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1.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050511

RESUMO

Herd immunity is the most critical and essential prophylactic intervention that delivers protection against infectious diseases at both the individual and community level. This process of natural vaccination is immensely pertinent to the current context of a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection around the globe. The conventional idea of herd immunity is based on efficient transmission of pathogens and developing natural immunity within a population. This is entirely encouraging while fighting against any disease in pandemic circumstances. A spatial community is occupied by people having variable resistance capacity against a pathogen. Protection efficacy against once very common diseases like smallpox, poliovirus or measles has been possible only because of either natural vaccination through contagious infections or expanded immunization programs among communities. This has led to achieving herd immunity in some cohorts. The microbiome plays an essential role in developing the body's immune cells for the emerging competent vaccination process, ensuring herd immunity. Frequency of interaction among microbiota, metabolic nutrients and individual immunity preserve the degree of vaccine effectiveness against several pathogens. Microbiome symbiosis regulates pathogen transmissibility and the success of vaccination among different age groups. Imbalance of nutrients perturbs microbiota and abrogates immunity. Thus, a particular population can become vulnerable to the infection. Intestinal dysbiosis leads to environmental enteropathy (EE). As a consequence, the generation of herd immunity can either be delayed or not start in a particular cohort. Moreover, disparities of the protective response of many vaccines in developing countries outside of developed countries are due to inconsistencies of healthy microbiota among the individuals. We suggested that pan-India poliovirus vaccination program, capable of inducing herd immunity among communities for the last 30 years, may also influence the inception of natural course of heterologous immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nonetheless, this anamnestic recall is somewhat counterintuitive, as antibody generation against original antigens of SARS-CoV-2 will be subdued due to original antigenic sin.


Assuntos
Imunidade Coletiva , Microbiota , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/microbiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Disbiose/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Heteróloga , Imunidade Inata , Microbiota/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vacinação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown has been decreed in many countries worldwide. The impact of pregnancy as a severity risk factor is still debated, but strict lockdown measures have been recommended for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the seroprevalence and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a maternity ward in an area that has been significantly affected by the virus. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study at the Antoine Béclère Hospital maternity ward (Paris area, France) from May 4 (one week before the end of lockdown) to May 31, 2020 (three weeks after the end of lockdown). All patients admitted to the delivery room during this period were offered a SARS-CoV-2 serology test as well concomitant SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on one nasopharyngeal sample. RESULTS: A total of 249 women were included. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8%. The RT-PCR positive rate was 0.5%. 47.4% of the SARS-CoV-2-IgG-positive pregnant women never experienced any symptoms. A history of symptoms during the epidemic, such as fever (15.8%), myalgia (36.8%) and anosmia (31.6%), was suggestive of previous infection. CONCLUSIONS: Three weeks after the end of French lockdown, SARS-CoV-2 infections were scarce in our region. A very high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-IgG-negative pregnant women, which is comparable to that of the general population, must be taken into consideration in the event of a resurgence of the pandemic. The traces of a past active circulation of the virus in this fragile population during the spring wave should encourage public health authorities to take specific measures for this independent at-risk group, in order to reduce viral circulation in pregnant patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Parto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Paris/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Quarentena/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos
3.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020504, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110587

