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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18525, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914025

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is important for prevention and treatment. Ending the HIV epidemic is unattainable if significant proportions of people living with HIV remain undiagnosed, making HIV testing critical for prevention and treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV testing for persons aged 13 to 64 years in all health care settings. This study builds on prior research by estimating the extent to which HIV testing occurs during physician office and emergency department (ED) post 2006 CDC recommendations.We performed an unweighted and weighted cross-sectional analysis using pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys namely National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2009 to 2014. We assessed routine HIV testing trends and predictive factors in physician offices and ED using multi-stage statistical survey procedures in SAS 9.4.HIV testing rates in physician offices increased by 105% (5.6-11.5 per 1000) over the study period. A steeper increase was observed in ED with a 191% (2.3-6.7 per 1000) increase. Odds ratio (OR) for HIV testing in physician offices were highest among ages 20 to 29 ([OR] 7.20, 99% confidence interval [CI: 4.37-11.85]), males (OR 1.34, [CI: 0.91-0.93]), African-Americans (OR 2.97, [CI: 2.05-4.31]), Hispanics (OR 1.80, [CI: 1.17-2.78]), and among visits occurring in the South (OR 2.06, [CI: 1.23-3.44]). In the ED, similar trends of higher testing odds persisted for African Americans (OR 3.44, 99% CI 2.50-4.73), Hispanics (OR 2.23, 99% CI 1.65-3.01), and Northeast (OR 2.24, 99% CI 1.10-4.54).While progress has been made in screening, HIV testing rates remains sub-optimal for ED visits. Populations visiting the ED for routine care may suffer missed opportunities for HIV testing, which delays their entry into HIV medical care. To end the epidemic, new approaches for increasing targeted routine HIV testing for populations attending health care settings is recommended.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consultórios Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(4): 97-102, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999684

RESUMO

Identifying persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are unaware of their status and linking them to care are critical steps in achieving viral suppression and reducing the risk for transmitting HIV (1). In 2017, 43% of new diagnoses of HIV infection were among persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (blacks) (2), who represent 13% of the U.S. population (3). Fewer blacks, compared with whites, were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days of diagnosis, retained in care, or virally suppressed (4). Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) is an initiative intended to reduce new HIV infections by 90% from 2020 to 2030 (5). EHE's Phase 1 is focused on 50 jurisdictions* that accounted for >50% of new diagnoses during 2016-2017 and seven states† with disproportionate HIV prevalence in rural areas (5). The purpose of this analysis was to examine HIV testing outcomes among blacks in high prevalence EHE jurisdictions, using CDC's 2017 National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation data. Blacks accounted for 43.2% of CDC-funded tests and 49.1% of new diagnoses of HIV infection. Seventy-nine percent of blacks with newly diagnosed HIV infection were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days (below the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of 85%), 71.4% interviewed for partner services, and 81.8% referred to prevention services. To achieve the goals of EHE, HIV prevention programs should focus on locally tailored evidence-based§ testing strategies to enhance and overcome barriers for linkage to and retention in care and reduce onward HIV transmission and HIV-related disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1398-1402, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838811

