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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e36-e39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044434

RESUMO

The clinical presentation of human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in children varies strongly. We show that children with an HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection more frequently had respiratory syncytial virus codetected and higher abundance of Haemophilus influenzae/haemolyticus than asymptomatic HCoV carriers as well as children with a non-HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. Viral and bacterial cooccurrence may drive symptomatology of HCoV-associated infections including coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Haemophilus/classificação , Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e12-e17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a significant cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children; however, the role of HCoVs in ARI among hospitalized children in the Middle East is not well defined. METHODS: Children under 2 years admitted with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 in Amman, Jordan. Nasal/throat swabs were collected and stored for testing. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected through parent/guardian interviews and medical chart abstractions. Prior stored specimens were tested for HCoVs (HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63) by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 3168 children enrolled, 6.7% were HCoVs-positive. Among HCoV-positive children, the median age was 3.8 (1.9-8.4) months, 59% were male, 14% were premature, 11% had underlying medical conditions and 76% had viral-codetection. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, fever, wheezing and shortness of breath. HCoVs were detected year-round, peaking in winter-spring months. Overall, 56%, 22%, 13% and 6% were OC43, NL63, HKU1 and 229E, respectively. There was no difference in disease severity between the species, except higher intensive care unit admission frequency in NL63-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: HCoVs were detected in around 7% of children enrolled in our study. Despite HCoV detection in children with ARI with highest peaks in respiratory seasons, the actual burden and pathogenic role of HCoVs in ARI merits further evaluation given the high frequency of viral codetection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
3.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(2): 129-138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063674

RESUMO

Since its first report in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly emerged as a pandemic affecting nearly all countries worldwide. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, the need to identify genetic risk factors for susceptibility to this serious illness has emerged. Host genetic factors, along with other risk factors may help determine susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. It is hypothesized that the ACE2 gene, encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is a genetic risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and is required by the virus to enter cells. Together with ACE2, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) also play an important role in disease severity. Evaluating the role of genetic variants in determining the direction of respiratory infections will help identify potential drug target candidates for further study in COVID-19 patients. We have summarized the latest reports demonstrating that ACE2 variants, their expression, and epigenetic factors may influence an individual's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Variação Genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 70-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestation and disease duration in young versus elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 187 patients (87 elderly and 100 young patients) with confirmed COVID-19. The clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) extent as defined by a score were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The numbers of asymptomatic cases and severe cases were significantly higher in the elderly group (elderly group vs. young group; asymptomatic cases, 31 [35.6%] vs. 10 [10%], p < 0.0001; severe cases, 25 [28.7%] vs. 8 [8.0%], p = 0.0002). The proportion of asymptomatic patients and severe patients increased across the 10-year age groups. There was no significant difference in the total CT score and number of abnormal cases. A significant positive correlation between the disease duration and patient age was observed in asymptomatic patients (ρ = 0.4570, 95% CI 0.1198-0.6491, p = 0.0034). CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of lung involvement did not have a significant difference between the young and elderly patients, elderly patients were more likely to have severe clinical manifestations. Elderly patients were also more likely to be asymptomatic and a source of COVID-19 viral shedding.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Virology ; 552: 43-51, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059319

RESUMO

This study focused on intestinal restitution including phenotype switching of absorptive enterocytes and the abundance of different enterocyte subtypes in weaned pigs after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. At 10 days post-PEDV-inoculation, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both jejunum and ileum had restored, and the PEDV antigen was not detectable. However, enterocytes at the villus tips revealed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the jejunum in which E-cadherin expression decreased while expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail increased. Additionally, there was reduced expression of actin in microvilli and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in tight junctions. Moreover, the protein concentration of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1), which mediates EMT and cytoskeleton alteration, was increased. We also found a decreased number of Peyer's patch M cells in the ileum. These results reveal incomplete restitution of enterocytes in the jejunum and potentially impaired immune surveillance in the ileum after PEDV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Enterócitos/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/patologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/patologia , Microvilosidades/patologia , Suínos , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Desmame
6.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266124