RESUMO

Background: We are communicating the results of investigating statistics on SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonias in Russia: percentage, mortality, cases with other viral agents, cases accompanied by secondary bacterial pneumonias, age breakdown, clinical course and outcome. Methods: We studied two sampling sets (Set 1 and Set 2). Set 1 consisted of results of testing 3382 assays of out-patients and hospital patients (5-88 years old) with community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia of yet undetermined aetiology. Set 2 contained results of 1204 assays of hospital patients (12-94 years old) with pneumonia and COVID-19 already diagnosed by molecular biological techniques in test laboratories. The results were collected in twelve Russian cities/provinces in time range 2 March - 5 May 2020. Assays were analysed for 10 bacterial, 15 viral, 2 fungal and 2 parasitic aetiological agents. Results: In Set 1, 4.35% of total pneumonia cases were related to SARS-CoV-2, with substantially larger proportion (18.75%) of deaths of pneumonia with COVID-19 diagnosed. However, studying Set 2, we revealed that 52.82% patients in it were also positive for different typical and atypical aetiological agents usually causing pneumonia. 433 COVID-19 patients (35.96%) were tested positive for various bacterial aetiological agents, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae infections accounting for the majority of secondary pneumonia cases. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2, a low-pathogenic virus itself, becomes exceptionally dangerous if secondary bacterial pneumonia attacks a COVID-19 patient as a complication. An essential part of the severest complications and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Russia in March-May 2020, may be attributed to secondary bacterial pneumonia and to a much less extent viral co-infections. The problem of hospital-acquired bacterial infection is exceptionally urgent in treating SARS-CoV-2 patients. The risk of secondary bacterial pneumonia and its further complications, should be given very serious attention in combating SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Viroses/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Viroses/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072084

RESUMO

During the last years probiotics gained the attention of clinicians for their use in the prevention and treatment of multiple diseases. Probiotics main mechanisms of action include enhanced mucosal barrier function, direct antagonism with pathogens, inhibition of bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium, boosting of the immune system and regulation of the central nervous system. It is accepted that there is a mutual communication between the gut microbiota and the liver, the so-called "microbiota-gut-liver axis" as well as a reciprocal communication between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system through the "microbiota-gut-brain axis." Moreover, recently the "gut-lung axis" in bacterial and viral infections is considerably discussed for bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota amplifies the alveolar macrophage activity having a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The importance of the normal human intestinal microbiota is recognized in the preservation of health. Disease states such as, infections, autoimmune conditions, allergy and other may occur when the intestinal balance is disturbed. Probiotics seem to be a promising approach to prevent and even reduce the symptoms of such clinical states as an adjuvant therapy by preserving the balance of the normal intestinal microbiota and improving the immune system. The present review states globally all different disorders in which probiotics can be given. To date, Stronger data in favor of their clinical use are provided in the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, allergy and respiratory infections. We hereby discuss the role of probiotics in the reduction of the respiratory infection symptoms and we focus on the possibility to use them as an adjuvant to the therapeutic approach of the pandemic COVID-19. Nevertheless, it is accepted by the scientific community that more clinical studies should be undertaken in large samples of diseased populations so that the assessment of their therapeutic potential provide us with strong evidence for their efficacy and safety in clinical use.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Aderência Bacteriana/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
6.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 34: 2058738420961304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103512

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a viral pandemic that primarily manifests with respiratory distress but may also lead to symptoms and signs associated with the gastrointestinal tract. It is characteristically associated with a hyper-immune response, also referred to as a 'cytokine storm'. Probiotics are living microorganisms that have been shown to have positive effects on immune response in man with some bacteria; some strains of Bifidobacteria, for example, possess especially potent immune modulating effects. These bacteria have the potential to ameliorate the 'cytokine storm' through a differential effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In the management of COVID-19 and other coronovirus-mediated illnesses, probiotic bacteria also have the potential to enhance vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia
7.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105830

RESUMO

Inflammation is a biological response to the activation of the immune system by various infectious or non-infectious agents, which may lead to tissue damage and various diseases. Gut commensal bacteria maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host and display a critical function in the homeostasis of the host immune system. Disturbance to the gut microbiota leads to immune dysfunction both locally and at distant sites, which causes inflammatory conditions not only in the intestine but also in the other organs such as lungs and brain, and may induce a disease state. Probiotics are well known to reinforce immunity and counteract inflammation by restoring symbiosis within the gut microbiota. As a result, probiotics protect against various diseases, including respiratory infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. A growing body of research supports the beneficial role of probiotics in lung and mental health through modulating the gut-lung and gut-brain axes. In the current paper, we discuss the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of viral respiratory infections, including the COVID-19 disease, as major public health crisis in 2020, and influenza virus infection, as well as treatment of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21617, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotic therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea. METHODS: The following electronic bibliographic databases will be searched to identify relevant studies from December 2019 to December 2020: MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wan-fang data, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, and other databases. The search results will not be restricted by language, all included articles were randomized controlled trial. Two independent researchers will conduct article retrieval, de-duplication, filtering, quality assessment, and data analysis through the Review Manager (V.5.3). Meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and/or descriptive analysis were performed on the included data. RESULTS: High-quality synthesis and/or descriptive analysis of current evidence will be provided from outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study will provide the evidence of whether probiotics is an effective and safe intervention for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020192657.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Elife ; 92020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930095

