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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104292

RESUMO

Introduction: acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are responsible for significant proportions of illnesses and deaths annually. Most of ARIs are of viral etiology, with human coronaviruses (HCoVs) playing a key role. This study was conducted prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to provide evidence about the sero-epidemiology of HCoVs in rural areas of Ghana. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted as part of a large epidemiological study investigating the occurrence of respiratory viruses in 3 rural areas of Ghana; Buoyem, Kwamang and Forikrom. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of IgG-antibodies to three HCoVs; HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63 using immunofluorescence assay. Results: of 201 subjects enrolled into the study, 97 (48.3%) were positive for all three viruses. The most prevalent virus was HCoV-229E (23%; 95% CI: 17.2 - 29.3), followed by HCoV-OC43 (17%; 95% CI: 12.4 - 23.4), then HCoV-NL63 (8%, 95% CI: 4.6 - 12.6). Subjects in Kwamang had the highest sero-prevalence for HCoV-NL63 (68.8%). human coronaviruses-229E (41.3%) and HCoV-OC43 (45.7%) were much higher in Forikrom compared to the other study areas. There was however no statistical difference between place of origin and HCoVs positivity. Although blood group O+ and B+ were most common among the recruited subjects, there was no significant association (p = 0.163) between blood group and HCoV infection. Conclusion: this study reports a 48.3% sero-prevalence of HCoVs (OC43, NL63 and 229E) among rural communities in Ghana. The findings provide useful baseline data that could inform further sero-epidemiological studies on SARS-CoV-2 in Africa.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano OC43/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071034

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for new approaches to limit the severity of coronavirus infections. Many cells of the immune system express receptors for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and GABA-receptor (GABA-R) agonists have anti-inflammatory effects. Lung epithelial cells also express GABA-Rs, and GABA-R modulators have been shown to limit acute lung injuries. There is currently, however, no information on whether GABA-R agonists might impact the course of a viral infection. Here, we assessed whether clinically applicable GABA-R agonists could be repurposed for the treatment of a lethal coronavirus (murine hepatitis virus 1, MHV-1) infection in mice. We found that oral GABA administration before, or after the appearance of symptoms, very effectively limited MHV-1-induced pneumonitis, severe illness, and death. GABA treatment also reduced viral load in the lungs, suggesting that GABA-Rs may provide a new druggable target to limit coronavirus replication. Treatment with the GABAA-R-specific agonist homotaurine, but not the GABAB-R-specific agonist baclofen, significantly reduced the severity of pneumonitis and death rates in MHV-1-infected mice, indicating that the therapeutic effects were mediated primarily through GABAA-Rs. Since GABA and homotaurine are safe for human consumption, they are promising candidates to help treat coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/patogenicidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
3.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072981

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first identified in the 1930s and it imposes a major economic burden on the poultry industry. In particular, GI-19 lineage has spread globally and has evolved constantly since it was first detected in China. In this study, we analyzed S1 gene sequences from 60 IBVs isolated in South Korea. Two IBV lineages, GI-15 and GI-19, were identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were six distinct subgroups (KM91-like, K40/09-like, and QX-like I to IV) of the South Korean GI-19 IBVs. Among them, QX-type III and IV subgroups, which are phylogenetically different from those reported in South Korea in the past, accounted for more than half of the total. Moreover, the phylogeographic analysis of the QX-like subgroups indicated at least four distinct introductions of GI-19 IBVs into South Korea during 2001-2020. The efficacy of commercialized vaccines against the recently introduced QX-like subgroups should be verified, and continuous international surveillance efforts and quarantine procedures should be enhanced to prevent the incursion of viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/classificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
4.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070971

