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12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 725, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on ART during pregnancy, a situation concurrently increasing numbers of HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants. Compared to their HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) counterparts, HEU infants show higher rates of adverse birth outcomes, mortality, infectious/non-communicable diseases including impaired growth and neurocognitive development. There is an urgent need to understand the impact of HIV and early life ART exposures, immune-metabolic dysregulation, comorbidities and environmental confounders on adverse paediatric outcomes. METHODS: Six hundred (600) HIV-infected and 600 HIV-uninfected pregnant women ≥20 weeks of gestation will be enrolled from four primary health centres in high density residential areas of Harare. Participants will be followed up as mother-infant-pairs at delivery, week(s) 1, 6, 10, 14, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 after birth. Clinical, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental data will be assessed for adverse birth outcomes, impaired growth, immune/neurodevelopment, vertical transmission of HIV, hepatitis-B/C viruses, cytomegalovirus and syphilis. Maternal urine, stool, plasma, cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta and milk including infant plasma, dried blood spot and stool will be collected at enrolment and follow-up visits. The composite primary endpoint is stillbirth and infant mortality within the first two years of life in HEU versus HUU infants. Maternal mortality in HIV-infected versus -uninfected women is another primary outcome. Secondary endpoints include a range of maternal and infant outcomes. Sub-studies will address maternal stress and malnutrition, maternal-infant latent tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori infections, immune-metabolomic dysregulation including gut, breast milk and amniotic fluid dysbiosis. DISCUSSION: The University of Zimbabwe-College of Health-Sciences-Birth-Cohort study will provide a comprehensive assessment of risk factors and biomarkers for HEU infants' adverse outcomes. This will ultimately help developing strategies to mitigate effects of maternal HIV, early-life ART exposures and comorbidities on infants' mortality and morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT04087239 . Registered 12 September 2019.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Leite Humano , Morbidade , Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto , Sífilis/complicações , Universidades , Zimbábue
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031362

RESUMO

During 2018, estimated incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanic and Latino (Hispanic/Latino) persons in the United States was four times that of non-Hispanic White persons (1). Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 24% (138,023) of U.S. MSM living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2018 (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, which improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission (2). Barriers to ART adherence among Hispanic/Latino MSM have been explored in limited contexts (3); however, nationally representative analyses are lacking. The Medical Monitoring Project reports nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical experiences of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV infection. This analysis used Medical Monitoring Project data collected during 2015-2019 to examine ART adherence and reasons for missing ART doses among HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino MSM (1,673). On a three-item ART adherence scale with 100 being perfect adherence, 77.3% had a score of ≥85. Younger age, poverty, recent drug use, depression, and unmet needs for ancillary services were predictors of lower ART adherence. The most common reason for missing an ART dose was forgetting; 63.9% of persons who missed ≥1 dose reported more than one reason. Interventions that support ART adherence and access to ancillary services among Hispanic/Latino MSM might help improve clinical outcomes and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e043763, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether implementation of lockdown orders in South Africa affected ambulatory clinic visitation in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN). DESIGN: Observational cohort SETTING: Data were analysed from 11 primary healthcare clinics in northern KZN. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 523 individuals made 89 476 clinic visits during the observation period. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in clinic visitation with a focus on transitions from the prelockdown to the level 5, 4 and 3 lockdown periods. OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily clinic visitation at ambulatory clinics. In stratified analyses, we assessed visitation for the following subcategories: child health, perinatal care and family planning, HIV services, non-communicable diseases and by age and sex strata. RESULTS: We found no change in total clinic visits/clinic/day at the time of implementation of the level 5 lockdown (change from 90.3 to 84.6 mean visits/clinic/day, 95% CI -16.5 to 3.1), or at the transitions to less stringent level 4 and 3 lockdown levels. We did detect a >50% reduction in child healthcare visits at the start of the level 5 lockdown from 11.9 to 4.7 visits/day (-7.1 visits/clinic/day, 95% CI -8.9 to 5.3), both for children aged <1 year and 1-5 years, with a gradual return to prelockdown within 3 months after the first lockdown measure. In contrast, we found no drop in clinic visitation in adults at the start of the level 5 lockdown, or related to HIV care (from 37.5 to 45.6, 8.0 visits/clinic/day, 95% CI 2.1 to 13.8). CONCLUSIONS: In rural KZN, we identified a significant, although temporary, reduction in child healthcare visitation but general resilience of adult ambulatory care provision during the first 4 months of the lockdown. Future work should explore the impacts of the circulating epidemic on primary care provision and long-term impacts of reduced child visitation on outcomes in the region.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027390