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases in Gansu province from 1997 to 2018. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the AIDS epidemic data of Gansu from 1997 to 2018 collected from the National HIV/AIDS information system. Life-span table were used to calculate survival rate, Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curves and calculate the average survival time, the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to analyze the risk factors for death for HIV/AIDS cases. Results: Among 6 813 HIV/AIDS cases, 715 (10.5%) died, and the average survival time was 195.9 months (95%CI: 189.7-202.2). The survival rates of 12 months, 60 months, 120 months and 180 months were 91.5%, 86.1%, 79.9% and 73.8%, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the risk factors for death in the HIV/AIDS cases were age (≥51 years old vs. ≤25 years old, HR=1.906, 95%CI: 1.353-2.685), transmission route (blood borne and others transmission vs. heterosexual transmission, HR=1.593, 95%CI: 1.226-2.069), detection way (hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination vs. entry-exit health examination, pre-marital examination and physical examination of recruits, HR=5.113, 95%CI: 2.083-12.547), disease phase (AIDS phase vs. HIV infection phase: HR=4.012, 95%CI: 3.401-4.732), baseline CD(4) count (no CD(4) detected vs. CD(4) count ≥350/µl, HR=5.446, 95%CI: 3.835-7.732), antiretroviral therapy (receiving no antiretroviral therapy vs. receiving antiretroviral therapy, HR=12.019, 95%CI: 9.861-14.648). Conclusions: The average survival time of HIV/AIDS cases was above 16 years in Gansu during 1997 to 2018. Death risk of HIV/AIDS cases might be increased by age ≥51 years, hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination, AIDS phase of disease phase, no baseline CD(4) detected and no receiving antiretroviral therapy. It is necessary to conduct early HIV test, diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and increase antiretroviral treatment rates and CD(4) testing rate to improve the survival of HIV/AIDS cases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1429, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feminization and ethnic diversification of HIV infection, has resulted in a call for gender- and culture-specific prevention strategies for at-risk groups including Latinos in the United States. The steadily changing demographic profile of the AIDS epidemic challenges prevention strategies to remain relevant and up-to-date, particularly in populations of women midlife and older where an understanding of risk remains under explored. As the CDC requests country-specific HIV risk profiles for Latino communities in the US, understanding the socio-economic, behavioral and personal risk reasons of HIV risk for older Dominican women is critical for prevention. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions informed by the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP). The three constructs of the TGP: 1) Affective influences/social norms; 2) Gender-specific norms and. 3) Power and Authority guided the thematic analysis and identified themes that described the socio-cultural and contextual reasons that that contribute to perceptions of HIV risk. RESULTS: Sixty Dominican American women ages 57-73 participated in our focus group discussions. Sexual Division of Labour: 1) Economic Dependence; 2) Financial Need and 3) Education and Empowerment. Sexual Division of Power: 4) HIV Risk and 5) Relationship Dynamics. Cathexis: Affective Influences/Social Norms: 6) HIV/AIDS Knowledge and 7) Prevention and Testing. Importantly, participants were concerned about partner fidelity when visiting the Dominican Republic, as the country accounts for the second highest HIV rates in the Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous findings about perceptions of HIV risk and provide additional insight into aging-related aspects of HIV risk for Latino women midlife and older.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873-879, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600183

RESUMO

Correct and consistent condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are protective against sexual transmission of HIV (1,2). The incidence of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States is increasing (3). HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino MSM differs based on their place of birth and years of U.S. residence (4). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS)* for 2011-2017 were analyzed to assess changes in sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino MSM by place of birth and years of U.S. residence. Overall, condomless anal sex during the previous 12 months increased from 63% in 2011 to 74% in 2017, and PrEP use during the previous 12 months increased from 3% in 2014 to 24% in 2017. Regardless of place of birth, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex during 2017. However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no PrEP use) during 2017. Results indicate that PrEP can be a vital tool for reducing HIV transmission among Hispanic/Latino MSM, especially those who have condomless anal sex. Interventions to prevent HIV acquisition, including increasing PrEP uptake, could address cultural and linguistic needs of Hispanic/Latino MSM, as well as other barriers to prevention of HIV infection typically faced by all MSM.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 331-339, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541391

RESUMO

Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the South have the highest rates of HIV diagnosis in the country adding to the persistent racial disparities in HIV experienced by this population. The current HIV prevention and care landscape is heavily driven by individual-level clinical and biomedical approaches that have shown progress in reducing HIV diagnoses, but yield less than adequate results in reducing the HIV racial disparities for Black MSM in the South. In efforts to enhance focus on reducing the racial HIV disparities and more completely address the needs of Black MSM in the South, we offer insight on comprehensive approaches that can complement our current HIV prevention and care portfolio. There are five domains we discuss which include: (1) leveraging and integrating resources; (2) building upon existing program models designed to reduce disparities; (3) workforce development and cultural sensitivity; (4) social determinants of health data utilization; and 5) policy considerations. We urge public health practitioners and healthcare providers to consider and incorporate the outlined approaches to improve HIV outcomes along the continuum of care and ultimately reduce disparities in HIV affecting the quality of life of Black MSM living in the South.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Fortalecimento Institucional , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(37): 801-806, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536484

RESUMO

In 2017, preliminary data show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 67% of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, that MSM who inject drugs accounted for an additional 3%, and that African American/black (black) and Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) MSM were disproportionately affected (1). During 2010-2015, racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence increased among MSM; in 2015, rates among black and Hispanic MSM were 10.5 and 4.9 times as high, respectively, as the rate among white MSM (compared with 9.2 and 3.8 times as high, respectively, in 2010) (2). Increased use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV infection by approximately 99% when taken daily as prescribed,* would help to reduce these disparities and support the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America initiative† (3). Although PrEP use has increased among all MSM since 2014 (4), racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use could increase existing disparities in HIV incidence among MSM (5). To understand racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, discussion with a health care provider, and use (steps in the HIV PrEP continuum of care) (6), CDC analyzed 2017 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data. Black and Hispanic MSM were significantly less likely than were white MSM to be aware of PrEP, to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider, or to have used PrEP within the past year. Among those who had discussed PrEP with a health care provider within the past year, 68% of white MSM, 62% of Hispanic MSM, and 55% of black MSM, reported PrEP use. Prevention efforts need to increase PrEP use among all MSM and target eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use.§.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 224-232, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473847

