Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 404
Filtrar
1.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46990

RESUMO

Los coronavirus son una familia de virus que causan enfermedades que van desde el resfriado común hasta enfermedades respiratorias más graves, circulan entre humanos y animales. A veces, los coronavirus que infectan a los animales pueden evolucionar, transmitirse a las personas y convertirse en una nueva cepa de coronavirus capaz de provocar enfermedades en los seres humanos, tal y como sucedió con el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo (SARS), en Asia en febrero de 2003 y, el Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS-CoV), que fue detectado por primera vez en Arabia Saudita en 2012.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão
2.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46991

RESUMO

Página de la Organización Mundial de la Salud con documentación técnica en inglés para respuesta a la epidemia global del nuevo coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV). Tipos de documentos disponibles: preparación de los países (country readiness), vigilancia y definición de casos (surveillance and case definitions), directrices para laboratorios (laboratory guidance), manejo de pacientes (patient management), prevención y control de infecciones en servicios de salud (infection prevention and control in health care facilities), investigaciones preliminares (early investigations), comunicación del riesgo y compromiso de la comunidad (risk communication and community engagement), paquete de productos básicos para enfermedades (disease commodity package) y reducción de la transmisión de animales para humanos (reduction of transmission from animals to humans).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Estado de Alerta em Emergências , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão
3.
Saudi Med J ; 40(7): 714-720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:   To assess virus knowledge among dentists in Saudi Arabia and to identify factors associated with recommended management practices of patients. Method: A structured questionnaire was distributed to dentists in major Saudi cities between September 2016 and December 2017. The questionnaire investigated participants' knowledge about Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission, consequences, patient identification and history taking practices. Data was collected using paper-based questionnaires or an online link sent to dentists registered with Saudi Dental Society nationwide. The analysis was carried using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) logistic regression, odds ratio and confidence intervals to identify the relationship between variables. RESULTS: A total of 423 dentists responded the paper-based questionnaire. Overall the knowledge was good with gaps in history taking practices. Best management practices of MERS-CoV patients were significantly higher among dentists with better knowledge of virus transmission (odd ration [OR]=1.16, p less than 0.0001), patients' identification (OR=1.40, p less than 0.0001) and those knowing that corona infection can be fatal (OR= 2.44, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Best management practices depends on correct patient identification. Educational campaigns should target dentists, given the unique nature of dental practice.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Odontólogos , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias , Masculino , Anamnese , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Isolamento de Pacientes , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1758-1760, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264567

RESUMO

Since 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus has infected 2,442 persons worldwide. Case-based data analysis suggests that since 2016, as many as 1,465 cases and 293-520 deaths might have been averted. Efforts to reduce the global MERS threat are working, but countries must maintain vigilance to prevent further infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência
5.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893947

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes respiratory infection in humans, ranging from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia. In dromedary camels, the virus only causes a mild infection but it spreads efficiently between animals. Differences in the behavior of the virus observed between individuals, as well as between humans and dromedary camels, highlight the role of host factors in MERS-CoV pathogenesis and transmission. One of these host factors, the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), may be a critical determinant because it is variably expressed in MERS-CoV-susceptible species as well as in humans. This could partially explain inter- and intraspecies differences in the tropism, pathogenesis, and transmissibility of MERS-CoV. In this review, we explore the role of DPP4 and other host factors in MERS-CoV transmission and pathogenesis-such as sialic acids, host proteases, and interferons. Further characterization of these host determinants may potentially offer novel insights to develop intervention strategies to tackle ongoing outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Tropismo Viral , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Replicação Viral
6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840679