RESUMO

Within the past two decades, three zoonotic betacoronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks causing severe respiratory disease in humans. Of these, Middle East respiratory s yndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the only zoonotic coronavirus that is known to consistently result in frequent zoonotic spillover events from the proximate reservoir host-the dromedary camel. A comprehensive understanding of infection in dromedaries is critical to informing public health recommendations and implementing intervention strategies to mitigate spillover events. Experimental models of reservoir disease are absolutely critical in understanding the pathogenesis and transmission, and are key to testing potential dromedary vaccines against MERS-CoV. In this review, we describe experimental infections of dromedary camels as well as additional camelid models used to further understand the camel's role in MERS-CoV spillover to humans.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928572, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311429

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third (following SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV) zoonotic coronavirus that has crossed the species barrier in the 21st century, resulting in the development of serious human infection. The punishing effect of the recent outbreak of pandemic disease termed COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 impelled us to gather the facts about the nature of coronaviruses. First, we introduce the basic information about coronavirus taxonomy, structure, and replication process to create the basis for more advanced consideration. In the following part of this review, we focused on interactions between the virus and the receptor on the host cell, as this stage is the critical process determining the species and tissue tropism, as well as clinical course of infection. We also illuminate the molecular basis of the strategy used by coronaviruses to cross the species barrier. We give special attention to the cellular receptor's interaction with S protein of different CoVs (dipeptidyl peptidase IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), as well as the cellular proteases involved in proteolysis of this protein. These factors determine the virus entry and replication; thus, even fine quantitative or qualitative differences in their expression may crucially affect outcomes of infection. Understanding virus biology and characterization of the host factors involved in coronavirus transmission and pathogenesis may offer novel options for development of efficient therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , /patogenicidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/patologia
8.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 227-232, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145596

RESUMO

La enfermedad producida por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se identificó por primera vez en diciembre de 2019 en la ciudad de Wuhan, en la República Popular China, y en pocos meses se convirtió en una pandemia. Desde el comienzo ha sido un desafío mundial, que amenazó la salud pública y obligó a tomar medidas estrictas de aislamiento social. Como consecuencia de la emergencia sanitaria se ha producido una reducción importante de la actividad asistencial, que puso en riesgo el acceso y la continuidad de los métodos anticonceptivos, exponiendo a mujeres a embarazos no intencionales. Los derechos sexuales y reproductivos resultan esenciales y deben garantizarse siempre. (AU)


The disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was identified for the first time in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, in the People's Republic of China, and within a few months it became a pandemic. From the beginning, it has been a global challenge, threatening public health, having to take strict measures of social isolation. As a consequence of the health emergency, there has been a significant reduction in healthcare activity, putting access and continuity of contraceptive methods at risk, exposing women to unintended pregnancies. Sexual and reproductive rights are essential and must always be guaranteed. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Contracepção Hormonal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Gravidez não Desejada , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais/classificação , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233715

RESUMO

The pulmonary endothelium is a metabolically active continuous monolayer of squamous endothelial cells that internally lines blood vessels and mediates key processes involved in lung homoeostasis. Many of these processes are disrupted in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is marked among others by diffuse endothelial injury, intense activation of the coagulation system and increased capillary permeability. Most commonly occurring in the setting of sepsis, ARDS is a devastating illness, associated with increased morbidity and mortality and no effective pharmacological treatment. Endothelial cell damage has an important role in the pathogenesis of ARDS and several biomarkers of endothelial damage have been tested in determining prognosis. By further understanding the endothelial pathobiology, development of endothelial-specific therapeutics might arise. In this review, we will discuss the underlying pathology of endothelial dysfunction leading to ARDS and emerging therapies. Furthermore, we will present a brief overview demonstrating that endotheliopathy is an important feature of hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , /patologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea , Permeabilidade Capilar , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , /etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166287

RESUMO

Fatigue is a common symptom in those presenting with symptomatic COVID-19 infection. However, it is unknown if COVID-19 results in persistent fatigue in those recovered from acute infection. We examined the prevalence of fatigue in individuals recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 illness using the Chalder Fatigue Score (CFQ-11). We further examined potential predictors of fatigue following COVID-19 infection, evaluating indicators of COVID-19 severity, markers of peripheral immune activation and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Of 128 participants (49.5 ± 15 years; 54% female), more than half reported persistent fatigue (67/128; 52.3%) at median of 10 weeks after initial COVID-19 symptoms. There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue following COVID-19. Additionally, there was no association between routine laboratory markers of inflammation and cell turnover (leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein) or pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6 or sCD25) and fatigue post COVID-19. Female gender and those with a pre-existing diagnosis of depression/anxiety were over-represented in those with fatigue. Our findings demonstrate a significant burden of post-viral fatigue in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. This study highlights the importance of assessing those recovering from COVID-19 for symptoms of severe fatigue, irrespective of severity of initial illness, and may identify a group worthy of further study and early intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166301