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes are established comorbidities for COVID-19. Adipose tissue demonstrates high expression of ACE2 which SARS- CoV-2 exploits to enter host cells. This makes adipose tissue a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 viruses and thus increases the integral viral load. Acute viral infection results in ACE2 downregulation. This relative deficiency can lead to disturbances in other systems controlled by ACE2, including the renin-angiotensin system. This will be further increased in the case of pre-conditions with already compromised functioning of these systems, such as in patients with obesity and diabetes. Here, we propose that interactions of virally-induced ACE2 deficiency with obesity and/or diabetes leads to a synergistic further impairment of endothelial and gut barrier function. The appearance of bacteria and/or their products in the lungs of obese and diabetic patients promotes interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens, resulting in a more severe lung injury in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Regulação para Baixo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Carga Viral
10.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13396-13404, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867467

RESUMO

Rapid, accurate, reliable, and risk-free tracking of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level is critical to achieve efficient source control and prevent outbreaks of microbial infectious diseases. For the first time, we report a promising approach for integrating the concepts of a remarkably large Stokes shift and dual-recognition into a single matrix to develop a pathogenic microorganism stimuli-responsive ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe with speed, cost efficiency, stability, ultrahigh specificity, and sensitivity. As a proof-of-concept, we selected the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the target analyte model, which easily bound to its recognition aptamer and the broad-spectrum glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van). To improve the specificity and short sample-to-answer time, we employed classic noncovalent π-π stacking interactions as a driving force to trigger the binding of Van and aptamer dual-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent Apt-Van-QDs to the surface of an unreported blue fluorescent π-rich electronic carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), achieving S. aureus stimuli-responsive ratiometric nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs. In the assembly of Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs, the blue CNPs (energy donor) and NIR Apt-Van-QDs (energy acceptor) became close to allow the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process, leading to a remarkable blue fluorescence quenching for the CNPs at ∼465 nm and a clear NIR fluorescence enhancement for Apt-Van-QDs at ∼725 nm. In the presence of S. aureus, the FRET process from CNPs to Apt-Van-QDs was disrupted, causing the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs to display a ratiometric fluorescent response to S. aureus, which exhibited a large Stokes shift of ∼260 nm and rapid sample-to-answer detection time (∼30.0 min). As expected, the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs showed an ultrahigh specificity for ratiometric fluorescence detection of S. aureus with a good detection limit of 1.0 CFU/mL, allowing the assay at single-cell level. Moreover, we also carried out the precise analysis of S. aureus in actual samples with acceptable results. We believe that this work offers new insight into the rational design of efficient ratiometric nanoprobes for rapid on-site accurate screening of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level in the early stages, especially during the worldwide spread of COVID-19 today.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
12.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109577, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846611

RESUMO

The year 2020 will be remembered by a never before seen, at least by our generation, global pandemic of COVID-19. While a desperate search for effective vaccines or drug therapies is on the run, nutritional strategies to promote immunity against SARS-CoV-2, are being discussed. Certain fermented foods and probiotics may deliver viable microbes with the potential to promote gut immunity. Prebiotics, on their side, may enhance gut immunity by selectively stimulating certain resident microbes in the gut. Different levels of evidence support the use of fermented foods, probiotics and prebiotics to promote gut and lungs immunity. Without being a promise of efficacy against COVID-19, incorporating them into the diet may help to low down gut inflammation and to enhance mucosal immunity, to possibly better face the infection by contributing to diminishing the severity or the duration of infection episodes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Inflamação , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815458

RESUMO

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fungemia/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Urinárias/patologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fungemia/microbiologia , Fungemia/mortalidade , Fungemia/virologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/virologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , Infecções Urinárias/virologia
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7777-7785, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780290

