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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
2.
Ars pharm ; 61(2): 63-79, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188101

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: En diciembre de 2019, se detectaron los primeros casos de enfermedad respiratoria causada por un coronavirus emergente, al que se denominó SARS-CoV-2, que en los primeros meses de 2020 se ha extendido por todo el mundo con características de pandemia. MÉTODO: Se examinaron las publicaciones más relevantes en relación con los objetivos de la revisión. RESULTADOS: La enfermedad, conocida como COVID-19, cursa con tos, fiebre y dificultad respiratoria. Las formas más graves, que afectan principalmente a personas de edad avanzada y con determinadas comorbilidades, se manifiestan por afectación de la función respiratoria, que requiere ventilación mecánica, y síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, que puede conducir a un choque séptico con fallo multiorgánico, y altas tasas de mortalidad. En esta revisión se examina el estado actual de conocimientos sobre las características y origen del SARS-CoV-2, su replicación, y la patogénesis, clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Las características del SARS-CoV-2 y la clínica de COVID-19 son bien conocidas. La PCR es la técnica de referencia para el diagnóstico de laboratorio; se dispone de ensayos para detección de antígenos y de anticuerpos, con margen de optimización. Los protocolos de tratamiento incluyen la corrección de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y administración de agentes antivirales. Existen vacunas en desarrollo


INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, the first cases of respiratory disease caused by an emerging coronavirus were detected. The causative agento f the outbreak was called SARS-CoV-2, and in the first months of 2020 it spread throughout the world as a pandemic. METHOD: The most relevant publications concerned with the aims of the review were examined. RESULTS: The disease, known as COVID-19. Patients show cough, fever, and respiratory distress. The most severe forms, mainly affecting the elderly and associated with various comorbidities, are manifested by impaired respiratory function, requiring mechanical ventilation, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which can lead to septic shock with multi-organ failure and high mortality rates. This review examines the current state of knowledge about the characteristics and origin of SARS-CoV-2, its replication, and the pathogenesis, clinical, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are well known. PCR is the reference technique for laboratory diagnosis; assays for the detection of antigens and antibodies are available, with optimization possibilities. Treatment protocols include attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and administration of antiviral agents. There are vaccines in development


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47374

RESUMO

Este mapa apresenta uma visão geral da evidência sobre a aplicação das MTCI com base na caracterização de 125 estudos de revisão e estudos clínicos controlados, distribuídos em uma matriz com 57 intervenções sobre uma série de desfechos clínicos agrupados em 3 categorias: Melhora da imunidade/efeito antiviral para vírus respiratórios; Manejo complementar dos sintomas de infecções respiratórias; e Contribuições à Saúde Mental/Emocional em situações de trauma. As intervenções representam especialmente medicamentos fitoterápicos, medicina e terapias tradicionais chinesas, terapias mente-corpo como meditação e yoga, probióticos e outros suplementos nutricionais além de formulações dinamizadas da homeopatia. Este mapa presenta una visión general sobre posibles contribuciones de las MTCI a varias dimensiones de la pandemia por COVID-19. Dichas contribuciones se organizaron en tres categorías: Mejora de la inmunidad y efecto antiviral ante virus respiratorios; tratamiento complementario de los síntomas de las infecciones respiratorias; y salud mental en situaciones de crisis. Para el mapa se caracterizaron 127 estudios de revisión y estudios clínicos controlados, distribuidos en una matriz con 62 intervenciones para las tres categorías mencionadas. Las intervenciones representan especialmente medicinas herbales/fitoterapia, Medicina Tradicional China, terapias de cuerpo-mente como la meditación y el yoga, probióticos y otros suplementos nutricionales además de formulaciones de homeopatía. This map presents an overview of possible TCIM contributions to various dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic. These contributions are organized into three categories: enhanced immunity / antiviral effect against respiratory viruses; complementary treatment of respiratory infections’ symptoms; and mental health in crisis situations. For the map, 127 systematic reviews and controlled clinical studies were characterized, distributed in a matrix with 62 interventions for the three mentioned categories. The interventions especially represent medicinal herbs, Traditional Chinese Medicine, mind-body therapies such as meditation and yoga, probiotics and other nutritional supplements, and homeopathic formulations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(19): e189, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When an emergency-care patient is diagnosed with an emerging infectious disease, hospitals in Korea may temporarily close their emergency departments (EDs) to prevent nosocomial transmission. Since February 2020, multiple, consecutive ED closures have occurred due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis in Daegu. However, sudden ED closures are in contravention of laws for the provision of emergency medical care that enable the public to avail prompt, appropriate, and 24-hour emergency medical care. Therefore, this study ascertained the vulnerability of the ED at tertiary hospitals in Daegu with regard to the current standards. A revised triage and surveillance protocol has been proposed to tackle the current crisis. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted at 6 level 1 or 2 EDs in a metropolitan city where ED closure due to COVID-19 occurred from February 18 to March 26, 2020. The present status of ED closure and patient characteristics and findings from chest radiography and laboratory investigations were assessed. Based on the experience from repeated ED closures and the modified systems that are currently used in EDs, revised triage and surveillance protocols have been developed and proposed. RESULTS: During the study period, 6 level 1 or 2 emergency rooms included in the study were shut down 27 times for 769 hours. Thirty-one confirmed COVID-19 cases, of whom 7 died, were associated with the incidence of ED closure. Typical patient presentation with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 was seen in less than 50% of patients, whereas abnormal findings on chest imaging investigations were detected in 93.5% of the study population. The chest radiography facility, resuscitation rooms, and triage area were moved to locations outside the ED, and a new surveillance protocol was applied to determine the factors warranting quarantine, including symptoms, chest radiographic findings, and exposure to a source of infection. The incidence of ED closures decreased after the implementation of the revised triage and surveillance protocols. CONCLUSION: Triage screening by emergency physicians and surveillance protocols with an externally located chest imaging facility were effective in the early isolation of COVID-19 patients. In future outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, efforts should be focused toward the provision of continued ED treatment with the implementation of revised triage and surveillance protocols.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Triagem
6.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(5): 345-50, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447846

