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1.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(2): 131-142, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055768

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotic, acidifier and synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, mortality rate, intestinal gene expressions, fecal shedding, and organs colonization induced by Escherichia coli in broiler chickens. Six experimental groups were included; negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), probiotic group (PR), acidifier group (AC), synbiotic group (SY) and colistin sulfate group (CS). Chickens in groups NC and PC were fed a basal diet, while chickens in groups PR, AC, SY, and CS were fed a basal diet containing probiotic, acidifier, synbiotic and colistin sulfate, respectively from the 1st day to the 28th day of age. At 7 days of age, all groups (not NC) were orally challenged with 0.5 ml (1.0 × 109 CFU/ml) E. coli O78. The dietary supplementation of acidifier and synbiotic were sufficient to quell the devastating effects of E. coli infection in broilers. Growth performances represented by body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved as well as, mortalities were prevented whilst the ileal pro-inflammatory gene expressions (IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, TLR-4, IFN-γ, LITAF, AvBD-2, and AvBD-9) were significantly downregulated and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased. In addition, E. coli fecal shedding and organs colonization was significantly diminished. It was concluded that the addition of both acidifier and synbiotic to the diet of broilers infected with E. coli could modulate the intestinal inflammatory responses induced by E. coli infection and minimized the inflammation-induced damage which resulted in improvement in growth performance, prevention of mortalities and reduction of E. coli environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Simbióticos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(1): 58-64, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102359

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the effects of intrauterine infection on early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats. Methods:Escherichia coli (E. coli) was inoculated into uterine cervix of pregnant rats with gestation of 15 d to establish the intrauterine infection model, and the effect on the delivery of pregnant rats was observed. The neonatal rat brain tissue was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and the cerebral white matter damage was assessed. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and neurofilament (NF) in pup brains. Birth weight and early growth development indices were monitored,and neurobehavioral tests were performed to access the change of neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats. Results:The white blood cell count increased significantly in the uterus and placenta of the pregnant rats after intrauterine E. coli infection and no significant impact was observed on the delivery of pregnant rats. Weak staining and focal rarefaction of cerebral white matter from rats at P7 in intrauterine infection group were observed. The expression of GFAP markedly increased (P<0.05) in infection group, while the level of CNPase and NF in pup brains at P7 significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with control group, the neonatal rats in infection group had lower birth weight and slower weight gain during the suckling period (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the completion times of ear opening, eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, acoustic startle and swimming test in infection group were significantly delayed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclussion:Intrauterine infection in pregnant rats can induce cerebral white matter damage and retardation of early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Transtornos do Crescimento , Leucoencefalopatias , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Leucoencefalopatias/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 417-425, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078789

RESUMO

This study reports on the influence of experimentally-induced uterine inflammation on chemical phenotypes, number and distribution of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) innervating the uterus in sexually mature gilts. On day 17 of the first studied estrous cycle, the uterine horns were injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). After 28 days (on an expected day 3 of third studied estrous cycle), 50 ml of either saline (group SAL) or Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspension (109 colony-forming units/ml, group E. coli) were injected into each uterine horn. In the control pigs (group CON), only laparotomy was performed. Eight days later DRGs and uteri were collected. All infected gilts developed severe form of acute endometritis. By use of double immunofluorescence labelling the numbers of uterine perikarya expressing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were analyzed. Injection of E. coli decreased the total number of the FB positive perykaria in the Th10-S4 DRGs. We revealed an increase in the populations of uterine perikarya coded SP+/CGRP-, SP+/NKA-, SP-/NKA+, SP+/GAL+, SP+/GAL-, SP-/GAL+, SP+/PACAP+ and SP-/PACAP+. Our results suggest that uterine inflammation affects both the spatial and neurochemical organization pattern of uterine sensory innervation. Additionally, the inflammation may affect the transmission of sensory information from uterus to spinal cord.


