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1.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care improves the quality of lives of patients and families affected by advanced illnesses through the prevention and relief of suffering. While palliative care is well established in developed countries, it is inadequate or non-existent in most developing countries. Palliative care is an emerging concept in Bhutan, a tiny Himalayan Kingdom. A small community palliative care service is available in the national referral hospital with three dedicated inpatient palliative care beds. This study explored the needs for palliative care among patients diagnosed with advanced illnesses and is a component of a larger project aimed to inform a suitable palliative care model for the country. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. A survey, using a structured questionnaire including the EORTC QLQ-C30, was carried out among patients with advanced illness in hospitals, primary care units and communities across the country. Purposeful and snowball sampling strategies were used to recruit study participants. RESULTS: Seventy (76%), out of 93 eligible patients, agreed to participate in the survey. Participants reported low to moderate scores on physical, role, emotional, cognitive and social functioning, a moderate score for the global health/ quality of life scale and moderately high (worse) scores in symptoms including fatigue, pain, insomnia, loss of appetite and the financial impact from the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The symptom burden experienced by patients affected by advanced illnesses demonstrates the need for palliative care in Bhutan. These findings will help inform the development of a public health-focused palliative care model, modified to the Bhutanese context, as recommended by the World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Butão , Cognição , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/psicologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Doente Terminal , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/psicologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(1): 107-122, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112262

RESUMO

Objective: Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men. The relationship between health status, sex steroids and body composition is poorly known in HIV. The aim was to investigate the association between health status (comorbidities/frailty), body composition, and gonadal function in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: HIV-infected men aged <50 years and ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy were enrolled. Serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LH and FSH by immunoassay. Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scan. Multimorbidity (MM) and frailty were defined as ≥3 comorbidities and by a 37-item index, respectively. Results: A total of 316 HIV-infected men aged 45.3 ± 5.3 years were enrolled. Body fat parameters were inversely related to cFT and TT, and directly related to E1 and E2/testosterone (TS) ratio. Patients with MM had lower cFT (P < 0.0001) and TT (P = 0.036), and higher E1 (P < 0.0001) and E2/TS ratio (P = 0.002). Frailty was inversely related to cFT (R2 = 0.057, P < 0.0001) and TT (R2 = 0.013, P = 0.043), and directly related to E1 (R2 = 0.171, P < 0.0001), E2 (R2 = 0.041, P = 0.004) and E2/TS ratio (R2 = 0.104, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Lower TT and cFT, higher E1, E2/TS ratio and visceral fat were independently associated to poor health status and frailty, being possible hallmarks of unhealthy conditions in adult HIV-infected men. Overall, MM, frailty and body fat mass are strictly associated to each other and to sex steroids, concurring together to functional male hypogonadism in HIV.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Estrona/sangue , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Testosterona/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Fragilidade/virologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to systematically quantify adverse events (AE) will assist in the improvement of medical care and the QoL of patients living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported side effects and other PROs, demographics and laboratory data, and further evaluate the Health Questionnaire (HQ) as a tool for following trends in patient-reported side effects over time in relation to trends in prescribed third agent in ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Swedish National Registry InfCareHiv includes an annual self-reported nine-item HQwhich is used in patient-centered HIV care in all Swedish HIV units. In this study, the experience of side effects was addressed. We analyzed 9,476 HQs completed by 4,186 PLWH together with details about their prescribed ART and relevant biomarkers collected during 2011-2017. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and mixed logistic regression. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis of the HQs showed that the frequency of reported side effects decreased from 32% (2011) to 15% (2017). During the same period, there was a shift in ART prescription from efavirenz (EFV) to dolutegravir (DTG) (positive correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p = 0.0016). Further, PLWH who reported being satisfied with their physical health (OR: 0.47, p = <0.001) or psychological health (OR: 0.70, p = 0.001) were less likely to report side effects than those less satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported side effects were found to have a close relationship with the patient's ratings of their overall health situation and demonstrated a strong correlation with the sharp decline in use of EFV and rise in use of DTG, with reported side effects being halved. This study supports the feasibility of using the HQ as a tool for longitudinal follow up of trends in PROs.