RESUMO

The situation of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still severe at present. In order to better fight against the epidemic and give full play to the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine, we explored the feasibility of acupuncture therapy in the intervention of COVID-19 through analyzing the relevant literature in both ancient and modern time. Additionally, we analyzed the intervention scheme of acupuncture for COVID-19 developed by China Association of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and supplemented the protocol of the intervention with auricular acupuncture. It was proposed that the advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion should be fully displayed while Chinese herbal medications have been applied in the treatment of COVID-19. During treatment, acupuncture physicians should be rationally allocated to a certain proportion so as to adequately utilize comprehensive therapeutic approaches and guarantee people's safety to the greatest extent. Eventually, the clinical therapeutic effect may be improved, the national resources be economized on and the COVID-19 epidemic be conquered early.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , China , Estudos de Viabilidade , Pandemias
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20207, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384516

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the beta-coronaviridae family. This virus is known to cause severe bilateral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which can lead to difficulty breathing requiring mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old female with a history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia who presented as a transfer to our hospital facility with worsening fevers, cough, and respiratory distress. DIAGNOSIS: Chest X-rays revealed bilateral infiltrates worse at the lung bases and CT scan of the chest showed bilateral ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19. While our testing revealed a negative COVID-19 result at our institution, the result at a previous hospital returned a positive result. INTERVENTIONS: She was being treated aggressively in the intensive care unit with high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, hydroxychloroquine, and anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody. She also received a loading dose of remdesivir however was unable to complete the course due to organ failure and requirement of vasopressors for hemodynamic stability. OUTCOMES: She remained critically ill and was eventually placed on comfort care as per the family's wishes and passed away. LESSONS: With a rapidly growing death rate and more than 200,000 confirmed cases worldwide, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic and major hit to our healthcare systems. While several companies have already begun vaccine trials and healthcare facilities have been using a wide-range of medications to treat the virus and symptoms, there is not yet an approved medication regimen for COVID-19 infections. The alarming increase in cases per day adds additional pressure to find a cure and decrease the global health burden and mortality rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 205, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384917

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presently become a rapidly spreading and devastating global pandemic. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) may serve as life-saving rescue therapy for refractory respiratory failure in the setting of acute respiratory compromise such as that induced by SARS-CoV-2. While still little is known on the true efficacy of ECMO in this setting, the natural resemblance of seasonal influenza's characteristics with respect to acute onset, initial symptoms, and some complications prompt to ECMO implantation in most severe, pulmonary decompensated patients. The present review summarizes the evidence on ECMO management of severe ARDS in light of recent COVID-19 pandemic, at the same time focusing on differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and ECMO in terms of hematological and inflammatory interplay when these two settings merge.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Trombocitopenia
15.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 108, 2020 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading virus infection that has quickly caused extensive burden to individual, families, countries, and the globe. No intervention has yet been proven effective for the treatment of COVID-19. Some randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of different drugs have been published, and more are currently underway. There is an urgent need for a living, dynamic systematic review that continuously evaluates the beneficial and harmful effects of all available interventions for COVID-19. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a living systematic review based on searches of major medical databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and clinical trial registries from their inception onwards to identify relevant randomized clinical trials. We will update the literature search once a week to continuously assess if new evidence is available. Two review authors will independently extract data and perform risk of bias assessment. We will include randomized clinical trials comparing any intervention for the treatment of COVID-19 (e.g., pharmacological interventions, fluid therapy, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, or similar interventions) with any comparator (e.g., an "active" comparator, standard care, placebo, no intervention, or "active placebo") for participants in all age groups with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Primary outcomes will be all-cause mortality and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes will be admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, quality of life, and non-serious adverse events. The living systematic review will include aggregate data meta-analyses, Trial Sequential Analyses, network meta-analysis, and individual patient data meta-analyses. Risk of bias will be assessed with domains, an eight-step procedure will be used to assess if the thresholds for clinical significance are crossed, and the certainty of the evidence will be assessed by Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has become a pandemic with substantial mortality. A living systematic review evaluating the beneficial and harmful effects of pharmacological and other interventions is urgently needed. This review will continuously inform best practice in treatment and clinical research of this highly prevalent disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178787.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Metanálise em Rede , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 32(6): 347-353, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389318