Assuntos
Endometrite/veterinária , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Útero/inervação , Animais , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/fisiologia , Útero/fisiopatologia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 426-432, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082572

RESUMO

Having sensitive serum biomarkers able to determine the structural changes of the small intestine suffering from bacterial digestive diseases could be a valuable tool particularly in piglets at weaning, when intestinal infections are highly prevalent. We evaluated the usefulness of three inflammatory and gut-wall-integrity biomarkers to assess the degree of intestinal histo-morphological damage in piglets. Piglets were orally challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to get a variable range of response according to individual variability. Forty-eight piglets were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium and seventy-two with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Clinical signs and faecal score were recorded. At Days 4 and 8 post-inoculation, blood was sampled, animals euthanised and distal ileum dissected. Morphological measures were obtained from the gut tissue, and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) were determined. Animals developed mild-to-severe diarrhoea after the challenge. When analysing the complete set of analytical results, a high correlation was found among the three serum biomarkers. The most representative morphological indicator was the villus:crypt ratio (V:C), which showed a strong negative correlation with all three biomarkers. Regression analyses between faecal score and the previous variable showed linear relations. When the range of V:C was analysed, based on the quartile distribution of each serum variable, a marked increase in their concentration was observed with greater villus damage. Summarising, the combination of I-FABP, Pig-MAP and TNF-α may be useful for determining the intestinal injury degree and barrier integrity in recently weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 734-748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130074

RESUMO

Many pathogens infect hosts through various immune evasion strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which pathogen proteins modulate and evade the host immune response remain unclear. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a pathological strain that can induce mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPK) and NF-κB pathway activation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which then causes diarrheal diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a key regulator involved in distinct innate immune signalling pathways. Here we report that EHEC translocated intimin receptor (Tir) protein inhibits the expression of EHEC-induced proinflammatory cytokines by interacting with the host tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which is dependent on the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Mechanistically, the association of EHEC Tir with SHP-1 facilitated the recruitment of SHP-1 to TAK1 and inhibited TAK1 phosphorylation, which then negatively regulated K63-linked polyubiquitination of TAK1 and downstream signal transduction. Taken together, these results suggest that EHEC Tir negatively regulates proinflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of TAK1, which is essential for immune evasion and could be a potential target for the treatment of bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
6.
Microb Pathog ; 130: 131-136, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858007

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive impact of colibacillosis on laying hens and to investigate whether energetic metabolism and oxidative stress were involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. An experimental shed containing 270 laying hens of the Hy-Line lineage (32 weeks old) presented approximately 40% daily laying, and many birds presented with diarrhea and apathy followed by death. Necropsy revealed macroscopic lesions compatible with colibacillosis and infectious agent Escherichia coli was isolated from fecal samples of all birds in the infected group, as well as from tissue (ovary, liver and peritoneum). Sixteen chickens were selected for this study, divided into two groups: Control (animals without clinical alterations) and infected (with diarrhea and apathetic). E. coli isolates were subjected to the antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the methodology approved by CLSI, 2018. This testing showed sensitivity to gentamicin, amoxicillin, norfloxacin and colistin. It was then determined that laying hens would be treated with norfloxacin (15 mg/kg) diluted in water offered at will to the birds for three days. Blood collections were performed via brachial vein after the diagnosis of E. coli (before starting treatment) and seven days after treatment. Three debilitated chickens died on the second day after initiating therapy. Before treatment, birds with clinical signs had higher levels of lipoperoxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) than in the control group (asymptomatic animals). After treatment, LPO levels remained higher in birds that had clinical disease (infected group), whereas the activity of SOD and GPx enzymes did not differ between groups. Activity levels of creatine kinase (CK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) were higher in the group of chickens with clinical disease before treatment. Post-treatment, no differences were observed between groups in terms of CK; however, PK activity remained high in these animals. In the hens that died, there were lesions characteristic of avian colibacillosis, with ovary involvement, explaining the low laying activity of the birds at their peak of production. For 10 days after starting treatment, the percentage of laying increased to 90%. Therefore, we conclude that colibacillosis interferes with the phosphotransfer network by stimulating ATP production, in addition to causing oxidative stress of the birds during laying, that negatively affects health and productive efficiency.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Ovário/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Peritônio/microbiologia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4541-4545, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879807