RESUMO

The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that emerged and spread throughout Taiwan in 2014 triggered significant concern in the country's swine industry. Acknowledging the absence of a thorough investigation at the geographic level, we used 2014 outbreak sequence information from the Taiwan government's open access databases plus GenBank records to analyze PEDV dissemination among Taiwanese pig farms. Genetic sequences, locations, and dates of identified PEDV-positive cases were used to assess spatial, temporal, clustering, GIS, and phylogeographic factors affecting PEDV dissemination. Our conclusion is that S gene sequences from 2014 PEDV-positive clinical samples collected in Taiwan were part of the same Genogroup 2 identified in the US in 2013. According to phylogenetic and phylogeographic data, viral strains collected in different areas were generally independent of each other, with certain clusters identified across different communities. Data from GIS and multiple potential infection factors were used to pinpoint cluster dissemination in areas with large numbers of swine farms in southern Taiwan. The data indicate that the 2014 Taiwan PEDV epidemic resulted from the spread of multiple strains, with strong correlations identified with pig farm numbers and sizes (measured as animal concentrations), feed mill numbers, and the number of slaughterhouses in a specifically defined geographic area.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Matadouros , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 123: 293-297, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738233

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis (IB) generated by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes economic difficulties for livestock farmers. The 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) protein is a recombinant antibody with nuclease activity that shows antiviral effects against various DNA and RNA viruses in mice and chickens. In this experiment, 3D8 scFv G2 transgenic chickens produced by crossing 3D8 scFv G1 transgenic rooster and wild type hens were screened by genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. 3D8 scFv transgenic chickens, wild type sibling chickens, and SPF chickens were directly infected with IBV (5 chickens per group) and indirectly infected by airborne propagation (15 chickens per group). The relative IBV shedding titers were measured by quantitative real-time PCR using oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs on days 3 and 5 after intraocular infection. The viral load was significantly decreased in the 3D8 scFv transgenic chickens from the contact transmission group. Additionally, blood was collected from each group on day 17 post-infection. The ELISA results showed a marked reduction of the antibody titer against IBV in the 3D8 scFv transgenic chickens from the contact transmission group. These results suggest that the 3D8 scFv protein potentially inhibits infectious bronchitis virus transmission in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Proteínas Recombinantes , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
8.
Viruses ; 11(2)2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704076

RESUMO

The recent discovery of novel alphacoronaviruses (alpha-CoVs) in European and Asian rodents revealed that rodent coronaviruses (CoVs) sampled worldwide formed a discrete phylogenetic group within this genus. To determine the evolutionary history of rodent CoVs in more detail, particularly the relative frequencies of virus-host co-divergence and cross-species transmission, we recovered longer fragments of CoV genomes from previously discovered European rodent alpha-CoVs using a combination of PCR and high-throughput sequencing. Accordingly, the full genome sequence was retrieved from the UK rat coronavirus, along with partial genome sequences from the UK field vole and Poland-resident bank vole CoVs, and a short conserved ORF1b fragment from the French rabbit CoV. Genome and phylogenetic analysis showed that despite their diverse geographic origins, all rodent alpha-CoVs formed a single monophyletic group and shared similar features, such as the same gene constellations, a recombinant beta-CoV spike gene, and similar core transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS). These data suggest that all rodent alpha CoVs sampled so far originate from a single common ancestor, and that there has likely been a long-term association between alpha CoVs and rodents. Despite this likely antiquity, the phylogenetic pattern of the alpha-CoVs was also suggestive of relatively frequent host-jumping among the different rodent species.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Arvicolinae/virologia , Ásia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Murinae/virologia , Filogenia , Coelhos/virologia , Ratos/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Virus Genes ; 55(3): 415-420, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771080

RESUMO

A maximum clade credibility tree constructed using the full-length spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase genes revealed that Vietnamese Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strains belong to a single cluster (C1); therefore, they might share a common origin with Cuban and Chinese BCoV strains. The omega values of cluster 1 (C1) and cluster 2 (C2) were 0.15734 and 0.11613, respectively, and naive empirical bayes analysis identified two amino acid positions (179 and 501) in the S protein in C1 and three amino acid positions (113, 501, and 525) in that of C2 that underwent positive selection (p > 99%). The evolutionary rate of C1 was estimated to be 7.6206 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Vietnamese BCoVs was estimated to date back to 1962 (95% HPD 1950-1973). The effective population sizes of C1 and C2 underwent a rapid reduction after 2000 and 2004, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Fezes/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vietnã , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 162: 18-28, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621895