RESUMO

HIV prevention goals in the United States include reducing new HIV infections among people in the South Census region (commonly referred as the South). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, we examined trends in HIV diagnoses in the South, including the Deep South and Other South, during 2012-2017. Although diagnosis rates declined in all regions during the time period, declines were greater in all other regions compared to the Deep South, with the exception of the West region. Moreover, the South continues to have a diagnosis rate 50% higher (65% higher in the Deep South) than that of any other region. Diagnoses in the Deep South increased among some groups, including men who have sex with men, persons aged 25-34 years and Hispanics/Latinos. These findings highlight the need to further strengthen interventions in the South, particularly among communities of color and young adults.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/tendências , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 304-312, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456198

RESUMO

Client-level data from two Tennessee-based PrEP navigation demonstration projects reported to the Tennessee Department of Health from January to December 2017 were evaluated to determine the proportion of clients who accepted, were linked to, and were prescribed PrEP. Disparities by age, race, transmission risk, and geographic region as well as trends over time were examined via bivariate and multivariable modified Poisson regression models accounting for potential confounders. Among 1385 PrEP-eligible individuals, 50.5% accepted, 33.4% were linked, and 27.3% were prescribed PrEP. PrEP uptake varied by age, race, and HIV transmission risk, and most disparities persisted across Tennessee throughout evaluation period. Multivariable regression models revealed significant independent associations between age, race/ethnicity, transmission risk, and region and PrEP acceptance and linkage. While differences in PrEP acceptance by race narrowed over time, success among black MSM was limited, underscoring a significant need to improve upstream PrEP continuum outcomes for this important population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Distribuição por Sexo , Tennessee
10.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 319-330, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444712

RESUMO

Nearly half of HIV infections in the United States are concentrated among African Americans, and over half of new HIV infections occur in the South. African Americans have poorer outcomes in the entire continua of HIV and PrEP care. Complex social, structural, and behavioral factors contribute to our nation's alarming racial disparities in HIV infection, particularly in the Deep South. Despite the importance of faith, spirituality and religious practice in the lives of many African Americans, there has been little scientific investment exploring how African Americans' religious participation, faith and spirituality may impact our nation's HIV epidemic. This article summarizes the state of the science on this critical issue. We also identify opportunities for new scholarship on how faith, spirituality and religious participation may impact HIV care continuum outcomes in the South and call for greater federal research investment on these issues.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Organizações Religiosas , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Espiritualidade , Estados Unidos
11.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 266-275, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463712

RESUMO

Minority stress theory posits that homonegativity-whether experienced, anticipated, or internalized-adversely impacts health. We conducted qualitative interviews with 28 YB-GBMSM living with HIV to explore manifestations of homonegativity over the life course. Thematic analysis identified patterns in the ways that homonegativity was discussed at different points in participants' lives. Stifling, and sometimes traumatic, familial and religious environments led to experienced homonegativity early in life. These experiences led to anticipated and internalized homonegativity, which in turn shaped sexual identity formation processes in adolescence and into young adulthood. Ultimately, many participants distanced themselves from home environments, seeking and often finding extrafamilial support. Most participants eventually reached self-acceptance of both their sexuality and HIV status. In conclusion, experienced, anticipated and internalized homonegativity were pervasive as YB-GBMSM navigated family and religious environments over the life course. Future interventions should work with youth, families, and churches to prevent these harmful experiences.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Georgia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2600-2609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367967

RESUMO

Men diagnosed with HIV face gender-related barriers to initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This qualitative study (73 in-depth interviews; 28 focus group discussions), conducted with men in three urban sites in Côte d'Ivoire in 2016, examined perceptions of ART, including benefits and challenges, to explore how ART mitigates HIV's threats to men's sexuality, economic success, family roles, social status, and health. Participants perceived that adhering to ART would reduce risk of transmitting HIV to others, minimize job loss and lost productivity, and help maintain men's roles as decision makers and providers. ART adherence was thought to help reduce the threat of HIV-related stigma, despite concerns about unintentional disclosure. While ART was perceived to improve health directly, it restricted men's schedules. Side effects were also a major challenge. Social and behavior change approaches building on these insights may improve male engagement across the HIV care continuum.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Homens/psicologia , Adulto , Costa do Marfim , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social
13.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2610-2617, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377894