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Camelus/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Zoonoses/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/fisiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelus/genética , Camelus/imunologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
5.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 26, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mathematical approaches have been for decades used to probe the structure of DNA sequences. This has led to the development of Bioinformatics. In this exploratory work, a novel mathematical method is applied to probe the DNA structure of two related viral families: those of coronaviruses and those of influenza viruses. The coronaviruses are SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS. The influenza viruses include H1N1-1918, H1N1-2009, H2N2-1957, and H3N2-1968. METHODS: The mathematical method used is the slow feature analysis (SFA), a rather new but promising method to delineate complex structure in DNA sequences. RESULTS: The analysis indicates that the DNA sequences exhibit an elaborate and convoluted structure akin to complex networks. We define a measure of complexity and show that each DNA sequence exhibits a certain degree of complexity within itself, while at the same time there exists complex inter-relationships between the sequences within a family and between the two families. From these relationships, we find evidence, especially for the coronavirus family, that increasing complexity in a sequence is associated with higher transmission rate but with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The complexity measure defined here may hold a promise and could become a useful tool in the prediction of transmission and mortality rates in future new viral strains.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 90, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to exist in the Middle East sporadically. Thorough investigations of the evolution of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are urgently required. In the current study, we studied amplified fragments of ORF1a/b, Spike (S) gene, ORF3/4a, and ORF4b of four human MERS-CoV strains for tracking the evolution of MERS-CoV over time. METHODS: RNA isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirate, sputum, and tracheal swabs/aspirates from hospitalized patients with suspected MERS-CoV infection were analyzed for amplification of nine variable genomic fragments. Sequence comparisons were done using different bioinformatics tools available. RESULTS: Several mutations were identified in ORF1a/b, ORF3/4a and ORF4b, with the highest mutation rates in the S gene. Five codons; 4 in ORF1a and 1 in the S gene, were found to be under selective pressure. Characteristic amino acid changes, potentially hosted and year specific were defined across the S protein and in the receptor-binding domain Phylogenetic analysis using S gene sequence revealed clustering of MERS-CoV strains into three main clades, A, B and C with subdivision of with clade B into B1 to B4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, MERS-CoV appears to continuously evolve. It is recommended that the molecular and pathobiological characteristics of future MERS-CoV strains should be analyzed on regular basis to prevent potential future outbreaks at early phases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Códon/genética , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Arábia Saudita , Escarro/virologia
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947034

RESUMO

MERS-CoV was identified for the first time in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2012 in a hospitalized patient. This virus subsequently spread to 27 countries with a total of 939 deaths and 2586 confirmed cases and now has become a serious concern globally. Camels are well known for the transmission of the virus to the human population. In this report, we have discussed the prediction, designing, and evaluation of potential siRNA targeting the ORF1ab gene for the inhibition of MERS-CoV replication. The online software, siDirect 2.0 was used to predict and design the siRNAs, their secondary structure and their target accessibility. ORF1ab gene folding was performed by RNAxs and RNAfold software. A total of twenty-one siRNAs were selected from 462 siRNAs according to their scoring and specificity. siRNAs were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity and antiviral efficacy in Huh7 cell line. No significant cytotoxicity was observed for all siRNAs in Huh7 cells. The in vitro study showed the inhibition of viral replication by three siRNAs. The data generated in this study provide preliminary and encouraging information to evaluate the siRNAs separately as well as in combination against MERS-CoV replication in other cell lines. The prediction of siRNAs using online software resulted in the filtration and selection of potential siRNAs with high accuracy and strength. This computational approach resulted in three effective siRNAs that can be taken further to in vivo animal studies and can be used to develop safe and effective antiviral therapies for other prevalent disease-causing viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Terapêutica com RNAi , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109074, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940460

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a reemerging Alphacoronavirus that causes lethal diarrhea in piglets. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) encodes helicase, which plays pivotal roles during viral replication by unwinding viral RNA. However, the biochemical characterization of PEDV nsp13 remains largely unknown. In this study, PEDV nsp13 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The recombinant nsp13 possessed ATPase and helicase activities for binding and unwinding dsDNA/RNA substrates with 5'-overhangs, and Mg2+ and Mn2+ were critical for its ATPase and helicase activities. PEDV nsp13 also unwound dsDNA into ssDNA in the pH from 6.0-9.0, and used energy from all nucleoside triphosphates and deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Lys289 (K289) of PEDV nsp13 was essential for its ATPase and helicase activities. These results provide new insights into the biochemical properties of PEDV nsp13, which is a potential target for developing antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/enzimologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Células Vero
11.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1111-1121, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034617

RESUMO

Coronaviruses and influenza viruses are circulating in humans and animals all over the world. Co-infection with these two viruses may aggravate clinical signs. However, the molecular mechanisms of co-infections by these two viruses are incompletely understood. In this study, we applied air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine tracheal epithelial cells (PTECs) to analyze the co-infection by a swine influenza virus (SIV, H3N2 subtype) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) at different time intervals. Our results revealed that in short-term intervals, prior infection by influenza virus caused complete inhibition of coronavirus infection, while in long-term intervals, some coronavirus replication was detectable. The influenza virus infection resulted in (i) an upregulation of porcine aminopeptidase N, the cellular receptor for PRCoV and (ii) in the induction of an innate immune response which was responsible for the inhibition of PRCoV replication. By contrast, prior infection by coronavirus only caused a slight inhibition of influenza virus replication. Taken together, the timing and the order of virus infection are important determinants in co-infections. This study is the first to show the impact of SIV and PRCoV co- and super-infection on the cellular level. Our results have implications also for human viruses, including potential co-infections by SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Coronavirus Respiratório Porcino/fisiologia , Interferência Viral , Animais , Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Imunidade Inata , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Suínos , Traqueia/citologia , Replicação Viral
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 9-15, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024569