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, is the main pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects much more people, especially the elder population, around the world than other coronavirus, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is challenging current global public health system. Beyond the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, microbial coinfection plays an important role in the occurrence and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the difficulties of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of COVID-19, and even increasing the disease symptom and mortality. We summarize the coinfection of virus, bacteria and fungi with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on COVID-19, the reasons of coinfection, and the diagnosis to emphasize the importance of microbial coinfection in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Microbial coinfection is a nonnegligible factor in COVID-19. • Microbial coinfection exacerbates the processes of the occurrence, development and prognosis of COVID-19, and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis and treatment. • Different virus, bacteria, and fungi contributed to the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/microbiologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/microbiologia , Viroses/virologia
16.
Virology ; 548: 200-212, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763491

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota is crucial to intestinal homeostasis. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is high pathogenic to intestines, causing diarrhea, even death in piglets. To investigate the detailed relationship between PEDV infection and intestinal microbiota, the composition and distribution of intestinal microbiota from pigs were first analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the composition and distribution of microbes in different intestinal segments were quite similar between 1-week-old and 2-week-old piglets but different from 4-week-old (weaned) piglets. Then piglets at different ages were inoculated with PEDV. The results showed that the 1-week-old piglets exhibited the most severe pathogenicity comparing to the other age groups. Further investigations indicated that Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Lactococcus in the intestinal microbiota of piglets were significantly changed by PEDV infection. These results strengthen our understanding of viruses influencing intestinal microbes and remind us of the potential association between PEDV and intestinal microbes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 52(12): 902-907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature on the association of SARS-CoV-2 and other chronic conditions, such as noncommunicable diseases. However, little is known about the impact of coinfection with tuberculosis. We aimed to compare the risk of death and recovery, as well as time-to-death and time-to-recovery, in COVID-19 patients with and without tuberculosis. METHODS: We created a 4:1 propensity score matched sample of COVID-19 patients without and with tuberculosis, using COVID-19 surveillance data in the Philippines. We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis of matched COVID-19 patients as of May 17, 2020, following them until June 15, 2020. The primary analysis estimated the risk ratios of death and recovery in patients with and without tuberculosis. Kaplan-Meier curves described time-to-death and time-to-recovery stratified by tuberculosis status, and differences in survival were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis was 2.17 times higher than in those without (95% CI: 1.40-3.37). The risk of recovery in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis was 25% lower than in those without (RR = 0.75,05% CI 0.63-0.91). Similarly, time-to-death was significantly shorter (p = .0031) and time-to-recovery significantly longer in patients with tuberculosis (p = .0046). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that coinfection with tuberculosis increased morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our findings highlight the need to prioritize routine and testing services for tuberculosis, although health systems are disrupted by the heavy burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/terapia
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1597-1599, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815513

RESUMO

COVID-19, designated as SARS-CoV-2, has caused millions of infections worldwide, including in patients with concomitant infections. Here, we report two unusual cases of patients with triple infections of SARS-CoV-2, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and HIV. Both cases were confirmed through microbiological and immunological studies. The acute respiratory phase in both patients was treated with supplemental oxygen. Antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies were started simultaneously. In 2 weeks, both patients demonstrated clinical improvement and recovery from COVID-19. Our findings suggest that even in cases of triple infection, clinical management together with respiratory therapy contributes to patient survival.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/virologia
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1593-1596, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815515

RESUMO

Coinfection of SARS-CoV-2/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in patients with HIV/AIDS has not been previously reported. Here, we present two cases of coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and MTB in patients with HIV. The first case is a 39-year-old patient who was admitted with a 7-day history of fever, myalgia, headache, and cough. The second patient is a 43-year-old man who had a 1-month history of cough with hemoptoic sputum, evolving to mild respiratory distress in the last 7 days. Both patients already had pulmonary tuberculosis and subsequently developed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 2020 pandemic. Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment may have been a factor in the clinical worsening of the patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Tosse/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/imunologia , Tosse/virologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/virologia
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