few camel-to-human transmissions were reported earlier. However, the mode of transmission of how the virus affects humans remains unanswered. Moreover, outbreaks in either family-based or hospital-based settings were observed with high mortality rates, especially in individuals who did not receive proper management or those with underlying comorbidities, such as diabetes and renal failure. Since then, there have been numerous reports hypothesising complications in fatal cases of MERS. Over the years, various diagnostic methods, treatment strategies and preventive measures have been strategised in containing the MERS infection. Evidence from multiple sources implicated that no treatment options and vaccines have been developed in specific, for the direct management of MERS-CoV infection. Nevertheless, there are supportive measures outlined in response to symptom-related management. Health authorities should stress more on infection and prevention control measures, to ensure that MERS remains as a low-level threat to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/imunologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122413

RESUMO

Background: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 emerges as complex, with multiple factors leading to injury of different organs. Some of the studies on aspects of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and innate immunity have produced seemingly contradictory claims. In this situation, a comprehensive comparative analysis of a large number of related datasets from several studies could bring more clarity, which is imperative for therapy development. Methods: We therefore performed a comprehensive comparative study, analyzing RNA-Seq data of infections with SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, including data from different types of cells as well as COVID-19 patients. Using these data, we investigated viral entry routes and innate immune responses. Results and Conclusion: First, our analyses support the existence of cell entry mechanisms for SARS and SARS-CoV-2 other than the ACE2 route with evidence of inefficient infection of cells without expression of ACE2; expression of TMPRSS2/TPMRSS4 is unnecessary for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection with evidence of efficient infection of A549 cells transduced with a vector expressing human ACE2. Second, we find that innate immune responses in terms of interferons and interferon simulated genes are strong in relevant cells, for example Calu3 cells, but vary markedly with cell type, virus dose, and virus type.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , RNA Viral , RNA-Seq , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26446, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160438

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Viruses are the most common pathogens that can cause infection-related non-recurrent death after transplantation, occurring mostly from the early stages of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to within 1 year after transplantation. Human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 is a coronavirus that could cause mortality among patients with underlying disease complications. Serological tests are of limited diagnostic value in immunocompromised hosts and cases of latent infection reactivation. In contrast, macro-genomic high-throughput (DNA and RNA) sequencing allows for rapid and accurate diagnosis of infecting pathogens for targeted treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe a patient who exhibited acute B-lymphocytic leukemia and developed complicated pulmonary HCoV-NL63 infection after a second allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). Six months after the second allo-HSCT, he developed sudden-onset hyperthermia and cough with decreased oxygen saturation. Chest computed tomography (CT) suggested bilateral multiple rounded ground-glass opacities with the pulmonary lobules as units. DIAGNOSES: HCoV-NL63 was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS), and HCoV-NL63 viral pneumonia was diagnosed. INTERVENTIONS: The treatment was mainly based on the use of antiviral therapy, hormone administration, and gamma-globulin. OUTCOMES: After the therapy, the body temperature returned to normal, the chest CT findings had improved on review, and the viral copy number eventually became negative. LESSONS: The latest NGS is an effective method for early infection diagnosis. The HCoV-NL63 virus can cause inflammatory factor storm and alter the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). This case suggests that the patient's NLR and cytokine levels could be monitored during the clinical treatment to assess the disease and its treatment outcome in a timely manner.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus Humano NL63/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Leucemia de Células B/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/genética , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Leucemia de Células B/imunologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , gama-Globulinas/administração & dosagem
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48215

RESUMO

O primeiro caso de reinfecção do SARS-CoV-2 foi cientificamente comprovada em agosto de 2020. Em dezembro, o Ministério da Saúde confirmou o primeiro caso do tipo no Brasil, quando uma médica de 37 anos voltou a ter diagnóstico positivo de Covid-19 mais de três meses depois de contrair a doença pela primeira vez. Desde então, pesquisadores e profissionais de saúde em todo o mundo confirmaram o risco de infecção repetida pelo coronavírus, especialmente mediante a existência de variantes do vírus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infectologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046036

RESUMO

Background: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 share similar characteristics. For instance, the genetic homology of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is 80% and 50%, respectively, which may cause similar clinical features. Moreover, uncontrolled release of proinflammatory mediators (also called a cytokine storm) by activated immune cells in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 patients leads to severe phenotype development. Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine profile associated with three strains of severe human coronavirus diseases (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Method: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published until July 2020. Randomized and observational studies reporting the inflammatory cytokines associated with severe and non-severe human coronavirus diseases, including MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval to estimate the pooled mean of inflammatory biomarkers. Results: A high level of circulating IL-6 could be associated with the severity of infection of the three coronavirus strains. TNF, IL-10, and IL-8 are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Increased circulating levels of CXCL10/IP10 and CCL2/MCP-1 might also be related to the severity of MERS. Conclusion: This study suggests that the immune response and immunopathology in the three severe human coronavirus strains are somewhat similar. The findings highlight that nearly all studies reporting severe cases of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 have been associated with elevated levels of IL-6. This could be used as a potential therapeutic target to improve patients' outcomes in severe cases. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration 94 number: CRD42020209931.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9475, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947894