RESUMO

Respiratory Viruses infections (RVI) such as rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza virus, and adenovirus affect the respiratory and the immune systems. The role of nutrition in the respiratory and immune systems has been studied in some studies, and its importance is undeniable. In addition, one of the key findings in this disease is high inflammation that affects almost all patients. This systematic narrative review aims to answer the question, "Can an anti-inflammatory diet be effective in preventing or treating viral respiratory diseases?" A systematic review search was used for the articles extraction. All studies published in English from 1999 to 2020 investigating dietary inflammatory conditions and RVI were included. Food items with anti-inflammatory properties were selected based on the definition of the dietary inflammatory index (DII). We used Google Scholar, Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, Science Direct, Directory of Open Access Journals, Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, ProQuest, EBSCO, MEDLINE, and SciELO databases for extracting articles. Keywords were restricted by DII. Based on DII, food items/nutrients are involved in inflammation, some of which have anti-inflammatory and some inflammatory properties. Some foods/nutrients, in addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, have antioxidant, antiviral, and immune-enhancing properties. Considering the immune system's involvement, increased inflammation, and involvement of the pulmonary system in RVI and the remarkable role of the anti-inflammatory foods for counteracting them, it is recommended to use a predominantly anti-inflammatory diet along with prevention/control and treatment protocols. An anti-inflammatory diet (based on DII) includes turmeric, ginger, garlic, onions, saffron, dietary vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and omega-3 are recommended to reduce infection symptoms and duration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/dietoterapia , Viroses/dietoterapia , Vírus , Adenoviridae , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Crocus , Dieta/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Orthomyxoviridae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rhinovirus , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Zingiberaceae
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109068, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894664

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a swine enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) that continues to spread globally, placing strain on economic and public health. Currently, the pathogenic mechanism of PDCoV remains largely unclear, and effective strategies to prevent or treat PDCoV infection are still limited. In this study, the interaction between autophagy and PDCoV replication in LLC-PK1 cells was investigated. We demonstrated that PDCoV infection induced a complete autophagy process. Pharmacologically induced autophagy with rapamycin increased the expression of PDCoV N, while pharmacologically inhibited autophagy with wortmannin decreased the expression of PDCoV N, suggesting that PDCoV-induced autophagy facilitates virus replication. Further experiments showed that PDCoV infection activated p38 signaling pathway to trigger autophagy. Besides, ergosterol peroxide (EP) alleviated PDCoV-induced activation of p38 to suppress autophagy, thus exerting its antiviral effects. Finally, we employed a piglet model of PDCoV infection to demonstrate that EP prevented PDCoV infection by suppressing PDCoV-induced autophagy via p38 signaling pathway in vivo. Collectively, these findings accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDCoV infection and provide new insights for the development of EP as an effective therapeutic strategy for PDCoV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Autofagia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Células LLC-PK1 , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
14.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807288

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in domestic camels with frequent recombination. More than 90% of the available full MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from camels are from just two countries, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, we employ a novel method to amplify and sequence the partial MERS-CoV genome with high sensitivity from nasal swabs of infected camels. We recovered more than 99% of the MERS-CoV genome from field-collected samples with greater than 500 TCID50 equivalent per nasal swab from camel herds sampled in Jordan in May 2016. Our subsequent analyses of 14 camel-derived MERS-CoV genomes show a striking lack of genetic diversity circulating in Jordan camels relative to MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from large camel markets in KSA and UAE. The low genetic diversity detected in Jordan camels during our study is consistent with a lack of endemic circulation in these camel herds and reflective of data from MERS outbreaks in humans dominated by nosocomial transmission following a single introduction as reported during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. Our data suggest transmission of MERS-CoV among two camel herds in Jordan in 2016 following a single introduction event.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Variação Genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800523

RESUMO

Torovirus (ToV) has recently been classified into the new family Tobaniviridae, although it belonged to the Coronavirus (CoV) family historically. ToVs are associated with enteric diseases in animals and humans. In contrast to CoVs, which are recognised as pathogens of veterinary and medical importance, little attention has been paid to ToVs because their infections are usually asymptomatic or not severe; for a long time, only one equine ToV could be propagated in cultured cells. However, bovine ToVs, which predominantly cause diarrhoea in calves, have been detected worldwide, leading to economic losses. Porcine ToVs have also spread globally; although they have not caused serious economic losses, coinfections with other pathogens can exacerbate their symptoms. In addition, frequent inter- or intra-recombination among ToVs can increase pathogenesis or unpredicted host adaptation. These findings have highlighted the importance of ToVs as pathogens and the need for basic ToV research. Here, we review recent progress in the study of ToV molecular biology including reverse genetics, focusing on the similarities and differences between ToVs and CoVs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Torovirus/virologia , Torovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Torovirus/genética
16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807081

