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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26285, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160393

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify viral exposure (VE) measures and their relationship to mortality risk among persons with HIV.Prospective multicenter observational study to compare VE formulae.Eligible participants initiated first combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between March 1, 1995 and June 30, 2015. We included 1645 participants followed for ≥6 months after starting first cART, with cART prescribed ≥75% of time, who underwent ≥2 plasma viral load (VL) and ≥1 CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell (CD4) measurement during observation. We evaluated all-cause mortality from 6 months after cART initiation until June 30, 2016. VE was quantified using 2 time-updated variables: viremia copy-years and percent of person-years (%PY) spent >200 or 50 copies/mL. Cox models were fit to estimate associations between VE and mortality.Participants contributed 10,453 person years [py], with median 14 VLs per patient. Median %PY >200 or >50 were 10% (interquartile range: 1%-47%) and 26% (interquartile range: 6%-72%), respectively. There were 115 deaths, for an overall mortality rate of 1.19 per 100 person years. In univariate models, each measure of VE was significantly associated with mortality risk, as were older age, public insurance, injection drug use HIV risk history, and lower pre-cART CD4. Based on model fit, most recent viral load and %PY >200 copies/mL provided the best combination of VE factors to predict mortality, although all VE combinations evaluated performed well.The combination of most recent VL and %PY >200 copies/mL best predicted mortality, although all evaluated VE measures performed well.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26507, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190180

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We investigated the temporal trends of short-term mortality (death within 1 year of diagnosis) and cause-specific deaths in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons by stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. We also assessed the impact of late diagnosis (LD) on short-term mortality.Epidemiological records of HIV-infected Singapore residents from the National HIV Registry were linked to death records from the Registry of Births and Deaths for observational analyses. Newly-diagnosed HIV cases with available cluster of differentiation 4 count at time of diagnosis in a 5-year period from 2012 to 2016 were included in the study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of LD for all deaths excluding suicides and self-inflicted or accidental injuries, and HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths occurring within 1 year post-diagnosis were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for age at HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) were then calculated using the adjusted HRs.Of the 1990 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included in the study, 7.2% had died by end of 2017, giving an overall mortality rate of 2.16 per 100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 1.82-2.54). The mortality rate was 3.81 per 100 PY (95% CI 3.15-4.56) in HIV cases with LD, compared with 0.71 (95% CI 0.46-1.05) in non-LD (nLD) cases. Short-term mortality was significantly higher in LD (9.1%) than nLD cases (1.1%). Of the 143 deaths reported between 2012 and 2017, 58.0% were HIV/AIDS-related (nLD 28.0% vs LD 64.4%). HIV/AIDS-related causes represented 70.4% of all deaths which occurred during the first year of diagnosis (nLD 36.4% vs LD 74.7%). The PARP of short-term mortality due to LD was 77.8% for all deaths by natural causes, and 87.8% for HIV/AIDS-related deaths.The mortality rate of HIV-infected persons with LD was higher than nLD, especially within 1 year of diagnosis, and HIV/AIDS-related causes constituted majority of these deaths. To reduce short-term mortality, persons at high risk of late-stage HIV infection should be targeted in outreach efforts to promote health screening and remove barriers to HIV testing and treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Infecções por HIV , Mortalidade/tendências , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Tardio/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Demografia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Lancet HIV ; 8(6): e363-e375, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-resolution estimates of HIV burden across space and time provide an important tool for tracking and monitoring the progress of prevention and control efforts and assist with improving the precision and efficiency of targeting efforts. We aimed to assess HIV incidence and HIV mortality for all second-level administrative units across sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a framework that used the geographically specific HIV prevalence data collected in seroprevalence surveys and antenatal care clinics to train a model that estimates HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15-49 years. We used a model-based geostatistical framework to estimate HIV prevalence at the second administrative level in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for 2000-18 and sought data on the number of individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by second-level administrative unit. We then modified the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) to use these HIV prevalence and treatment estimates to estimate HIV incidence and mortality by second-level administrative unit. FINDINGS: The estimates suggest substantial variation in HIV incidence and mortality rates both between and within countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with 15 countries having a ten-times or greater difference in estimated