RESUMO

During August 2020, we carried out a serological survey among students and employees at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Japan, testing for the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. We used a FDA-authorized 2-step ELISA protocol in combination with at-home self-collection of blood samples using a custom low-cost finger prick-based capillary blood collection kit. Although our survey did not find any COVID-19 seropositive individuals among the OIST cohort, it reliably detected all positive control samples obtained from a local hospital and excluded all negatives controls. We found that high serum antibody titers can persist for more than 9 months post infection. Among our controls, we found strong cross-reactivity of antibodies in samples from a serum pool from two MERS patients in the anti-SARS-CoV-2-S ELISA. Here we show that a centralized ELISA in combination with patient-based capillary blood collection using as little as one drop of blood can reliably assess the seroprevalence among communities. Anonymous sample tracking and an integrated website created a stream-lined procedure. Major parts of the workflow were automated on a liquid handler, demonstrating scalability. We anticipate this concept to serve as a prototype for reliable serological testing among larger populations.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Flebotomia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoteste , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 723-736, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953325

RESUMO

The innate immune system is the first line of the host defense program against pathogens and harmful substances. Antiviral innate immune responses can be triggered by multiple cellular receptors sensing viral components. The activated innate immune system produces interferons (IFNs) and cytokines that perform antiviral functions to eliminate invading viruses. Coronaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that have a broad range of animal hosts. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple means to evade host antiviral immune responses. Successful immune evasion by coronaviruses may enable the viruses to adapt to multiple species of host organisms. Coronavirus transmission from zoonotic hosts to humans has caused serious illnesses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), resulting in global health and economic crises. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying host sensing of and innate immune responses against coronavirus invasion, as well as host immune evasion strategies of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Coronaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Inata , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(5): e1009229, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029358

RESUMO

While MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus) provokes a lethal disease in humans, camelids, the main virus reservoir, are asymptomatic carriers, suggesting a crucial role for innate immune responses in controlling the infection. Experimentally infected camelids clear infectious virus within one week and mount an effective adaptive immune response. Here, transcription of immune response genes was monitored in the respiratory tract of MERS-CoV infected alpacas. Concomitant to the peak of infection, occurring at 2 days post inoculation (dpi), type I and III interferons (IFNs) were maximally transcribed only in the nasal mucosa of alpacas, while interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) were induced along the whole respiratory tract. Simultaneous to mild focal infiltration of leukocytes in nasal mucosa and submucosa, upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and dampened transcription of pro-inflammatory genes under NF-κB control were observed. In the lung, early (1 dpi) transcription of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3) correlated with a transient accumulation of mainly mononuclear leukocytes. A tight regulation of IFNs in lungs with expression of ISGs and controlled inflammatory responses, might contribute to virus clearance without causing tissue damage. Thus, the nasal mucosa, the main target of MERS-CoV in camelids, seems central in driving an efficient innate immune response based on triggering ISGs as well as the dual anti-inflammatory effects of type III IFNs and IL10.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Camelídeos Americanos/metabolismo , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Inflamação/virologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(6): 478-486, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981021

RESUMO

Three highly pathogenic ß-coronaviruses have crossed the animal-to-human species barrier in the past two decades: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the possibility of identifying antibodies with broad neutralizing activity, we isolated a monoclonal antibody, termed B6, that cross-reacts with eight ß-coronavirus spike glycoproteins, including all five human-infecting ß-coronaviruses. B6 broadly neutralizes entry of pseudotyped viruses from lineages A and C, but not from lineage B, and the latter includes SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography and membrane fusion assays reveal that B6 binds to a conserved cryptic epitope located in the fusion machinery. The data indicate that antibody binding sterically interferes with the spike conformational changes leading to membrane fusion. Our data provide a structural framework explaining B6 cross-reactivity with ß-coronaviruses from three lineages, along with a proof of concept for antibody-mediated broad coronavirus neutralization elicited through vaccination. This study unveils an unexpected target for next-generation structure-guided design of a pan-ß-coronavirus vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
19.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48180

RESUMO

Mais de 17 milhões de pessoas com doenças preexistentes começam a ser vacinadas a partir de maio. Exames, receitas médicas e relatórios podem ser apresentados no momento da vacinação


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/tendências , Comorbidade , Betacoronavirus/imunologia
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