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic presents a substantial obstacle to cancer patient care. Data from China as well as risk models suppose that cancer patients, particularly those on active, immunosuppressive therapies are at higher risks of severe infection from the illness. In addition, staff illness and restructuring of services to deal with the crisis will inevitably place treatment capacities under significant strain. These guidelines aim to expand on those provided by NHS England regarding cancer care during the coronavirus pandemic by examining the known literature and provide guidance in managing patients with urothelial and rarer urinary tract cancers. In particular, they address the estimated risk and benefits of standard treatments and consider the alternatives in the current situation. As a result, it is recommended that this guidance will help form a framework for shared decision making with patients. Moreover, they do not advise a one-size-fits-all approach but recommend continual assessment of the situation with discussion within and between centres.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(5): 457-61, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394650

RESUMO

On the base of the idea of traditional Chinese medicine as "disease prevention", the mode and the protocol of the moxibustion intervention for the group under quarantine after close contact with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were explored. The group under quarantine after close contact with COVID-19 was taken as the subjects. By the non-contact physician-patient communication network platform co-developed by China Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Hunan Provincial Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Data Center of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences and Yuge Medicine Company, an exploratory randomized controlled trial was designed. A total of 100 cases were included and randomized into a moxibustion group and a conventional intervention group, 50 cases in each one. In the moxibustion group, moxibustion intervention was used. In the conventional intervention group, the conventional observation was adopted without moxibusiton intervention applied. The outcomes included the symptoms changes, e.g. anxiety, emotional disturbance, fatigue, headache and diarrhea, as well as whether quarantine release and the case confirmed or not, etc. The results were evaluated before intervention, in 14 days of intervention and 2 weeks after intervention separately. In this research, on the base of internet plus technology and with the internet communication platform adopted, through mobile phone WeChat App, it was to implement the subject screen, the random allocation and the instruction of moxibustion intervention as well as the quality control of patient's diary and data collection. It is anticipated that the significance and the implementation mode of moxibustion intervention can be assessed preliminarily for the group under quarantine after close contact with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Moxibustão , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena
19.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 261-265, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395788

RESUMO

AIM: On 2 March 2020, Tunisia has reported the first confirmed case of COVID-19. Since then, the disease has affected about 700 persons in the country. The purpose of our study was to report epidemiological, clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of patients with 2019-nCoV infection admitted in the pneumology department. METHODS: We extracted the data of the consequetive 20 patients managed in the department of pneumology B at Abderrahmen Mami hospital, from March, 26 to April, 8, 2020. RESULTS: The median age was 61 years old [41-85]. There were 9 men and 11 women.  Underlying disorders were observed in 16 patients (80%). Five patients were health care workers. Three patients did not have any known exposure. Common symptoms included fever (100%), shortness of breath (70%) and cough (70%). Computed tomography scans showed bilateral ground glass opacities in 7/9 cases. Fifteen patients received both chloroquine and azithromycin. Fourteen patients (70%) were discharged before April, 8, 2020. Reported complications were: hypokalemia (3 cases), pulmonary embolism (2 cases) and QT prolongation (1 case). One patient died from acute cardiac injury. CONCLUSION: Knowing the different aspects of moderate and severe forms of the disease can contribute to advance in infection control strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Feminino , Febre , Departamentos Hospitalares , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tunísia/epidemiologia
20.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353870

RESUMO

The novel 2019 strain of coronavirus is a source of profound morbidity and mortality worldwide. Compared with recent viral outbreaks, COVID-19 infection has a relatively high mortality rate, the reasons for which are not entirely clear. Furthermore, treatment options for COVID-19 infection are currently limited. In this Perspective, we explore the contributions of the innate and adaptive immune systems to both viral control as well as toxicity during COVID-19 infections and offer suggestions to both understand and therapeutically modulate anti-COVID immunity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia/patologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/terapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/patologia , Linfopenia/terapia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade
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