HIV incidence between the second-level administrative units with the lowest and highest estimated incidence levels. Across all 44 countries in 2018, HIV incidence ranged from 2·8 (95% uncertainty interval 2·1-3·8) in Mauritania to 1585·9 (1369·4-1824·8) cases per 100 000 people in Lesotho and HIV mortality ranged from 0·8 (0·7-0·9) in Mauritania to 676·5 (513·6-888·0) deaths per 100 000 people in Lesotho. Variation in both incidence and mortality was substantially greater at the subnational level than at the national level and the highest estimated rates were accordingly higher. Among second-level administrative units, Guijá District, Gaza Province, Mozambique, had the highest estimated HIV incidence (4661·7 [2544·8-8120·3]) cases per 100 000 people in 2018 and Inhassunge District, Zambezia Province, Mozambique, had the highest estimated HIV mortality rate (1163·0 [679·0-1866·8]) deaths per 100 000 people. Further, the rate of reduction in HIV incidence and mortality from 2000 to 2018, as well as the ratio of new infections to the number of people living with HIV was highly variable. Although most second-level administrative units had declines in the number of new cases (3316 [81·1%] of 4087 units) and number of deaths (3325 [81·4%]), nearly all appeared well short of the targeted 75% reduction in new cases and deaths between 2010 and 2020. INTERPRETATION: Our estimates suggest that most second-level administrative units in sub-Saharan Africa are falling short of the targeted 75% reduction in new cases and deaths by 2020, which is further compounded by substantial within-country variability. These estimates will help decision makers and programme implementers expand access to ART and better target health resources to higher burden subnational areas. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105929, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low- to middle-income countries experience a marked rise in cardiovascular diseases, and have the highest incidence of HIV infection. Stroke data in HIV-positive patients is still scarce. This study compares risk factors and types of stroke between HIV-positive and -negative patients in South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria over a 10-month period. All adult patients presenting with an acute stroke were included. RESULTS: One hundred and forty consecutive patients with stroke were included, 23% were HIV-positive. The average age in the HIV-positive group was 41 years, compared to 61 years in the HIV-negative group (p < 0.01). Ischemic infarcts occurred in 80.7 and 19.3% were hemorrhagic, with no significant difference between the HIV-positive and -negative group (ischemic: 81% vs 80%; hemorrhagic: 19% vs 20%; p = 0.55). Small vessel infarcts occurred more frequently in HIV-positive patients (25% vs 9.3%; p < 0.02). While 78% of HIV-positive patients presented with concomitant infections, these were found in only 23% of HIV-negative patients (P < 0.001). Hypertension (81% vs 37.5%; p = 0.01) and dyslipidemia (62% vs 38%; p = 0.01) were more prevalent in the HIV-negative patients. Confounding variables were gender and age. Although more than half of the HIV-positive patients were on antiretroviral therapy, the majority (62.5%) showed virological non-suppression. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection occurred in almost one-quarter of stroke patients and was seen more in the younger age group. Small vessel ischemic infarcts and underlying infections were more common in HIV-positive patients. The high number of HIV-positive patients with virological non-suppression is concerning and needs to be addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Carga Viral
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012972, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Xpert MTB/RIF in place of smear microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis (TB), and many countries have adopted it into their diagnostic algorithms. However, it is not clear whether the greater accuracy of the test translates into improved health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on patient outcomes in people being investigated for tuberculosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases, without language restriction, from 2007 to 24 July 2020: Cochrane Infectious Disease Group (CIDG) Specialized Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE OVID; Embase OVID; CINAHL EBSCO; LILACS BIREME; Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science), Social Sciences citation index (Web of Science), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (Web of Science). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry for ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included individual- and cluster-randomized trials, and before-after studies, in participants being investigated for tuberculosis. We analysed the randomized and non-randomized studies separately.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each study, two review authors independently extracted data, using a piloted data extraction tool. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane and Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) tools. We used random effects meta-analysis to allow for heterogeneity between studies in setting and design.  