RESUMO

The overall objective of this study was to describe the contact structure and animal movement patterns of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) case herds and matched control herds during the initial incursion of PEDV in Canada, and to evaluate possible mechanisms of spread during this period. Possible mechanisms of spread included transmission through a common-source, herd-to-herd transmission, and transmission due to low biosecurity. Three hypotheses were evaluated by assessing: 1) whether feed supplier, semen supplier and/or animal transportation company networks contained a higher proportion of case herds compared to randomly permuted networks, 2) whether the proportion of case herds in the giant weak component differed from randomly permuted networks, and 3) whether external herd biosecurity, defined as the number of mean contacts with other herds in a one-mode network, was different between case and control herds. The study period for recruiting case and control herds was from January 22, 2014 to March 1, 2014, and a 30-day history of each participating site was collected using a questionnaire. The study included swine herds located in central and eastern Canadian provinces. Multiple two-mode networks with swine herds and service suppliers were constructed. This included feed suppliers, animal movement, animal transportation companies, semen suppliers and a complete network with all service providers. The complete network consisted of 145 nodes. There were a total of 765 edges in the complete network and majority were between feed suppliers and primary herds 29.8% (228/765). The proportion of case herds in the largest feed supplier network was higher than what was expected using randomly permuted networks, suggesting that the likely mechanism of spread during this phase was a common-source through the feed network. A single feed supplier (FS1) had the highest out-degree and outgoing contact chain indicating its importance in disease spread throughout the feed and complete networks. Network descriptive measures, as well as the results of the hypotheses testing indicate little significance in the roles of animal movement, animal transportation companies, and semen suppliers during the initial phase of the 2014 Canadian PED outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Transportes
11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(1): 79-88, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications. DESIGN: Outbreak investigation. SETTING: Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit. METHODS: Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases. RESULTS: In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive. CONCLUSIONS: We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Bases , Busca de Comunicante , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
12.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(1): 20-29, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864486

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is capable of causing acute respiratory illness. Laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases may be asymptomatic, have mild disease, or have a life-threatening infection with a high case fatality rate. There are three patterns of transmission: sporadic community cases from presumed non-human exposure, family clusters arising from contact with an infected family index case, and healthcare-acquired infections among patients and from patients to healthcare workers. Healthcare-acquired MERS infection has become a well-known characteristic of the disease and a leading means of spread. The main factors contributing to healthcare-associated outbreaks include delayed recognition, inadequate infection control measures, inadequate triaging and isolation of suspected MERS or other respiratory illness patients, crowding, and patients remaining in the emergency department for many days. A review of the literature suggests that effective control of hospital outbreaks was accomplished in most instances by the application of proper infection control procedures. Prompt recognition, isolation and management of suspected cases are key factors for prevention of the spread of MERS. Repeated assessments of infection control and monitoring of corrective measures contribute to changing the course of an outbreak. Limiting the number of contacts and hospital visits are also important factors to decrease the spread of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos
13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(1): 35-46, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421581

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen discovered in 2012. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the empirical evidence for MERS-CoV in animals in order to map knowledge gaps and to extract data for modelling disease transmission in dromedary camels. A review protocol was developed a priori, and a systematic search, data extraction and summary were conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Ninety-nine publications were identified for full review out of 1,368 unique records. Of these publications, 71 were articles in scientific journals. Ninety of the studies were observational and the remaining nine were experimental. We summarize characteristics of animal studies including study design, study population and outcomes of interest for future transmission modelling in the reservoir population. The majority of field studies reported measures of prevalence, while experimental studies provided estimates of transmission parameters that pertain to the natural course of disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia
14.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93(3): 265-285, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413355