RESUMO

In March of this year, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, and it continues to threaten public health. This global health crisis imposes limitations on daily movements, which have deteriorated every sector in our society. Understanding public reactions to the virus and the non-pharmaceutical interventions should be of great help to fight COVID-19 in a strategic way. We aim to provide tangible evidence of the human mobility trends by comparing the day-by-day variations across the U.S. from January 2020 to early April 2020. Large-scale public mobility at an aggregated level is observed by leveraging mobile device location data and the measures related to social distancing. Our study captures spatial and temporal heterogeneity as well as the sociodemographic variations and teleworking trends regarding the pandemic propagation and the non-pharmaceutical mobility interventions. All metrics adapted capture decreased public movements after the national emergency declaration. The population staying home has increased in all states before the stay-at-home mandates implemented and becomes more stable after the order with a smaller range of fluctuation. The public had been taking active responses, voluntarily staying home more, to the in-state confirmed cases while the stay-at-home orders stabilize the variations. As the estimated teleworking rates also continue to incline throughout the study period, the teleworking trend can be another driving factor for the growing stay-at-home population. We confirm that there exists overall mobility heterogeneity between the income or population density groups. The study suggests that public mobility trends are in line with the government message urging to stay home. We anticipate our data-driven analysis offers integrated perspectives and serves as evidence to raise public awareness and, consequently, reinforce the importance of social distancing while assisting policymakers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Movimento , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166336

RESUMO

Evidence-based models may assist Mexican government officials and health authorities in determining the safest plans to respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the most-affected region of the country, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. This study aims to present the potential impacts of COVID-19 in this region and to model possible benefits of mitigation efforts. The COVID-19 Hospital Impact Model for Epidemics was used to estimate the probable evolution of COVID-19 in three scenarios: (i) no social distancing, (ii) social distancing in place at 50% effectiveness, and (iii) social distancing in place at 60% effectiveness. Projections of the number of inpatient hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and patients requiring ventilators were made for each scenario. Using the model described, it was predicted that peak case volume at 0% mitigation was to occur on April 30, 2020 at 11,553,566 infected individuals. Peak case volume at 50% mitigation was predicted to occur on June 1, 2020 with 5,970,093 infected individuals and on June 21, 2020 for 60% mitigation with 4,128,574 infected individuals. Occupancy rates in hospitals during peak periods at 0%, 50%, and 60% mitigation would be 875.9%, 322.8%, and 203.5%, respectively, when all inpatient beds are included. Under these scenarios, peak daily hospital admissions would be 40,438, 13,820, and 8,650. Additionally, 60% mitigation would result in a decrease in peak intensive care beds from 94,706 to 23,116 beds and a decrease in peak ventilator need from 67,889 to 17,087 units. Mitigating the spread of COVID-19 through social distancing could have a dramatic impact on reducing the number of infected people and minimize hospital overcrowding. These evidence-based models may enable careful resource utilization and encourage targeted public health responses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , México , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We propose the protocol described below to perform an individual-patient data (IPD) network meta-analysis (NMA) in order to evaluate the efficacies of different antiviral drugs to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will search the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI and VIP databases from their inceptions through July 2020. There will be no restrictions on language, publication year, or publication type. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies with antiviral treatments for COVID-19 will be considered. Two reviewers will independently select studies and collect data. Risk-of-bias assessments will be completed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias scale. Primary outcome will be the COVID-19 recovery rate. We will combine aggregated data from IPD with the NMA in a single model, compare the effects of different antiviral drugs on patient-relevant efficacy, and rank the results to decide which is the most effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020167038.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak began in China and quickly spread throughout the world and was reclassified as a pandemic in March 2020. The first case of COVID-19 was declared in Togo on March 5. Two months later, few data were available to describe the circulation of the new coronavirus in the country. OBJECTIVE: This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk populations in Lomé. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 23, 2020, to May 8, 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: health care, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swabs for direct detection through real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and blood for antibody detection by serological tests. The overall prevalence (current and past) of infection was defined by positivity for both tests. RESULTS: A total of 955 participants with a median age of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included, and 71.6% (n = 684) were men. Approximately 22.1% (n = 212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n = 196) were from the police sector, and 38.7% (n = 370) were from the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR test result at the time of recruitment, and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence of 1.6% (n = 15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Togo/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166991