RESUMO

Mastitis causes substantial economic losses and animal suffering in the dairy industry. The trend toward larger herd sizes complicates the monitoring of udder health in individual animals. Infrared thermography has successfully been used for early mastitis detection. However, manual thermogram analysis is time consuming and requires a skilled examiner, and automated image processing has not been tested. The aim of this study was to determine whether automatic evaluation of thermograms showed results comparable to those of manual evaluation of thermograms. Five healthy cows underwent an intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli to induce clinical mastitis. Multiple udder thermograms were taken every 2 h for 24 h before and after the challenge, resulting in 4,143 images in total. All images were evaluated using image recognition software (automatically) and a polygon tool (manually) to calculate the average and maximum surface temperatures. Because of the slightly different regions of interest, temperatures ascertained from the thermograms using the automatic method were consistently lower than those ascertained using the manual method. However, average udder surface temperatures evaluated using both methods were strongly correlated (r = 0.98 in the left hindquarter, and r = 0.99 in the right hindquarter) and showed maximum temperature peaks at the same time, 13 and 15 h after intramammary challenge. In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, both methods provided good results for sensitivity and specificity in detecting clinical E. coli-induced mastitis at different threshold values. For automatically evaluated maximum right hindquarter temperature, sensitivity was 93.75% and specificity was 94.96%, and for manually evaluated maximum right hindquarter temperature, sensitivity was 93.75% and specificity was 96.40%. Thus, automatic thermogram evaluation is a promising tool for automated mastitis detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Mastite Bovina/fisiopatologia , Termografia/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Termografia/métodos
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737323

RESUMO

Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an uncommon neurological complication in pregnancies complicated with hyperemesis due to thiamine deficiency. In women with hyperemesis, inadvertent glucose administration prior to thiamine supplementation triggers the development of neurological manifestations. Delay in the diagnosis can lead to maternal morbidity, and in one-third of cases may lead to persistence of some neurological deficit. With early recognition and thiamine supplementation, complete recovery is reported. We report a case of WE complicating a case of triplet pregnancy with hyperemesis gravidarum, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment, resulting in complete recovery as in the index case.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Hiperêmese Gravídica/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Tiamina/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/diagnóstico , Amicacina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Hiperêmese Gravídica/fisiopatologia , Hiperêmese Gravídica/terapia , Gravidez , Gravidez de Trigêmeos , Deficiência de Tiamina/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Tiamina/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Microbiol ; 67(10): 1457-1466, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113307

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a well-established global health issue. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with the carriage of ciprofloxacin- and ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli and associated resistance genes in a cohort of 498 healthy children residing in urban Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: We cultured rectal swabs onto MacConkey agar supplemented with resistant concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Additionally, we screened meta-E. coli populations by conventional PCR to detect plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)- and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding genes. We measured the associations between phenotypic/genotypic resistance and demographic characteristics using logistic regression.Results/Key findings. Ciprofloxacin- and ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli were cultured from the faecal samples of 67.7 % (337/498) and 80.3 % (400/498) of children, respectively. The prevalence of any associated resistance marker in the individual samples was 86.7 % (432/498) for PMQR genes and 90.6 % (451/498) for ß-lactamase genes. Overweight children were significantly more likely to carry qnr genes than children with lower weight-for-height z-scores [odds ratios (OR): 1.24; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 10.5-1.48 for each unit increase in weight for height; P=0.01]. Additionally, younger children were significantly more likely to carry ESBL CTX-M genes than older children (OR: 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-0.99 for each additional year, P=0.01). CONCLUSION: The carriage of genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance is highly prevalent among E. coli in healthy children in the community in Vietnam. Future investigations on the carriage of antimicrobial resistant organisms in LMICs should focus on the progression of carriage from birth and structure of the microbiome in obesity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Portador Sadio/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Prospectivos , Vietnã
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 125(4): 964-975, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851202