Assuntos
Alquinos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Alquinos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Suécia
4.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202656

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has actually become the newest challenge for the healthcare system since, to date, there is not an effective treatment. Among all drugs tested, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has attracted significant attention. This systematic review aims to analyze preclinical and clinical studies on HCQ potential use in viral infection and chronic diseases. A systematic search of Scopus and PubMed databases was performed to identify clinical and preclinical studies on this argument; 2463 papers were identified and 133 studies were included. Regarding HCQ activity against COVID-19, it was noticed that despite the first data were promising, the latest outcomes highlighted the ineffectiveness of HCQ in the treatment of viral infection. Several trials have seen that HCQ administration did not improve severe illness and did not prevent the infection outbreak after virus exposure. By contrast, HCQ arises as a first-line treatment in managing autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren syndrome. It also improves glucose and lipid homeostasis and reveals significant antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/fisiopatologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/fisiopatologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
5.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(9): 417-424, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the role of HIV and non-HIV related factors is essential for a better understanding of the neurocognitive outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) young people. The aim of our study was to assess cognition and quality of life (QoL) of a PHIV+ cohort of young people and to compare it with a control group. METHODS: Thirty PHIV+ and 30 HIV(-) healthy young adults matched by age, sex and socioeconomic status completed a protocol that included neurocognitive tests, a psychosocial semi-structured interview and a QoL questionnaire (PedsQL). Neurocognitive domain-specific and domain-general (NPZ-5) Z-scores were calculated. CDC AIDS-defining category C or not C (PHIV+/C, PHIV+/noC) was considered to evaluate differences within the PHIV+ group. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. RESULTS: Sixty patients were included; 67% were female; median age (IQR) 19 years (18-21). Regarding PHIV+ young people, 27% showed CDC C category (none encephalopathy), 93% were on ART and 77% had undetectable viral load. No differences regarding occupation were found, although the HIV(−) group repeated less grades (p = 0.028) and had a higher education level (p = 0.021). No differences were found between PHIV+/noC and HIV(−) participants. However, the PHIV+/C group showed poorer performance than PHIV+/noC (NPZ-5, p = 0.037) and HIV(-) subjects (crystallised intelligence, p = 0.025; intelligence quotient, p = 0.016). Higher nadir CD4+ T-cell count was related to better Z-score in memory (p = 0.007) and NPZ-5 (p = 0.025). Earlier and longer exposure to ART resulted in better performance in memory (p = 0.004) and executive functions (p = 0.015), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were found in the neurocognitive profile nor QoL between PHIV+/noC and HIV(-) adolescents; however, PHIV+/C participants obtained lower scores. The use of longer and earlier ART seems to have a beneficial effect


ANTECEDENTES: Para estudiar el perfil neurocognitivo de jóvenes infectados perinatalmente por VIH (PVIH+) es importante valorar tanto los factores asociados al virus como los no relacionados. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar la cognición y la calidad de vida de una cohorte de jóvenes PVIH+ y compararlas con las de un grupo control. MÉTODOS: Treinta jóvenes PVIH+ y 30 sujetos sanos VIH− pareados por edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico completaron un protocolo que incluía pruebas neurocognitivas, entrevista psicosocial semiestructurada y cuestionario de calidad de vida PedsQL. Se calculó el Z-score global (NPZ-5) y específico para cada dominio neurocognitivo. Adicionalmente, se consideró la categoría SIDA (PVIH+/C, PVIH+/noC). Se realizó análisis univariante y multivariante. RESULTADOS: De los 60 pacientes incluidos, el 67% eran mujeres; edad media (IQR) 19años (18-21). Respecto al grupo PVIH+, el 27% tenían categoría CDCC (ninguna encefalopatía), el 93% tomaban antirretrovirales y el 77% tenían carga viral indetectable. No hubo diferencias en cuanto a ocupación, aunque el grupo VIH− repitió menos cursos académicos (p = 0,028) y tuvo mayor nivel educativo (p = 0,021). No hubo diferencias entre los grupos PVIH+/noC y VIH−. El grupo PVIH+/C tuvo un rendimiento inferior al de PVIH+/noC (NPZ-5, p = 0,037) y VIH− (inteligencia cristalizada, p = 0,025; cociente de inteligencia, p = 0,016). Mayor nadir de célulasT CD4+ se relacionó con mejor Z-score en Memoria (p = 0,007) y NPZ-5 (p = 0,025). La exposición temprana y prolongada a la terapia antirretroviral favoreció un mejor rendimiento en Memoria (p = 0,004) y en Funciones Ejecutivas (p = 0,015), respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: No hubo diferencias significativas en el perfil neurocognitivo ni en calidad de vida entre los adolescentes PVIH+/noC y VIH−; sin embargo, los participantes PVIH+/C obtuvieron puntuaciones más bajas. La exposición temprana y prolongada a la terapia antirretroviral parece tener un efecto beneficioso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise Multivariada , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia
6.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 263-268, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119455