RESUMO

The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new disinfection systems. Evidence has proven that airborne transmission is an important route of spreading for this virus. Therefore, this short communication introduces CLODOS Technology®, a novel strategy to disinfect contaminated surfaces. It is a product based on stable and 99% pure chlorine dioxide, already certified as a bactericide, fungicide and virucide against different pathogens. In this study, CLODOS Technology®, by direct contact or thermonebulization, showed virucidal activity against the human coronavirus HCoV-229E at non-cytotoxic doses. Different conditions such as nebulization, exposure time and product concentration have been tested to standardize and optimize this new feasible method for disinfection.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Compostos Clorados/análise , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia
17.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804957

RESUMO

Several life-threatening viruses have recently appeared, including the coronavirus, infecting a variety of human and animal hosts and causing a range of diseases like human upper respiratory tract infections. They not only cause serious human and animal deaths, but also cause serious public health problems worldwide. Currently, seven species are known to infect humans, namely SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1. The coronavirus nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16) structure is similar to the 5'-end capping system of mRNA used by eukaryotic hosts and plays a vital role in evading host immunity response and protects the nascent viral mRNA from degradation. NSP16 is also well-conserved among related coronaviruses and requires its binding partner NSP10 to activate its enzymatic activity. With the continued threat of viral emergence highlighted by human coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2, mutant strains continue to appear, affecting the highly conserved NSP16: this provides a possible therapeutic approach applicable to any novel coronavirus. To this end, current information on the 2'-O-MTase activity mechanism, the differences between NSP16 and NSP10 in human coronaviruses, and the current potential prevention and treatment strategies related to NSP16 are summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Coronavirus/enzimologia , Coronavirus/genética , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , /genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e96, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849679

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. Prevention and control strategies require an improved understanding of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. We did a rapid review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with a focus on infective dose. We sought comparisons of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We examined laboratory animal and human studies. The literature on infective dose, transmission and routes of exposure was limited specially in humans, and varying endpoints were used for measurement of infection. Despite variability in animal studies, there was some evidence that increased dose at exposure correlated with higher viral load clinically, and severe symptoms. Higher viral load measures did not reflect coronavirus disease 2019 severity. Aerosol transmission seemed to raise the risk of more severe respiratory complications in animals. An accurate quantitative estimate of the infective dose of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not currently feasible and needs further research. Our review suggests that it is small, perhaps about 100 particles. Further work is also required on the relationship between routes of transmission, infective dose, co-infection and outcomes.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Carga Viral , Adenoviridae/patogenicidade , Animais , /prevenção & controle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia
19.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918958

RESUMO

Therapeutic options for coronaviruses remain limited. To address this unmet medical need, we screened 5406 compounds, including United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and bioactives, for activity against a South Korean Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) clinical isolate. Among 221 identified hits, 54 had therapeutic indexes (TI) greater than 6, representing effective drugs. The time-of-addition studies with selected drugs demonstrated eight and four FDA-approved drugs which acted on the early and late stages of the viral life cycle, respectively. Confirmed hits included several cardiotonic agents (TI > 100), atovaquone, an anti-malarial (TI > 34), and ciclesonide, an inhalable corticosteroid (TI > 6). Furthermore, utilizing the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we tested combinations of remdesivir with selected drugs in Vero-E6 and Calu-3 cells, in lung organoids, and identified ciclesonide, nelfinavir, and camostat to be at least additive in vitro. Our results identify potential therapeutic options for MERS-CoV infections, and provide a basis to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other coronavirus-related illnesses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919952

RESUMO

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly emerged and highly pathogenic virus that is associated with fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry. At present, the research on the pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of host-virus interactions of SADS-CoV are limited and remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the global gene expression profiles of SADS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells at 12, 18, and 24 h post-infection (hpi) using the RNA-sequencing. As a result, a total of 3324 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified, most of which showed a down-regulated expression pattern. Functional enrichment analyses indicated that the DEGs are mainly involved in signal transduction, cellular transcription, immune and inflammatory response, and autophagy. Collectively, our results provide insights into the changes in the cellular transcriptome during early infection of SADS-CoV and may provide information for further study of molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Vero
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