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public emergency and a worldwide pandemic. However, the information on the risk factors associated with the mortality of COVID-19 and of their prognostic potential is limited. In this retrospective study, the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome data were collected and analyzed from 676 COVID-19 patients stratified into 140 non-survivors and 536 survivors. We found that the levels of Dimerized plasmin fragment D (D-dimer), C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly higher in non-survivals on admission (non-survivors vs. survivors: D-Dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L, 83.2% vs. 44.9%, P<0.01; CRP ≥10 mg/L, 50.4% vs. 6.0%, P<0.01; LDH ≥ 250 U/L, 73.8% vs. 20.1%, P<0.01; PCT ≥ 0.5 ng/ml, 27.7% vs. 1.8%, P<0.01). Moreover, dynamic tracking showed D-dimer kept increasing in non-survivors, while CRP, LDH and PCT remained relatively stable after admission. D-dimer has the highest C-index to predict in-hospital mortality, and patients with D-dimer levels ≥0.5 mg/L had a higher incidence of mortality (Hazard Ratio: 4.39, P<0.01). Our study suggested D-dimer could be a potent marker to predict the mortality of COVID-19, which may be helpful for the management of patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 95, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168072

RESUMO

Genomic studies of patients with COVID-19, or exposed to it, are underway to delineate host factors associated with variability in susceptibility, infectivity, and disease severity. Here, we highlight the ethical implications-both potential benefits and harms-of genomics for clinical practice and public health in the era of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Genômica/ética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública/métodos
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(43): e388, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused disruptions to healthcare systems and endangered the control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). We investigated the nationwide effects of COVID-19 on the national Public-Private Mix (PPM) TB control project in Korea, using monitoring indicators from the Korean PPM monitoring database. METHODS: The Korean PPM monitoring database includes data from patients registered at PPM hospitals throughout the country. Data of six monitoring indicators for active TB cases updated between July 2019 and June 2020 were collected. The data of each cohort throughout the country and in Daegu-Gyeongbuk, Seoul Metropolitan Area, and Jeonnam-Jeonbuk were collated to provide nationwide data. The data were compared using the χ² test for trend to evaluate quarterly trends of each monitoring indicator at the national level and in the prespecified regions. RESULTS: Test coverages of sputum smear (P = 0.622) and culture (P = 0.815), drug susceptibility test (P = 0.750), and adherence rate to initial standard treatment (P = 0.901) at the national level were not significantly different during the study period. The rate of loss to follow-up among TB cases at the national level was not significantly different (P = 0.088); however, the treatment success rate among the smear-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB cohort at the national level significantly decreased, from 90.6% to 84.1% (P < 0.001). Treatment success rate in the Seoul metropolitan area also significantly decreased during the study period, from 89.4% to 84.5% (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that initial TB management during the COVID-19 pandemic was properly administered under the PPM project in Korea. However, our study cannot confirm or conclude a decreased treatment success rate after the COVID-19 pandemic due to limited data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Assistência à Saúde , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170884