RESUMO

Background: Health care workers play an integral role in the rehabilitation and care of people living with HIV who face multiple impairments and often disabilities. The aim of the article was to understand the perceptions and attitudes of health care workers towards caring for people living with HIV, and experiencing disability. Methods: Fifteen health care workers offering care to people living with HIV were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. These health care workers included doctors, a social worker, a pharmacist, a dietician, an occupational therapist, a physiotherapist, and nurses and HIV couPnsellors who were employed at a public health care facility in KwaZulu-Natal. Data from the interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: Four themes emerged from semi-structured interviews with the health care workers: a holistic disability framework, a multidisciplinary team dynamic, organisational barriers and recommendations by health care workers. Conclusion: Health care workers perceived a shift from a biomedical perspective of disability to a bio-psychosocial interpretation that is influenced by contextual and environmental barriers imposed by communities on people living with HIV. Barriers included stigmatisation that leads to attitudinal barriers and social exclusion of people living with HIV and experiencing disabilities within communities. Lack of resources, including of equipment, and a shortage of health care staff also posed barriers to the care offered to people living with HIV and experiencing disabilities. Participants agreed that improved communication in the multidisciplinary health care team, as well as continuing education and training, would enable health care workers to offer improved, integrated care to people living with HIV who experience disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/reabilitação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105212, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066908

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Encephalopathy is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Although the encephalopathy is idiopathic in many cases, there are several published reports of patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. OBJECTIVE: To describe the diverse presentations, risk factors, and outcomes of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We assessed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome at our institution from April 1 to June 24, 2020. We performed a literature search to capture all known published cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus 2019 at our institution during a 3-month period. One patient was treated with anakinra, an interleukin-1 inhibitor that may disrupt endothelial function. The second patient had an underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection. We found 13 total cases in our literature search, which reported modest blood pressure fluctuations and a range of risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient was treated with tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 inhibitor that may have effects on endothelial function. All patients had an improvement in their neurological symptoms. Interval imaging, when available, showed radiographic improvement of brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 may include underlying infection or immunomodulatory agents with endothelial effects in conjunction with modest blood pressure fluctuations. We found that the neurological prognosis for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 infection is favorable. Recognition of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in this patient population is critical for prognostication and initiation of treatment, which may include cessation of potential offending agents and tight blood pressure control.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/virologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/imunologia , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
8.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3156-3168, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897811

RESUMO

Understanding the relationship between infection and stroke has taken on new urgency in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This association is not a new concept, as several infections have long been recognized to contribute to stroke risk. The association of infection and stroke is also bidirectional. Although infection can lead to stroke, stroke also induces immune suppression which increases risk of infection. Apart from their short-term effects, emerging evidence suggests that poststroke immune changes may also adversely affect long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with stroke, increasing the risk of poststroke neurodegeneration and dementia. Infections at the time of stroke may also increase immune dysregulation after the stroke, further exacerbating the risk of cognitive decline. This review will cover the role of acute infections, including respiratory infections such as COVID-19, as a trigger for stroke; the role of infectious burden, or the cumulative number of infections throughout life, as a contributor to long-term risk of atherosclerotic disease and stroke; immune dysregulation after stroke and its effect on the risk of stroke-associated infection; and the impact of infection at the time of a stroke on the immune reaction to brain injury and subsequent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Finally, we will present a model to conceptualize the many relationships among chronic and acute infections and their short- and long-term neurological consequences. This model will suggest several directions for future research.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Bacteriemia/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/fisiopatologia , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Infecções/imunologia , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Ativação Plaquetária , Agregação Plaquetária , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/imunologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/imunologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/fisiopatologia
9.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(3): 417-427, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762860