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the effect of Clostridium butyricum on intestinal barrier function and (ii) to elucidate the mechanisms involved in enhanced intestinal barrier function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight weaned piglets were assigned randomly to either a basal diet or a C. butyricum-supplemented diet. On day 15, all pigs were orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 or saline. Clostridium butyricum decreased serum diamine oxidase activity and d-lactic acid concentration, as well as increased intestinal tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin-3 and occludin) expression in ETEC K88-infected pigs. Moreover, C. butyricum decreased IL-1ß and IL-18 levels in serum and gut, whereas it increased IL-10 levels. Furthermore, C. butyricum downregulated NLRP3 and caspase-1 expression in ETEC K88-challenged pig gut, but did not affect apoptosis-associated speck-like protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Clostridium butyricum enhanced intestinal barrier function and inhibited apoptosis-associated speck-like protein-independent NLRP3 inflammasome signalling pathway in weaned piglets after ETEC K88 challenge. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The novelty of this study lies in the beneficial effects of C. butyricum on intestinal health, likely by improving intestinal barrier function and alleviating inflammatory reactions.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Desmame
12.
Virulence ; 9(1): 967-980, 2018 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683762

RESUMO

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1ß processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death. Our approach revealed that the hemolysin A (HlyA) toxin is essential for triggering both cell death and NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1ß release in human macrophages. Random transposon mutagenesis also identified the cof gene, which encodes a poorly characterized phosphatase, as a novel hemolysin regulator; a CFT073 mutant deleted for the cof gene secreted significantly reduced levels of HlyA, had diminished hemolytic activity, and was impaired in its capacity to trigger human macrophage cell death and IL-1ß release. Together, our findings reveal that Cof fine-tunes production of hemolysin, an important determinant of both UPEC-mediated inflammasome activation and human macrophage cell death.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Infecções Urinárias/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/enzimologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética
13.
J Therm Biol ; 73: 8-13, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549994

RESUMO

Behavioral fever in reptiles is often considered an adaptive response used to eliminate pathogens, yet empirical data showing the wide-spread use of this response is mixed. This behavioral change can be beneficial by enhancing the host's immune response and increasing the animal's chance of survival, but it can also be detrimental in terms of host energetic requirements and enzymatic performance. Thus, we examined whether captive-bred African house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus) employed behavioral fever in response to pathogen stimulus. Twenty-one African house snakes were injected separately with three different strains of ultraviolet (UV) light-killed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica). We found an increased variance of hourly cloacal temperatures following exposure to pathogens in male but not female house snakes. We did not, however, find a significant febrile response to pathogen exposure as measured via mean cloacal temperature. This research adds critical information to the field of reptilian physiology as this field remains understudied. Reptilian immune function and its relationship with thermal biology is ever more pertinent as new challenges arise, such as novel pathogens and changing climate.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Caracteres Sexuais , Serpentes/fisiologia , Animais , Cloaca/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Salmonella/fisiopatologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/fisiopatologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
14.
Science ; 359(6382): 1376-1383, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519916

RESUMO

Obesity, diabetes, and related manifestations are associated with an enhanced, but poorly understood, risk for mucosal infection and systemic inflammation. Here, we show in mouse models of obesity and diabetes that hyperglycemia drives intestinal barrier permeability, through GLUT2-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells and alteration of tight and adherence junction integrity. Consequently, hyperglycemia-mediated barrier disruption leads to systemic influx of microbial products and enhanced dissemination of enteric infection. Treatment of hyperglycemia, intestinal epithelial-specific GLUT2 deletion, or inhibition of glucose metabolism restores barrier function and bacterial containment. In humans, systemic influx of intestinal microbiome products correlates with individualized glycemic control, indicated by glycated hemoglobin levels. Together, our results mechanistically link hyperglycemia and intestinal barrier function with systemic infectious and inflammatory consequences of obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/fisiopatologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Reprogramação Celular , Citrobacter rodentium , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Deleção de Genes , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Estreptozocina
15.
Reprod Biol ; 18(1): 115-121, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449095