RESUMO

In September 2012, a novel coronavirus was isolated from a patient who died in Saudi Arabia after presenting with acute respiratory distress and acute kidney injury. Analysis revealed the disease to be due to a novel virus which was named Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). There have been several MERS-CoV hospital outbreaks in KSA, continuing to the present day, and the disease has a mortality rate in excess of 35%. Since 2012, the World Health Organization has been informed of 2220 laboratory-confirmed cases resulting in at least 790 deaths. Cases have since arisen in 27 countries, including an outbreak in the Republic of Korea in 2015 in which 36 people died, but more than 80% of cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia.. Human-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, particularly in healthcare settings, initially caused a 'media panic', however human-to-human transmission appears to require close contact and thus far the virus has not achieved epidemic potential. Zoonotic transmission is of significant importance and evidence is growing implicating the dromedary camel as the major animal host in spread of disease to humans. MERS-CoV is now included on the WHO list of priority blueprint diseases for which there which is an urgent need for accelerated research and development as they have the potential to cause a public health emergency while there is an absence of efficacious drugs and/or vaccines. In this review we highlight epidemiological, clinical, and infection control aspects of MERS-CoV as informed by the Saudi experience. Attention is given to recommended treatments and progress towards vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/terapia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
J Virol ; 93(2)2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404801

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses a threat to public health. The virus is endemic in the Middle East but can be transmitted to other countries by travel activity. The introduction of MERS-CoV into the Republic of Korea by an infected traveler resulted in a hospital outbreak of MERS that entailed 186 cases and 38 deaths. The MERS-CoV spike (S) protein binds to the cellular protein DPP4 via its receptor binding domain (RBD) and mediates viral entry into target cells. During the MERS outbreak in Korea, emergence and spread of viral variants that harbored mutations in the RBD, D510G and I529T, was observed. Counterintuitively, these mutations were found to reduce DPP4 binding and viral entry into target cells. In this study, we investigated whether they also exerted proviral effects. We confirm that changes D510G and I529T reduce S protein binding to DPP4 but show that this reduction only translates into diminished viral entry when expression of DPP4 on target cells is low. Neither mutation modulated S protein binding to sialic acids, S protein activation by host cell proteases, or inhibition of S protein-driven entry by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins. In contrast, changes D510G and I529T increased resistance of S protein-driven entry to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies and sera from MERS patients. These findings indicate that MERS-CoV variants with reduced neutralization sensitivity were transmitted during the Korean outbreak and that the responsible mutations were compatible with robust infection of cells expressing high levels of DPP4.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV has pandemic potential, and it is important to identify mutations in viral proteins that might augment viral spread. In the course of a large hospital outbreak of MERS in the Republic of Korea in 2015, the spread of a viral variant that contained mutations in the viral spike protein was observed. These mutations were found to reduce receptor binding and viral infectivity. However, it remained unclear whether they also exerted proviral effects. We demonstrate that these mutations reduce sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization and are compatible with robust infection of target cells expressing large amounts of the viral receptor DPP4.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Viral , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Mutação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Ligação Proteica , República da Coreia , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(2): 171-177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MERS-CoV emerged as a zoonotic disease in Saudi Arabia with 1437 cases as of July 2016. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, clinical aspects of the disease and the determinants of survival. METHODS: The medical records of Prince Mohamed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital were reviewed between April 2014 and December 2015 to identify admission and discharge with MERS-CoV. Patient's characteristics, epidemiologic and clinical data and laboratory results were extracted and described. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the determinants of the survival of these patients. Significance of the results were judged at the 5% level. RESULTS: 249 confirmed cases were admitted mostly in August (20.48%) and September (14.86%) of the year 2015. A third (39.36%) reported contact with an index case, developed the disease after 6.2days and continued to shed the virus for 13.17days on average. The case fatality rate was 20.08%. Independent predictors of being discharged alive among confirmed cases were younger age (ORA=0.953), breathing ambient air (ORA=8.981), not being transferred to the ICU (ORA=24.240) and not receiving renal replacement therapy (ORA=8.342). These variables explain 63.9% of the variability of patients' status at discharge. CONCLUSION: MERS-CoV spread from human-to-human as community acquired and nosocomial infection. The study identified high risk patients in need for special medical attention in order to improve patients' outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 27: 27-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and attracted an international attention as the virus caused multiple healthcare associated outbreaks. There are reports of the role of asymptomatic individuals in the transmission of MERS-CoV, however, the exact role is not known. METHOD: The MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant papers published till August 2018 describing asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection. RESULTS: A total of 10 papers were retrieved and included in the final analysis and review. The extent of asymptomatic MERS infection had increased with change in the policy of testing asymptomatic contacts. In early cases in April 2012-October 2013, 12.5% were asymptomatic among 144 PCR laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases while in 2014 the proportion rose to 25.1% among 255 confirmed cases. The proportion of asymptomatic cases reported among pediatric confirmed MERS-CoV cases were higher (41.9%-81.8%). Overall, the detection rate of MERS infection among asymptomatic contacts was 1-3.9% in studies included in this review. Asymptomatic individuals were less likely to have underlying condition compared to fatal cases. Of particular interest is that most of the identified pediatric cases were asymptomatic with no clear explanation. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of asymptomatic MERS cases were detected with increasing frequency as the disease progressed overtime. Those patients were less likely to have comorbid disease and may contribute to the transmission of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções , Animais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Viagem
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 234-242, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146717