RESUMO

It has been more than 38 years since the first reported case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Over this period of time, there has been an evolution in the care, management, and survival of those living with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Current efforts to stabilize HIV incidence have targeted pharmacologic management with antiretroviral therapy (ART) coupled with programs that focus on individual characteristics, social norms, and structural barriers. It is important that clinicians are knowledgeable of prevention efforts and up-to-date clinical practice guidelines in order to best provide care for people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21141, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) is one of the main opportunistic infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and represents a social burden due to its high prevalence and morbidity. Concomitant antiretroviral therapy (ART), together with effective anti- toxoplasma combination therapy, is an effective strategy to treat AIDS-associated TE (AIDS/TE) patients. However, the timing for the initiation of ART after diagnosis of TE remains controversial. We therefore designed the present study to determine the optimal timing for ART initiation in AIDS/TE patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial is a 17-center, randomized, prospective clinical study with 2 parallel arms. A total of 200 participants will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio into the 2 arms: the early ART initiation (≤14 days after TE diagnosis) arm and the deferred ART (>14 days after TE diagnosis) arm. The primary outcome will be the difference of mortality between the 2 arms at 48 weeks. The secondary outcomes will be the differences between the 2 arms in the changes of CD4+ counts from baseline to week 48, the rate of virologic suppression (HIV ribonucleic acid <50 copies/mL) from baseline to week 48, the incidence of TE-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during the study period, and the incidence of adverse effects during the study period. DISCUSSION: This present trial aims to evaluate the optimal timing for ART initiation in AIDS/TE patients, and will provide strong evidence for AIDS/TE treatment should it be successful. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered as one of the 12 trials under the name of a general project at the chictr.gov (http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=35362) on February 1, 2019, and the registration number of the general project is ChiCTR1900021195.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos Clínicos , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/fisiopatologia
11.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527757

RESUMO

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Hepatite B/fisiopatologia , Hepatite C/fisiopatologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/genética , Humanos , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
12.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 688-698, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359507

RESUMO

Globally, 1·7 million children are living with HIV, of which 90% are in sub-Saharan Africa. The remarkable scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in increasing numbers of children with HIV surviving to adolescence. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV diagnosis is often delayed with children starting antiretroviral therapy late in childhood. There have been increasing reports from low-income settings of children with HIV who have multisystem chronic comorbidities despite antiretroviral therapy. Many of these chronic conditions show clinical phenotypes distinct from those in adults with HIV, and result in disability and reduced quality of life. In this Review, we discuss the spectrum and pathogenesis of comorbidities in children with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of perinatally acquired HIV infection is a priority. Additionally, there is a need for increased awareness of the burden of chronic comorbidities. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies need to be collectively developed if children with HIV are to achieve their full potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos
13.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(3): 226-236, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394155

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Different factors contribute to the decreased overall long-term survival in treated people living with HIV (PLWH). This paper will review the state of physical frailty which limits successful aging in PLWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Identifiable events on the continuum from clinical normality to heightened risk of adverse health outcomes contribute to frailty. These center on chronic inflammation leading to destabilization of autoregulated physiologic systems challenged by environmental and biologic challenges. Frailty assessment can inform the profile of aging PLWH at increased risk of common age-related disorders and geriatric syndromes. Biologic and psychosocial risk factors promoting progression to and reversion from a dynamic state of frailty are being investigated, allowing for preventative interventions to be considered. Insights gained from studying frail PLWH will help adapt an interdisciplinary geriatric model of health care for selected PLWH. This will improve the health and well-being of aging PLWH.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0220165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We extend the method of Significant Zero Crossings of Derivatives (SiZer) to address within-subject correlations of repeatedly collected longitudinal biomarker data and the computational aspects of the methodology when analyzing massive biomarker databases. SiZer is a powerful visualization tool for exploring structures in curves by mapping areas where the first derivative is increasing, decreasing or does not change (plateau) thus exploring changes and normalization of biomarkers in the presence of therapy. METHODS: We propose a penalized spline SiZer (PS-SiZer) which can be expressed as a linear mixed model of the longitudinal biomarker process to account for irregularly collected data and within-subject correlations. Through simulations we show how sensitive PS-SiZer is in detecting existing features in longitudinal data versus existing versions of SiZer. In a real-world data analysis PS-SiZer maps are used to map areas where the first derivative of weight change after antiretroviral therapy (ART) start is significantly increasing, decreasing or does not change, thus exploring the durability of weight increase after the start of therapy. We use weight data repeatedly collected from persons living with HIV initiating ART in five regions in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) worldwide collaboration and compare the durability of weight gain between ART regimens containing and not containing the drug stavudine (d4T), which has been associated with shorter durability of weight gain. RESULTS: Through simulations we show that the PS-SiZer is more accurate in detecting relevant features in longitudinal data than existing SiZer variants such as the local linear smoother (LL) SiZer and the SiZer with smoothing splines (SS-SiZer). In the illustration we include data from 185,010 persons living with HIV who started ART with a d4T (53.1%) versus non-d4T (46.9%) containing regimen. The largest difference in durability of weight gain identified by the SiZer maps was observed in Southern Africa where weight gain in patients treated with d4T-containing regimens lasted 59.9 weeks compared to 133.8 weeks for those with non-d4T-containing regimens. In the other regions, persons receiving d4T-containing regimens experienced weight gains lasting 38-62 weeks versus 55-93 weeks in those receiving non-d4T-based regimens. DISCUSSION: PS-SiZer, a SiZer variant, can handle irregularly collected longitudinal data and within-subject correlations and is sensitive in detecting even subtle features in biomarker curves.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , África , África Austral , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
Transl Res ; 221: 23-43, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360945