RESUMO

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and the postpartum period is necessary to prevent vertical HIV transmission and to secure the long-term health of an HIV-infected woman. Health behavior theory suggests that patients' attitudes towards medication can predict their medication-taking behaviour. This study sought to understand how women's attitudes towards ART changes between the pregnancy and postpartum periods, and the factors associated with these attitudes. The study enrolled 200 pregnant women living with HIV. Structured surveys were administered during pregnancy and at three and 6 months postpartum. Overall, attitudes towards ART were stable over time. More positive attitudes towards ART were associated with HIV acceptance, lower levels of depression, and lower levels of shame. Counselling interventions are needed to help HIV-infected women accept their status and reduce shameful emotions. Depression screening and treatment should be integrated into PMTCT services. This study emphasizes the importance of early attention to attitudes towards ART, in order to establish a trajectory of sustained care engagement.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 2992-3001, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392442

RESUMO

HIV-related stigma is associated with many negative health outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The theory of intersectionality suggests that the interactions of social identities affect PLHIV's experiences of stigma. This study aims to identify individual and interactive marginalized-group identities correlated with enacted HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in Florida. The sample (n = 932) was majority male (66.6%), Black (58.5%), and non-Latino (80.2%) with 53% reporting experiences of HIV-related stigma. In multinomial regression models, the interaction between race and ethnicity was significant where non-White Latinos had higher odds of experiencing high levels of enacted stigma [AOR (CI) 7.71 (2.41, 24.73), p < 0.001] compared to white non-Latinos. Additionally, racial minorities were less likely to have experienced moderate or high levels of enacted stigma [AOR (CI) 0.47 (0.31, 0.72), p < 0.001; AOR (CI) 0.39 (0.22, 0.70), p = 0.002, respectively]. Moreover, women had higher odds of experiencing high levels of enacted stigma [AOR (CI) 2.04 (1.13, 3.67), p = 0.018]. The results suggest that intersectionality is important to consider in HIV-related stigma research and future interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(27): 597-603, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298662

RESUMO

In February 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services proposed a strategic initiative to end the human immunodeficiency (HIV) epidemic in the United States by reducing new HIV infections by 90% during 2020-2030* (1). Phase 1 of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative focuses on Washington, DC; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and 48 counties where the majority of new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2016 and 2017 were concentrated and on seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas relative to other states.† One of the four pillars in the initiative is protecting persons at risk for HIV infection using proven, comprehensive prevention approaches and treatments, such as HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is the use of antiretroviral medications that have proven effective at preventing infection among persons at risk for acquiring HIV. In 2014, CDC released clinical PrEP guidelines to health care providers (2) and intensified efforts to raise awareness and increase the use of PrEP among persons at risk for infection, including gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), a group that accounted for an estimated 68% of new HIV infections in 2016 (3). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) were collected in 20 U.S. urban areas in 2014 and 2017, covering 26 of the geographic areas included in Phase I of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative, and were compared to assess changes in PrEP awareness and use among MSM. From 2014 to 2017, PrEP awareness increased by 50% overall, with >80% of MSM in 17 of the 20 urban areas reporting PrEP awareness in 2017. Among MSM with likely indications for PrEP (e.g., sexual risk behaviors or recent bacterial sexually transmitted infection [STI]), use of PrEP increased by approximately 500% from 6% to 35%, with significant increases observed in all urban areas and in almost all demographic subgroups. Despite this progress, PrEP use among MSM, especially among black and Hispanic MSM, remains low. Continued efforts to improve coverage are needed to reach the goal of 90% reduction in HIV incidence by 2030. In addition to developing new ways of connecting black and Hispanic MSM to health care providers through demonstration projects, CDC has developed resources and tools such as the Prescribe HIV Prevention program to enable health care providers to integrate PrEP into their clinical care.§ By routinely testing their patients for HIV, assessing HIV-negative patients for risk behaviors, and prescribing PrEP as needed, health care providers can play a critical role in this effort.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 2936-2945, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321638