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virion responsible for the current world-wide pandemic COVID-19 has a characteristic Spike protein (S) on its surface that embellishes both a prefusion state and fusion state. The prefusion Spike protein (S) is a large trimeric protein where each protomer may be in a so-called Up state or Down state, depending on the configuration of its receptor binding domain (RBD) within its distal, prefusion S1 domain. The Up state is believed to allow binding of the virion to ACE-2 receptors on human epithelial cells, whereas the Down state is believed to be relatively inactive or reduced in its binding behavior. We have performed detailed all-atom, dominant energy landscape mappings for noncovalent interactions (charge, partial charge, and van der Waals) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in its static prefusion state based on two recent and independent experimental structure publications. We included both interchain interactions and intrachain (domain) interactions in our mappings in order to determine any telling differences (different so-called "glue" points) between residues in the Up and Down state protomers. The S2 proximal, fusion domain demonstrated no appreciable energetic differences between Up and Down protomers, including interchain as well as each protomer's intrachain, S1-S2 interactions. However, the S1 domain interactions across neighboring protomers, which include the RBD-NTD cross chain interactions, showed significant energetic differences between Up-Down and Down-Down neighboring protomers. This included, for example, a key RBD residue ARG357 in the Up-Down interaction and a three residue sequence ALA520-PRO521-ALA522, associated with a turn structure in the RBD of the Up state protomer, acting as a stabilizing interaction with the NTD of its neighbor protomer. Additionally, our intra chain dominant energy mappings within each protomer, identified a significant "glue" point or possible "latch" for the Down state protomer between the S1 subdomain, SD1, and the RBD domain of the same protomer that was completely missing in the Up state protomer analysis. Ironically, this dominant energetic interaction in the Down state protomer involved the backbone atoms of the same three residue sequence ALA520-PRO521-ALA522 of the RBD with the amino acid R-group of GLN564 in the SD1 domain. Thus, this same three residue sequence acts as a stabilizer of the RBD in the Up conformation through its interactions with its neighboring NTD chain and a kind of latch in the Down state conformation through its interactions with its own SD1 domain. The dominant interaction energy residues identified here are also conserved across reported variations of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the closely related virions SARS-Cov and the bat corona virus RatG13. We conducted preliminary molecular dynamics simulations across 0.1 µ seconds to see if this latch provided structural stability and indeed found that a single point mutation (Q564G) resulted in the latch releasing transforming the protomer from the Down to the Up state conformation. Full trimeric Spike protein studies of the same mutation across all protomers, however, did not exhibit latch release demonstrating the critical importance of interchain interactions across the S1 domain, including RBD-NTD neighboring chain interactions. Therapies aimed at disrupting these noncovalent interactions could be a viable route for the physico-chemical mitigation of this deadly virion.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mutação Puntual , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Termodinâmica
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241957, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170889

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic raises concerns worldwide, leading to serious health, economic, and social challenges. The rapid spread of the virus at a global scale highlights the need for a more harmonized, less privacy-concerning, easily accessible approach to monitoring the human mobility that has proven to be associated with viral transmission. In this study, we analyzed over 580 million tweets worldwide to see how global collaborative efforts in reducing human mobility are reflected from the user-generated information at the global, country, and U.S. state scale. Considering the multifaceted nature of mobility, we propose two types of distance: the single-day distance and the cross-day distance. To quantify the responsiveness in certain geographic regions, we further propose a mobility-based responsive index (MRI) that captures the overall degree of mobility changes within a time window. The results suggest that mobility patterns obtained from Twitter data are amenable to quantitatively reflect the mobility dynamics. Globally, the proposed two distances had greatly deviated from their baselines after March 11, 2020, when WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. The considerably less periodicity after the declaration suggests that the protection measures have obviously affected people's travel routines. The country scale comparisons reveal the discrepancies in responsiveness, evidenced by the contrasting mobility patterns in different epidemic phases. We find that the triggers of mobility changes correspond well with the national announcements of mitigation measures, proving that Twitter-based mobility implies the effectiveness of those measures. In the U.S., the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on mobility is distinct. However, the impacts vary substantially among states.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Movimento , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170902

RESUMO

In late December 2019, an emerging viral infection COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China, and became a global pandemic. Characterization of the genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial in following and evaluating it spread across countries. In this study, we collected and analyzed 3,067 SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from 55 countries during the first three months after the onset of this virus. Using comparative genomics analysis, we traced the profiles of the whole-genome mutations and compared the frequency of each mutation in the studied population. The accumulation of mutations during the epidemic period with their geographic locations was also monitored. The results showed 782 variants sites, of which 512 (65.47%) had a non-synonymous effect. Frequencies of mutated alleles revealed the presence of 68 recurrent mutations, including ten hotspot non-synonymous mutations with a prevalence higher than 0.10 in this population and distributed in six SARS-CoV-2 genes. The distribution of these recurrent mutations on the world map revealed that certain genotypes are specific to geographic locations. We also identified co-occurring mutations resulting in the presence of several haplotypes. Moreover, evolution over time has shown a mechanism of mutation co-accumulation which might affect the severity and spread of the SARS-CoV-2. The phylogentic analysis identified two major Clades C1 and C2 harboring mutations L3606F and G614D, respectively and both emerging for the first time in China. On the other hand, analysis of the selective pressure revealed the presence of negatively selected residues that could be taken into considerations as therapeutic targets. We have also created an inclusive unified database (http://covid-19.medbiotech.ma) that lists all of the genetic variants of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes found in this study with phylogeographic analysis around the world.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Poliproteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
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