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. The study design is a retrospective cohort. The population consisted of 323 HIV-positive mothers and their newborns, attended at the Perinatal Nucleus/HUPE-UERJ, municipality of Rio de Janeiro, in the period of 2007-2018. The average age of mothers was 27 years (14-44), with 12.7% (41) of adolescents. The majority (66.8%) knew they were infected during pregnancy: 39.4% in the current pregnancy and 27.4% in a previous pregnancy. The incidence of MTCT was 2.7% in 2007-2009, 1% in 2010-2015 and 0 in 2016-2018. The viral load in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy was > 1.000 copies/mL or unknown in all mothers with positive newborns and in 19% (42/221) of mothers with negative newborns (p=0.003). The duration of antiretroviral use was > 4 weeks in 92.3% (264/286) of mothers with HIV-negative newborns and in 2 in the HIV-positive group (p=0.004). One of the 4 infected newborns and 2 of the negative ones did not use oral zidovudine (p=0.04). There was no association between amniorrhexis and MTCT (p=0.99), with the Apgar score in the 5th minute of life (p=0.96), with marital status (p=0.54), ethnicity (p=0.65), adolescence (p=0.42), mode of delivery (p=0.99), beginning of prenatal care (p=0.44) or with maternal comorbidities (p=0.48). The conclusion of the study points out that the main factors associated with MTCT are the elevated maternal viral load in the 3rd trimester, the time of use of ART and the non-administration of zidovudine for the newborns.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio and the budget impact of sending text messages associated with medical consultations in order to reduce the viral load of patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial, basis for the development of a dynamic cohort model with Markov states in order to compare medical appointments for adults infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus versus the alternative strategy that associated medical consultations to sending text messages through telephone. RESULTS: 156 adults participated in the study. As for the viral load, it was verified that in the control group there was an increase, in the intervention group A (weekly messages) there was a reduction (p = 0.002) and in group B (biweekly messages) there was no statistically significant difference. Sending text messages would prevent 286,538 new infections by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and 282 deaths in the 20-year period, compared to the standard treatment. The alternative strategy would result in saving R$ 14 billion in treatment costs. CONCLUSION: weekly sending messages in association with the standard treatment can reduce the circulating viral load due to its effect in decreasing new infections, in addition to reducing health costs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 744, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field. However, several gaps remain in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV. This study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co-infection or only TB, to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of potentially eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and July, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB in adults. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. Descriptive and meta-analysis were done and results have been presented in graphs and tables. RESULTS: After removing 95 duplicates, 58 out of 437 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 14 studies were included for descriptive analysis and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the descriptive analysis, the meta-analysis showed strong evidence that current TB exposure was high-risk COVID-19 group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65, P = 0.03). The pooled of COVID-19/TB severity rate increased from OR 4.50 (95% CI 1.12-18.10, P = 0.03), the recovery rate was high among COVID-19 compared to COVID-19/TB irrespective of HIV status (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.83-2.74, P < 0.001) and the mortality was reduced among non-TB group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In summary, TB was a risk factor for COVID-19 both in terms of severity and mortality irrespective of HIV status. Structured diagnostic algorithms and clinical management are suggested to improve COVID-19/HIV/TB or COVID-19/TB co-infections outcomes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
20.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
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