RESUMO

Numerous viruses, mostly in mixed infections, have been associated worldwide with poult enteritis complex (PEC). In 2008 a coronavirus (Fr-TCoV 080385d) was isolated in France from turkey poults exhibiting clinical signs compatible with this syndrome. In the present study, the median infectious dose (ID50 ), transmission kinetics and pathogenicity of Fr-TCoV were investigated in 10-day-old SPF turkeys. Results revealed a titre of 104.88 ID50 /ml with 1 ID50 /ml being beyond the limit of genome detection using a well-characterized qRT-PCR for avian coronaviruses. Horizontal transmission of the virus via the airborne route was not observed however, via the oro-faecal route this proved to be extremely rapid (one infectious individual infecting another every 2.5 hr) and infectious virus was excreted for at least 6 weeks in several birds. Histological examination of different zones of the intestinal tract of the Fr-TCoV-infected turkeys showed that the virus had a preference for the lower part of the intestinal tract with an abundance of viral antigen being present in epithelial cells of the ileum, caecum and bursa of Fabricius. Viral antigen was also detected in dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages in these areas, which may indicate a potential for Fr-TCoV to replicate in antigen-presenting cells. Together these results highlight the importance of good sanitary practices in turkey farms to avoid introducing minute amounts of virus that could suffice to initiate an outbreak, and the need to consider that infected individuals may still be infectious long after a clinical episode, to avoid virus dissemination through the movements of apparently recovered birds.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus do Peru/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Perus , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , França , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563206

RESUMO

In this study, the results of an airflow investigation conducted on 7 June 2015 as part of a series of epidemiologic investigations at Pyeongtaek St. Mary's Hospital, South Korea, were investigated. The study involved 38 individuals who were infected directly and indirectly with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), by a super-spreader patient. Tracer gas experiments conducted on the eighth floor, where the initial patient was hospitalized, confirmed that the tracer gas spread to adjacent patient rooms and rooms across corridors. In particular, the experiment with an external wind direction and speed similar to those during the hospitalization of the initial patient revealed that the air change rate was 17⁻20 air changes per hour (ACH), with air introduced through the window in the room of the infected patient (room 8104). The tracer gas concentration of room 8110, which was the farthest room, was 7.56% of room 8104, indicating that a high concentration of gas has spread from room 8104 to rooms across the corridor. In contrast, the tracer gas was barely detected in a maternity ward to the south of room 8104, where there was no secondary infected patient. Moreover, MERS is known to spread mainly by droplets through close contact, but long-distance dispersion is probable in certain environments, such as that of a super-spreader patient hospitalized in a room without ventilation, hospitals with a central corridor type, and indoor airflow dispersion due to external wind.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Hospitais , Ventilação , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA