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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. METHODOLOGY: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). DISCUSSION: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. CONCLUSION: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Care continuum models have supported recent strategies against sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV). METHODS: HIV, HCV, and congenital syphilis care continuum models were developed, including all stages of care, from promotion/prevention to clinical control/cure. The models supported the intervention QualiRede, developed by a University-Brazilian National Health System (SUS) partnership focused on managers and other professionals from six priority health regions in São Paulo and Santa Catarina. Indicators were selected for each stage of the care continuum from the SUS information systems and from the Qualiaids and QualiAB facility's process evaluation questionnaires. The indicators acted as the technical basis of two workshops with professionals and managers in each region: the first one to identify problems and to create a Regional Technical Group; and the second one to design action plans for improving regional performance. RESULTS: The indicators are available at www.qualirede.org. The workshops took place in the regions of Alto Tietê, Baixada Santista, Grande ABC, and Registro (São Paulo) and of Foz do Rio Itajaí (Santa Catarina), which resulted in regional action plans in São Paulo, but not in Santa Catarina. A lack of awareness was observed regarding the new HIV and HCV protocols, as well as an incipient use of indicators in routine practices. CONCLUSION: Improving the performance of the care continuum requires appropriation of performance indicators and coordination of care flows at local, regional, and state levels of management.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis Congênita/terapia , Brasil , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
4.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 223-228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treponema pallidum and HIV are transmitted frequently through sexual contact, these agents with epidemiological similarities co-infect the same host. The current number of HIV-infected cases in Turkey is increasing. For this reason, we aimed to reveal the characteristics of syphilis in HIV/AIDS cases. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed, patients were followed up at 24 clinics in 16 cities from all seven regions of Turkey between January 2010 to April 2018. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters and neurosyphilis association in HIV/AIDS-syphilis co-infected cases. RESULTS: Among 3,641 patients with HIV-1 infection, 291 (8%) patients were diagnosed with syphilis co-infection. Most patients were older than 25 years (92%), 96% were males, 74% were working, 23% unemployed, and 3% were students. The three highest prevalence of syphilis were in Black Sea (10.3%), Mediterranean (8.4%) and Marmara Regions (7.4%). As for sexual orientation, 46% were heterosexuals, 42% men who have sex with men (MSM), and no data available for 12%. Patients with the number of CD4+ ≤ 350 mm3 reached 46%, 17% of the patients received antiretroviral therapy and neurosyphilis association reached 9%. CONCLUSION: Although HIV/AIDS-syphilis co-infection status appeared high in heterosexuals, MSM had a moderate level increase in cases. Our results suggested syphilis co-infection in HIV/AIDS cases should be integral part of monitoring in a national sexual transmitted diseases surveillance system. However, our data may provide base for HIV/syphilis prevention and treatment efforts in the future.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Turquia
5.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 229-234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Late presentation of the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with less favourable treatment responses, more accelerated clinical progression, and a higher mortality risk. Although HIV prevalence is low in Turkey, it is steadily increasing and the information about late presentation among HIV-positives is limited. We aimed to analyze the status of late presentation among HIV-positive patients in Turkey. METHODS: All newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients from 2003 to 2016 were enrolled in this study by five dedicated centres in Istanbul, Turkey. Demographic data, CD4+ counts, and HIV RNA were collected from medical records and were transferred to a HIV database system. Late pre- sentation was defined as presentation for care with a CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 or presentation with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. A medical literature search was done for the analysis of late presentation in Turkey. RESULTS: The cohort included 1,673 patients (1,440 males, median age 35 years). Among them, 847 (50.6%) had an early diagnosis, with a CD count of more than 350 cells/mm3. The remaining 826 were late presenters. Among late presenters, 427 (25.5% of all, 51.7% of late presenters) presented with advanced HIV disease. Late presenters were more elderly and less educated. The gender seemed comparable between groups. Late presentation was more likely among married patients. Early presenters were more likely among homosexuals, those diagnosed in screening studies, and in lower HIV-RNA viral load category. There has been a decreasing trend among late presenters in 2011-2016 when compared to 2003-2011 period. CONCLUSION: Current data suggest that half of HIV-infected patients present late in Turkey. In our cohort, those presented late were more elderly, less educated, married and had heterosexual intercourse. On admission, late presenters had more HIV-related diseases and were more likely in higher HIV-RNA category. In the cohort, men having sex with men were less likely late presenters. Efforts to reduce the proportion of late presentation are essential for almost every country. The countries should identify the risk factors of late presentation and should improve early diagnosis and presentation for HIV care.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Turquia
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1191-1196, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658515

RESUMO

The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), new HIV infections, and deaths due to HIV in China were estimated. These data provided evidences for the analysis on current HIV/AIDS epidemic in China, development of AIDS prevention and control strategies and public health education. However, whether the estimation results could be fully used in practice depends on appropriate interpretation. Since the differences in estimation methods and data to produce the estimates for each year, it is not suitable to directly use the estimation results of different years to conclude the HIV/AIDS epidemic trends. The 2018 estimation results indicated that the number of PLHIV is already beyond one million by the end of 2018 and would keep growing, causing much pressure of for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. With the increased burden of case management, innovative strategies are needed to reduce secondary transmission of HIV and control the aggravating spread to general population. Less than 70%, which is significantly lower than the goal of China's 13th Five-year Action plan for AIDS prevention and control. All local governments have the necessity of analyzing percentage of PLHIV who know their status, to conduct targeted strategies and measures for the improvement of HIV case finding. New HIV infection is the core indicator for HIV epidemic evaluation. The number of estimated new HIV infections is around 80 000 in 2018. It is necessary to further improve the strategy and increase the intensity to effectively reduce the new infection of HIV.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1217-1221, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658520

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of levels related to the risk through self-evaluation system, among MSM users in Guangzhou, between 2015 and 2017. Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, data was collected from the users of a self-evaluation system network related to HIV infection, based on the previous 'HIV health risk appraisal model'. Information on risk factors was collected to calculate the scores and levels of risks and to estimate the incidence of HIV. Taking the reference of R value on risks as (R=0.9-1.1) in general population. The ones with very low risk, with low risk, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk were set as R≤0.5, 0.52.0, respectively. The scores of modifiable risk factors were compared with different subgroups of MSM. Results: A total of 4 601 MSM were involved in this study, with the following features presented as: aged 16-64 (28.38±7.11) years, proportions of residence from Guangzhou, Guangdong province or other provinces as 38.6%(1 776/4 601)、35.4%(1 629/4 601) and 26.0%(1 197/4 601), 59.6%(2 742/4 601) received bachelor or above degrees. 81.3%(3 741/4 601) of them claimed as having homosexual orientation. R values of risk level on very low risk, low risk level, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk appeared as 12.9%(594/4 601), 50.9%(2 342/4 601), 17.0%(783/4 601), 14.8%(682/4 601) and 4.3%(200/4 601), respectively. Scores of modifiable risk factors decreased year by year (P<0.05), among MSM in this study. In either of the groups that experiencing insertive or receptive sex, the ones with heterosexual orientation presented the highest scores of modifiable risk factors (P<0.05). Conclusions: The risk levels on HIV infections called for special attention among the users of the self-evaluation network system. Among the MSM that carrying either insertive or receptive sex role, the ones with heterosexual orientation had the highest risk levels and scores of modifiable risk factors in Guangzhou. Further study should be explored to better understand the causes of related risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577756

RESUMO

Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to estimate HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in first-line megacities cities (>10 million residents) in China, but few in the second-line large- or middle-size cities. This study was to investigate HIV incidence and cohort retention among MSM in a second-line city Hangzhou in eastern China.A total of 523 HIV-seronegative MSM were recruited during September 2014 to September 2015, and were followed up prospectively at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Questionnaire interviews were conducted, and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate baseline syphilis infection and HIV seroconversions. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were used to identify factors associated with cohort retention rate and syphilis prevalence.Of 523 participants, 137 (26.2%) completed 6-month follow-up, and use of Internet for recruiting study participants (vs other recruitments: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3-0.8) and being homosexual (vs heterosexual or bisexual: AOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with lower cohort retention. The overall HIV incidence during 12 months of follow-up was 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 3.4-9.8/100 PY). The prevalence of syphilis at baseline was 6.5% (95% CI: 4.4%-8.6%), and disclosing sexual orientation (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) was associated with lower risk of syphilis infection.HIV is spreading rapidly among MSM in the second-line Chinese city. Effective interventions are needed to target this population in both first-line megacities and second-line large and middle-size cities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Retenção nos Cuidados , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1106-1110, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594154

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the HIV infection status and related factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tianjin during 2016-2018. Methods: According to the sentinel surveillance protocol, continuous cross-sectional studies were conducted to collect the information about the awareness of AIDS, related behaviors, HIV infection, syphilis prevalence and HCV infection in the MSM in Tianjin with the annual sample seize of 400 between April and June during 2016-2018. Results: From 2016 to 2018, a total of 1 200 MSM were surveyed. The condom use rate in anal sex was 45.4% (544/1 198) in the past 6 months. The HIV test rate in MSM recruited through network declined with year (trend χ(2)=42.742, P<0.001). The overall HIV infection rate was 3.3% (40/1 200). The HIV-1 infection rate was 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.5%). The overall prevalence rate of syphilis was 6.7% (80/1 200). The overall HCV infection rate was 0.8% (9/1 200). Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors associated with HIV infection in the MSM included divorced or widowed (compared with unmarried, aOR=7.137, 95%CI: 1.621-31.419) and syphilis positive group (compared with syphilis negative group, aOR=3.684, 95%CI: 1.520-8.932). The protective factors for HIV infection in the MSM included consistent use of condom in the past 6 months (compared with occasional use of condom, aOR=0.343, 95%CI: 0.126-0.932) and HIV test (compared with receiving no HIV test, aOR=0.314, 95%CI: 0.123-0.801). Conclusions: The HIV infection rate in the MSM in Tianjin was high from 2016 to 2018. Syphilis prevalence status in MSM should not be neglected. The rate of consistent condom use in anal sex was low in the MSM. It is necessary to take effective measures to promote condom use and strengthen HIV test in MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiologia
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1111-1115, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594155

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the early infant diagnosis (EID) test rate and associated factors in HIV-exposed children in China during 2015-2017. Methods: The follow-up information cards of 12 096 HIV-exposed children for 18 months after birth during 2015-2017 were collected from the Management Information System of China's Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV for a retrospective analysis. The EID test characteristics of HIV exposed children and associated factors were analyzed. Results: From 2015 to 2017, the EID test rate in HIV exposed children increased from 65.6% to 83.4% in China (trend χ(2) P<0.001). The EID test rate within 8 weeks after birth increased from 61.1% to 76.8% (trend χ(2) P<0.001), but the EID positive rate decreased from 8.7% to 3.4% (trend χ(2) P<0.001). The EID positive rate in fatal HIV-exposed children was 47.7%, 36.9% and 36.3% during 2015-2017, respectively, the differences were not significant. EID test rate was associated with ethnic group, living area, survival status and the year reaching 18-month-old of the children. Conclusions: The performance of EID test has been standardized step by step in China. The positive rate of EID test decreased gradually with year. However, the EID test rates in children who were from minority ethnic groups, lived in areas with lower prevalence of HIV infection and died within 18 months after birth were relatively low.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1116-1119, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594156

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the deaths with antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture from 2005 to 2015, in order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and to further reduce the mortality rate in Liangshan Prefecture. Methods: The relevant information was collected through the Management Database of Antiretroviral Treatment from the National AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Information System. Results: From 2005 to 2015, a total of 14 219 adult HIV/AIDS patients received antiretroviral treatment and 1 425 death cases were reported during the treatment. The cause of death was mainly AIDS-related diseases (58.9%), and the cumulative mortality rate was 10.02%. Gender, age, the way of infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, clinical stage when received antiretroviral therapy, and CD(4)(+) T lymphocyte levels were factors for the mortality rate (P<0.001). The mortality increased with older age, higher initiation clinical stage and lower level of CD(4)(+) T lymphocyte. Among the death cases, 82.6% were male, 1 182 (82.9%) were married or cohabited, most aged between 30-39 years old (48.6%). At the initial point of receiving antiretroviral therapy, 49.7% of the cases with CD(4)(+)T lymphocytes levels< 200/µl, 61.2% of the deaths cases were>1 000 copies/ml during the last viral load test, and 16.2% of deaths were ≥500/µl in the last CD(4)(+)T lymphocyte test; 44.5% of deaths were received antiretroviral treatment within one year. Conclusion: Early and timely antiretroviral therapy should be carried out. It is necessary to strengthen the propaganda of antiretroviral therapy and to improve the management quality of follow-up information of antiretroviral therapy case files, and to improve the medication compliance of patients.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 555-560, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626467

RESUMO

The pathologies encountered by migrants are varied and depend on many factors such as sex, age, country of origin, migration conditions, administrative status, living conditions in France and the year of arrival. There are imported diseases such as tuberculosis or chronic hepatitis B, congenital as sickle cell disease, consequent to the difficulties encountered during the migration course -psychological disorders and malnutrition in particular-, acquired on the French territory in connection with hardship like scabies or nearly one in two HIV infections, but also related to the adoption of deleterious dietary habits and the consumption of tobacco and alcohol that can potentiate certain diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. There is no clinical specificity of migrants' health but reflexes to be acquired in relation to the epidemiological and clinical knowledge that varies from one group to another. The frequency of certain often asymptomatic diseases such as hepatitis B, schistosomiasis or hypertension justifies the proposal of a systematic health check-up for all migrants and immigrants. Migration for health reasons remains, for its part, a minority reason for migration to France.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes , França , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618373

RESUMO

Santa Catarina is a Brazilian State that has reported the lowest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors (0.04%). Although it presents ports, airports and roads that facilitate the entrance and dissemination of new infectious agents, no information exists concerning the HTLV-1/2 infections in HIV/AIDS patients. This study searched for HTLV-1/2 antibodies in plasma samples of 625 HIV/AIDS patients from the municipality of Tubarao (Southern Santa Catarina), and disclosed 1.1% of positivity (0.48% HTLV-1, 0.48% HTLV-2 and 0.16% untypeable HTLV), and a positive correlation with the male sex (OR 4.16) and intravenous drug use (OR 35.18). Although the percentage of 1.1% appears to be low, it is 27.5 times higher than the percentage detected in blood donors. Since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are circulating in HIV-infected individuals in Southern Santa Catarina, and these retroviruses could cause a differently impact on the HIV/AIDS outcomes, the surveillance of HTLV-1/2 is necessary, and it could support public health policies in preventing the transmission and dissemination of these viruses in this State.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-II/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565120

RESUMO

Introduction: While HIV care among tuberculosis (TB) patients is successfully implemented and monitored, it is not routinely reported among "presumptive TB patients without TB". The present study describes the ascertainment of HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the associated factors among presumptive TB patients (with and without TB) in 35 public health facilities of Masvingo district of Zimbabwe from January to June 2017. Methods: This was an analysis of secondary programme data. We performed log binomial regression to calculate adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Of 1369 presumptive TB patients, 1181 (86%) were ascertained for HIV status (98% among those subsequently diagnosed with TB, 83% among non-TB). Of them, 748 (63%) were HIV positive, more among TB patients (69%) than those without TB (61%). Among HIV-positive patients, 475 (64%) received ART, significantly higher among TB patients (78%) compared to those without TB (57%). Patients without TB were significantly more likely to have non-ascertained for HIV status (aRR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4-5.0) and not receiving ART (aRR=1.8, 95% CI=1.6-2.0), compared to those with TB. Conclusion: We found high rates of HIV status ascertainment among presumptive TB patients. But, ART uptake was poor among "presumptive TB patients without TB", despite implementation of "test and treat" strategy in Zimbabwe. The programme should step up the monitoring of HIV status and ART receipt among presumptive TB patients, by introducing an indicator in the quarterly reports of the national TB programme.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565125

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem. Its epidemiology is not precisely known in Morocco. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV in a particular population of "blood donors" at the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in Oujda. A retrospective study was conducted from May 1, 2013 to May 31, 2015. Thirty-one thousand nine hundred and fifty-two blood donors were tested. Antigen detection was made according to ELISA technique (MonolisaTMHBs Ag ULTRA). HCV research was performed by ELISA using the kit « Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab ULTRA ¼. 177 blood donors included, they are divided into 155 male (87.6%) and 22 female (12.4%) subjects with a ratio of 7. The average age was 37.64 ± 12 years. Six cases were positive for HCV with an overall prevalence of 0.02%. The population study by sex shows a prevalence of 0.004% for 23177 male sera and 0.057% for 8775 female sera. Six donors were HCV positive, of which 05 were female (83.33%) and one was male (16.66%). The average age was 43 ± 14 years. Co-infection with HCV HBV-HCV and HCV-Syphilis and HCV-HIV are absent. Co-infection with HBV and HIV was found in one case. HBV-syphilis co-infection was found in 04 cases. Chronic viral hepatitis is a real global health problem. Its prevalence is currently estimated at 0.55% for HBV and 0.02% for HCV, reclassifying Morocco as a low endemic area. The prevention remains the most effective method to successfully control HBV and HCV infection.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfecção , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565127

RESUMO

With its number of employees ranging from 45,310 to 46,000, the textile and apparel industry is the main private sector employer of labour in Lesotho. It has been reported that a third (an estimated 34%) of these workers are living with HIV. There is perception that textile factory workers living with HIV (TFWLWH) in Lesotho indulge in HIV risk-taking behaviours. However, no study has yet investigated or documented factors that influence risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers. Transmitting the disease to others, treatment complications and death consequent to HIV reinfection are complications associated with HIV risk-taking behaviours by seropositive individuals. Using an in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interview, this study obtained the perspectives of ten factory workers from three randomly selected textile factories in Maseru, Lesotho on factors that influence HIV-risk taking behaviour amongst TFWLWH in Lesotho. Analysis of the comments given by workers revealed four core themes, namely, peer pressure, communication, cultural norms and societal norms. Determining the predictors of HIV risk-taking behaviours amongst these workers will inform both present and future interventions aimed at supporting textile factory workers living with HIV in Lesotho. This supports the need for continued research to identify HIV risk-taking behaviours by people living with HIV countrywide, to decrease the incidence of new infections and complications arising from reinfection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Indústria Têxtil , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Setor Privado , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1341-1348, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607722

RESUMO

Background: To reduce the number of new HIV infections among children, retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices (MOP) has a huge role to play. Aims and Objectives: This study evaluated the HIV sero-positivity in labor among pregnant women who earlier tested negative in antenatal clinic, associated risk factors and the corresponding rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where pregnant women in labor who had earlier tested HIV negative in the antenatal clinic at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria, were retested. The infants of the women who seroconverted were tested for HIV infection at 6 weeks using Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) by collecting Dried Blood Sample. This study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016. Result: Out of the 163 patients studied, 6 demonstrated HIV seroconversion giving a seroconversion rate of 3.7%. Deliveries from the seroconverted patients were 5 live births and 1 intrauterine fetal death. All the 5 live babies tested HIV negative at 6 weeks of age. Predictors of seroconversion in late pregnancy include spouse's HIV status and number of other sexual partners. Conclusion: Retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices has a huge role to play in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
18.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019037, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country. METHODS: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016). RESULTS: Men accounted for 93.3% of the total number of respondents, and approximately 55.8% of respondents reported having an acute infection symptom. According to the transmission route, infection caused by sexual contact accounted for 94.4%, of which 60.4% were caused by sexual contact with the same sex or both males and females. Participants repeatedly answered the survey to decrease depression and anxiety scores. Of the total participants, 89.1% received antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the initial ART, 95.3% of patients were treated based on the recommendation. The median CD4 T-cell count at the time of diagnosis was 229.5 and improved to 331 after the initial ART. Of the patients, 16.6% and 9.4% had tuberculosis and syphilis, respectively, and 26.7% had pneumocystis pneumonia. In the medical history, sexually transmitted infectious diseases showed the highest prevalence, followed by endocrine diseases. The main reasons for termination were loss to follow-up (29.9%) and withdrawal of consent (18.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and ART should be performed at an appropriate time to prevent the development of new infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 941-946, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484258

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to examine the demographic characteristics, HIV related knowledge and behavior, correlates of bisexual behavior and status of HIV infection among men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) in Shandong province. Methods: According to the requirements from "National HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance program" , a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services among MSM in nine sentinel surveillance sites from April to July in 2018. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests on both HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results: A total of 3 474 participants were included in this study. Related information on these participants would include: average age as (31.66±9.01) years; 35.06% (1 218) married or cohabiting with a woman, 50.52% (1 755) had college or higher education, 80.11% (2 783) self-identified as gays and 14.22% (494) self-identified as bisexual men,16.87% (586) ever having sex with woman in the past 6 months, 10.51% (365) ever using drugs. HIV and syphilis prevalence rates were 2.99% (104/3 474) and 2.76%(96/3 474). Through multivariable logistic models, MSMW were more likely to be ≥35 years of age, local residents, self-identified as heterosexual/bisexual/uncertain, ever having commercial sex with man but less likely to consistently use condoms in the past 6 months, less using internet/dating software to find male sex partners and less using drugs. There was no significant differences noticed in the following areas: number of sexual partners in the last week, condom use in the last six months with commercial sex partners, with HIV or syphilis infection and self-reported history of STD in the past year between MSMO and MSMW (P>0.05). HIV-infected MSM were more likely to have the following features, ≥45 years of age, non-local residents, finding male sex partners from the bothhouses, park/toilets or from the internet/dating software, also less likely to consistently use condoms in the past 6 months, using drugs or with syphilis infection. Conclusions: High prevalence of bisexual behavior as well as higher risk of HIV infection were noticed among MSM in Shandong province. It is important to strengthen related surveillance and effective intervention programs for MSM with different characteristics in Shandong province.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 982-987, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484265

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes and the status of drug resistance among people living with HIV who had prepared to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture (Dehong). Methods: A total of 170 adults with HIV were recruited in Dehong from January to June 2017, before initiating ART. HIV-1 pol genes were amplified and used to analyze the HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance. Results: A total of 147 samples were successfully sequenced. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, 12 HIV-1 genotypes were found among the subjects, including three predominant genotypes such as subtype C (29.9%, 44/147), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (27.2%, 40/147) and CRF01_AE (19.7%, 29/147). Circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) which were newly identified in this area in recent years were also found among these subjects, including CRF62_BC, CRF64_BC, CRF86_BC and CRF96_cpx. The distribution of HIV-1 genotypes between heterosexual transmission or intravenous drug use, showed statistical difference. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were found among 8.8% (13/147) of the subjects. Proportion of drug resistant strains among injecting drug users (25.0%, 8/32) was higher than that among those heterosexual transmitted individuals (4.6%, 5/109, χ(2)=10.166, P=0.002). Conclusions: Among people living with HIV-1 who had prepared to initiate ART, their HIV-1 genetics were highly complicated, with moderate prevalence rate of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Genes pol , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Filogenia
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