RESUMO

The Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bacteriospermia on human sperm parameters, nuclear protamines, DNA integrity and ICSI outcome in patients enrolled for ICSI treatment. 84 unselected couples consulting in infertility and obstetrics clinic and enrolled for ICSI treatment were included in this study. The semen specimens were screened bacteriologically; semen and sperm parameters were also evaluated according to WHO guidelines. DNA integrity, protamines concentration and protamine deficiency were estimated by TUNEL assay, AU-PAGE and Chromomycin (CMA3) respectively. The results of this study revealed that 34.52% of studied semen samples were infected with bacteria. The isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. haemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Bacteriospermia had a significant (p < .010) negative effect on sperm parameters; concentration, motility, progressive motility and chromatin condensation. Moreover, high DNA fragmentation with low P1 and P2 concentrations were noticed in infected patients in comparison to non-infected patients but non-significant. Also, the fertilization rate decreased significantly (p < .05) with infected patients. IN CONCLUSION: bacteriospermia has significant negative effect on sperm quality and fertilization rate in patients who underwent ICSI treatment.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Protaminas/metabolismo , Infecções do Sistema Genital/fisiopatologia , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Núcleo Celular/microbiologia , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiopatologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/patologia , Sêmen/microbiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191834, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381715

RESUMO

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strains can be classified into clades (one of several phylogenetic groups) by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): these are clade 1, clade 2, clade 3, descendant and ancestral clades 4/5, clade 6, clade 7, clade 8, clade 9, and clade 12. Some recent studies showed that some O157 strains in clade 8 produced a larger amount of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 than other strains. In this study, 1121 epidemiologically unlinked strains of O157 isolated in Chiba Prefecture, Japan were classified into clades during 1996-2014. Clade 8 strains were further classified into subclade 8a (67 strains) and subclade 8b (48 strains) using SNP analysis. In the absence of mitomycin C (MMC), subclade 8a strains in this study produced significantly greater amounts of Stx2 than subclade 8b strains. However, in the presence of MMC, the levels of Stx2 production in subclade 8b strains were significantly greater than subclade 8a strains. On the other hand, a recent study reported that the Stx2 production level in O157 strains was determined mainly by the subtypes of Stx2a phage (ϕStx2_α, ß, γ, δ, ε, and ζ). Using O157 strains in this study, the Stx2a phages were classified into these subtypes. In this study, all strains of subclades 8a and 8b carried ϕStx2a_γ and ϕStx2a_δ, respectively. Some strains in clade 6 also carried ϕStx2a_δ. In the presence of MMC, subclade 8b strains produced significantly greater amounts of Stx2 than clade 6 strains carrying ϕStx2_δ. In this study, we propose that Stx2 production in subclade 8b strains in the presence of MMC might be enhanced due to genetic factors other than ϕStx2_δ.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/metabolismo , Toxina Shiga II/biossíntese , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/classificação , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Japão , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(2): 290-296, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325882

RESUMO

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model. We also test individual gene mutants within PAI identified to be involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Finally, we determined the prevalence of these genes of interest in E. coli isolates from feces and airways of ventilated patients. Only PAIs I and III were significantly associated with rat pneumonia pathogenicity. Only the antigen-43 (Ag43) gene in PAI III was significantly associated with bacterial pathogenicity. The prevalence of tested genes in fecal and airway isolates of ventilated patients did not differ between isolates. In contrast, genes encoding Ag43, the F17-fimbriae subunits, HmuR and SepA were more prevalent in VAP isolates with statistical significance for hmuR when compared to airway colonizing isolates. The E. coli PAIs involved in lung pathogenicity differed from those involved in urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Overall, extraintestinal E. coli virulence seems to rely on a combination of numerous virulence genes that have a cumulative effect depending on the infection site.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Ilhas Genômicas/genética , Pneumonia Bacteriana/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/fisiopatologia , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animais , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/fisiopatologia , Virulência/genética
18.
Gut Microbes ; 9(1): 26-37, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806140