RESUMO

The human microbiome is constituted by an extensive network of organisms that lie at the host/environment interface and transduce signals that play vital roles in human health and disease across the lifespan. Frailty is a critical aging-related syndrome marked by diminished physiological reserve and heightened vulnerability to stress, predictive of major adverse clinical outcomes including death. While recent studies suggest the microbiome may impact key pathways critical to frailty pathophysiology, direct evaluation of the microbiome-frailty relationship remains limited. In this article, we review the complex interplay of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors that may influence shifts in gut microbiome composition and function in aging populations and the putative implications of such shifts for progression to frailty. We discuss HIV infection as a key prototype for elucidating the complex pathways via which the microbiome may precipitate frailty. Finally, we review considerations for future research efforts.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos
16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(7): 897-904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HIV and sickle cell disease (SCD) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given their separate roles in immune dysregulation, our objective was to characterise the impact that SCD has on the presentation and progression of paediatric HIV. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort study (study period 2004-2018). Cases of HIV + and SCD-afflicted patients (HIV+/SCD+) were obtained via electronic chart review from a paediatric HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda and matched 1:3 with HIV + controls without SCD (HIV+/SCD-). RESULTS: Thirty-five HIV+/SCD + subjects and 95 HIV+/SCD- controls were analysed (39% female (51/130), age 3.6 years (SD3.9)). At baseline, WHO clinical stage (64% total cohort Stage III/IV) and nutritional status (9.4% severe acute malnutrition) were similar for both groups, whereas HIV+/SCD + had higher though non-significant baseline CD4 count (1036 (SD713) vs 849 (SD638) cells/microlitre, P = 0.20, two-tailed t-test). There were 19 deaths, 6 (17%) HIV+/SCD + and 13 (14%) HIV+/SCD-, with unadjusted/adjusted models showing no significant difference. Nutritional progression and clinical stage progression showed no significant differences between groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a slower rate of treatment failures in the HIV+/SCD + cohort (P = 0.11, log-rank survival test). Trajectory analysis showed that in the time period analysed, the HIV+/SCD + cohort showed a more rapid rise and higher total CD4 count (P = 0.012, regression analysis). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that SCD does not adversely affect the progression of HIV in patients on ART. Further, HIV+/SCD + achieved higher CD4 counts and fewer HIV treatment failures, suggesting physiological effects due to SCD might mitigate HIV progression.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 290, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306918

RESUMO

In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at advanced age. Therefore, a patient-centered approach, in which the interventions are focused on the biology and function of the individual, with understanding of the importance of securing social and home environment that provides psychosocial support, better suits unmet health needs. We present a paradigmatic case of healthy aging: the first reported HIV-infected patient who achieved 100th of life - the Lisbon patient. The construct of healthy aging, recently introduced by the World Health Organization, is the best example of this comprehensive model and could represent the fourth target of UNAIDS agenda of the end of AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
20.
Microvasc Res ; 130: 104004, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234365

RESUMO

Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with the presence of endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients, which may impair oxygen delivery to muscles during exercise and exercise recovery. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to assess muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) kinetics during exercise in different clinical populations in order to evaluate the balance between oxygen delivery and utilization by muscles. However, studies assessing SmO2 in HIV-infected patients have not been conducted. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate NIRS-derived SmO2 during rhythmic handgrip exercise and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV-infected patients (HIV) compared to non-HIV-infected controls (N-HIV). Eighteen HIV and 17 N-HIV individuals underwent FMD assessment by ultrasound. The subjects then performed one set of rhythmic handgrip exercise until fatigue at 30% maximal isometric voluntary contraction. SmO2 was measured during entire exercise and 2-min exercise 3recovery. Muscle oxygen resaturation rate (upslope of the SmO2 over 10 s of recovery) was calculated. A significant lower FMD (3.5 ± 1.7 vs 5.9 ± 1.5%, P < 0.001) and slower oxygen resaturation rate (0.78 ± 0.4 vs 1.14 ± 0.4%·s-1, P = 0.020) in HIV as compared to N-HIV group were observed. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HIV-infected patients had reduced FMD and impaired muscle oxygenation during exercise recovery compared to non-HIV individuals.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/sangue , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Força da Mão , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Adulto Jovem
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