RESUMO

This project established a faith-based, university-community partnership with the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church in Alabama to develop a statewide training model to address HIV knowledge and stigma, promote discussion and generate action plans to address HIV in the Deep South. A community-engaged research team consisting of church leadership and university researchers developed and implemented the model, "Love with No Exceptions." Mixed methods were used to evaluate the model delivered in 3-h sessions in five state regions (N = 146 clergy and laity). The majority of participants reported feeling better prepared to serve those living with or affected by HIV and would implement education and awareness activities in their churches. Participants' HIV knowledge increased from pre- to post-training. Stigma-related attitudes showed minor changes from baseline. These results reflect that partnerships between academic institutions and churches can deliver promising steps towards impactful HIV education in the Deep South.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Clero , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Religião , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Alabama , Fortalecimento Institucional , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Liderança , Amor , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Universidades
17.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2629-2633, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292826

RESUMO

To improve outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents, the Malawi Ministry of Health is supporting scale-up of "Teen Clubs," a facility-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery model. Teen Clubs are monthly ART clinics for adolescents (10-19 years old) that provide clinical services and peer psychosocial support. This paper assesses ART adherence among Teen Club attendees in Malawi. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and Teen Club attendance data on 589 HIV-positive adolescents at 16 Partners in Hope (PIH)-Extending Quality Improvement for HIV/AIDS in Malawi (EQUIP) supported facilities across Malawi, from January to June of 2017, who attended at least two Teen Club sessions. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to examine the role of gender and age on optimal ART adherence (≥ 95% based on pill count) among HIV-positive adolescents enrolled in Teen Clubs. The median age of adolescents in this sample was 14 years, and 47% were male. Older adolescent males (15-19 years) were 64% more likely to achieve ≥ 95% ART adherence (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31, p < 0.01) compared to younger (10-14 years) males. The effect of age on adherence was smaller and not significant among females (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96-1.94, p = 0.08). In the full model including males and females, older adolescence was associated with higher odds of optimal adherence (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.90, p < 0.01). These results reinforce the need for age-specialized programming for adolescents, and future research should evaluate this in achieving optimal ART adherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 424-428, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Asian men who have sex with men (MSM) who have recently arrived in Australia are an emergent risk group for HIV; however, little is known about how they compare to Australian MSM diagnosed with HIV. This study compared the characteristics of these two groups. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of MSM diagnosed with HIV between January 2014 and October 2017 in Melbourne and Sydney public sexual health clinics. Asian MSM were those who had arrived in Australia within 4 years of diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 111 Asian men, 75% spoke a language other than English, 88% did not have Medicare and 61% were international students. Compared with Australian men (n=209), Asian men reported fewer male sexual partners within 12 months (median 4 versus 10, p<0.001), were less likely to have tested for HIV previously (71% versus 89%, p<0.001) and had a lower median CD4 count (326 versus 520, p<0.001). Among Asian men, HIV subtype CRF01-AE was more common (55% versus 16%, p<0.001) and subtype B less common (29% versus 73%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Asian MSM diagnosed with HIV reported lower risk and had more advanced HIV. Implications for public health: HIV testing and preventative interventions supporting international students are required.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2588-2599, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263998

RESUMO

Black and Latina transgender women (BLTW) are disproportionately impacted by HIV but remain underrepresented in HIV and health services research. Between March 2016 and May 2017, BLTW (N = 201) were recruited in Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, DC through convenience sampling for a survey assessing multilevel determinants of HIV risk and treatment outcomes. Interviews concluded with a rapid oral HIV test. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to identify gender affirmation-related correlates of self-reported HIV treatment interruptions (HIVTIs) among BLTW living with HIV who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) (n = 96). Among them, 57.3% (n = 55) reported at least one HIVTI. Unmet surgical needs (aOR = 1.6), past-year marijuana use (aOR = 14.6), and no current hormone use (aOR = 24.9) were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with HIVTIs in multivariable analysis. Unmet need for gender affirmation may inhibit ART adherence, highlighting opportunities to mitigate care interruptions in alignment with community needs and goals.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Baltimore/epidemiologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Transexualismo
20.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 2946-2955, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332597

RESUMO

Transactional sex is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and HIV risk but few studies in the United States (US) have examined both individual and area-level predictors of transactional sex or distinguished transactional sex from sex work. We combined data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 064 study and the US Census to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for the relationship between census-level and individual measures of economic deprivation and housing instability on transactional sex in 417 women in North Carolina. Increased transactional sex was associated with food insecurity (PR 1.86; 95%; CI 1.57, 2.19), housing instability (PR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11, 1.59), substance abuse (PR 1.90; 95% CI 1.64, 2.19) and partner incarceration (PR 1.32; 95% CI 1.09, 1.61). Census-level indicators were not associated with transactional sex, adjusted for individual-level covariates. Interventions should support housing stability and financial opportunities among southern African American women to reduce HIV risk, particularly among women with incarcerated partners.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Pobreza , Trabalho Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Rede Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
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