RESUMO

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are related gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain associated with colonic hypersensitivity (CHS). Studies in humans have reported an abnormal colonization of Adherent-Invasive E. coli (AIEC) in the ileum of Crohn's disease (CD) patients associated with overexpression of the bacterial colonizing receptor CEACAM6. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AIEC reference strain LF82 could induce intestinal impairment during infectious and/or post-infectious periods and subsequently the development of CHS. Transgenic mice overexpressing human CEACAM6 protein (TG) and their wild-type littermates were gavaged by CD-associated AIEC bacteria (reference strain LF82) or PBS for 3 d. Colonic hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension (CRD) test during infectious (D4) and post-infectious periods (D21). Several markers of intestinal inflammation were monitored and the colonic expression of purinergic P2X receptors was quantified. At D4, an increased visceromotor response (VMR) to the CRD test was observed in TG mice infected with CD-associated AIEC LF82 in comparison with non-infected TG mice and persisted in a subgroup of infected animals at D21 after bacteria clearance. Increased VMR was associated with low-grade intestinal inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and expression of P2X 3, 4 and 7. This study shows that certain susceptible hosts infected with CD-associated AIEC bacteria can develop persistent CHS associated with low-grade inflammation and increased P2X receptors expression. Thus, CD-associated AIEC infection in CEACAM6 transgenic mice could be used as a novel post-infectious mouse model mimicking quiescent IBD with IBS-like symptoms such as visceral pain.


Assuntos
Colite/patologia , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Inflamação/microbiologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/genética , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Colite/genética , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Permeabilidade
19.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 32(2)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243859

RESUMO

The neurological changes elicited by bacterial infection are called sickness behavior. Minocycline (MIN) is neuroprotective with a remarkable brain tissue penetration. MIN was orally administered at a dose 90 mg/kg for 3 days, whereas Escherichia coli was given as a single intraperitoneal injection (0.2 mL of 24 h growth) on the third day. After 24 h of bacterial infection, behavioral tests namely open field and forced swimming were carried out, then animals were decapitated. Rats infected with E. coli displayed reduced struggling time in forced swimming test, as well as, exploration and locomotion in open field test with reduction in neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) versus elevation in the inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reduced glutathione) biomarkers. Inflammatory infiltrates of nuclear cells were observed in brains of infected rats. MIN administration prevented the deleterious effects of E. coli infection, thus protects against sickness behavior possibly via defending from neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Inflamação Neurogênica/prevenção & controle , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Comportamento de Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Inflamação Neurogênica/etiologia , Inflamação Neurogênica/imunologia , Inflamação Neurogênica/patologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 51(4): 492-499, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of class II P fimbriae (P fimbriae II) in diabetic kidney infections is uncertain, although some genetic and epidemiological studies suggest a lower prevalence of P fimbriae II genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from diabetic patients with complicated kidney infections. METHODS: We inoculated a P fimbriae II deficient E. coli (DH5αT) or an isogenic P fimbriae II expressing transformant (DH5αTP) into the bladders of diabetic and non-diabetic BALB/C mice, and sacrificed them after 3 days. The incidence of bladder or kidney infection (≥103 CFU of E. coli per bladder or kidney), bacteremia (≥102 CFU of E. coli on blood culture plate), kidney pathological score, immunoreactive Histo-score (H-score), and corrected H-score (H-score adjusted for Log10 CFU of bacteria in the kidney) were compared among groups. RESULTS: Diabetic mice were more susceptible to bladder infection than non-diabetic mice with both transformants. The geometric mean of bacteria counts in kidneys was significantly increased only when the diabetic mice were infected with DH5αTP. Among the 4 groups of mice, diabetic mice infected with DH5αTP had the highest incidence of kidney infection and bacteremia, and the highest renal pathology scores. The IL-8 H-score and the corrected IL-6 and IL-8 H-score were significantly lower in diabetic than non-diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: We concluded that P fimbriae II contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of E. coli kidney infections in diabetic mice. An impaired cytokine response may also contribute to the increased incidence and severity of kidney infections in diabetic hosts.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Nefrite/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Feminino , Proteínas de Fímbrias/deficiência , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fatores de Virulência/deficiência
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