The certainty of the  evidence in the randomized trials was assessed by GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 12 studies: eight were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and four were before-and-after studies. Most included RCTs had a low risk of bias in most domains of the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. There was inconclusive evidence of an effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on all-cause mortality, both overall (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 1.05; 5 RCTs, 9932 participants, moderate-certainty evidence), and restricted to studies with six-month follow-up (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.22; 3 RCTs, 8143 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was probably a reduction in mortality in participants known to be infected with HIV (odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96; 5 RCTs, 5855 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether Xpert MTB/RIF has no or a modest effect on the proportion of participants starting tuberculosis treatment who had a successful treatment outcome (OR) 1.10, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.26; 3RCTs, 4802 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was also inconclusive evidence of an effect on the  proportion of participants who were treated for tuberculosis (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.23; 5 RCTs, 8793 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants treated for tuberculosis who had bacteriological confirmation was probably higher in the Xpert MTB/RIF group (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.61; 6 RCTs, 2068 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants with bacteriological confirmation who were lost to follow-up pre-treatment was probably reduced (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.85; 3 RCTs, 1217 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to confidently rule in or rule out the effect on all-cause mortality of using Xpert MTB/RIF rather than smear microscopy. Xpert MTB/RIF probably reduces mortality among participants known to be infected with HIV. We are uncertain whether Xpert MTB/RIF has a modest effect or not on the proportion treated or, among those treated, on the proportion with a successful outcome. It probably does not have a substantial effect on these outcomes. Xpert MTB/RIF probably increases both the proportion of treated participants who had bacteriological confirmation, and the proportion with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis who were treated. These findings may inform decisions about uptake alongside evidence on cost-effectiveness and implementation.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
6.
Lancet HIV ; 8(6): e353-e362, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of children living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased greatly since 2006, yet the changes in their demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes have not been well described. We examine the trends in characteristics and outcomes of children living with HIV who were younger than 5 years at ART initiation, and compare outcomes over time and across country income groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data from children living with HIV who were younger than 5 years at ART initiation from 45 paediatric sites in 16 low-income, lower-middle-income, and upper-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Benin, Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). Outcomes were trends in patient characteristics at ART initiation (age, weight, height, and CD4%), and comparisons of mortality and loss to follow-up during ART over time and in various economic settings. We identified risk factors for mortality using Cox proportional hazards models. Each participating region had relevant institutional ethics review board approvals to contribute data to the analysis. FINDINGS: We included 32 221 children living with HIV and initiating ART younger than 5 years between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2017. Median age at ART initiation was 20·4 months (IQR 9·4-36·0) in 2006-10, 19·2 months (8·3-33·6) in 2011-13, and 19·2 months (8·8-33·7) in 2014-17. Median age at ART initiation was 13·2 months (IQR 4·7-26·8) in upper-middle-income countries, 22·6 months (13·2-37·5) in lower-middle-income countries and 24·2 months (13·5-39·1) in low-income countries. The proportion of children initiating ART younger than 3 months increased from 770 (5·1%) of 14 943 children in 2006-10 to 728 (10·0%) of 7290 children in 2014-17. The proportion of children initiating ART with severe immunosuppression decreased from 5469 (74·7%) of 7314 children for whom CD4% data were available in 2006-10 to 2353 (55·2%) of 4269 children in 2014-17. Mortality at 24 months on ART decreased from 970 (6·5%) of 14 943 children in 2006-10 to 214 (2·9%) of 7290 children in 2014-17. Loss to follow-up was 20·5% (95% CI 20·1-21·0) overall, and was similar across time periods. In multivariable analysis, lower mortality was observed for more recent ART initiation cohorts (adjusted hazard ratio 0·70, 95% CI 0·63-0·79 for 2011-13; 0·53, 0·45-0·72 for 2014-17 vs 2006-10) and for those residing in an upper-middle-income country (0·42, 0·35-0·49 vs low-income countries). INTERPRETATION: Mortality declined significantly after universal ART recommendations for children younger than 2 years in 2010 and children younger than 5 years in 2013. However, substantial variations persisted across country income groups, and one in five children continue to be lost to follow-up. Targeted interventions are required to improve outcomes of children living with HIV, especially in the poorest countries. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Pobreza , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 52, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The survival of HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is determined by a number of factors, including economic, demographic, behavioral, and institutional factors. Understanding the survival time and its trend is crucial to developing policies that will result in changes. The aim of this study was to compare the survival estimates of different subgroups and look into the predictors of HIV/AIDS patient survival. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART at the University of Gondar teaching hospital was carried out. To compare the survival of various groups, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors influencing HIV/AIDS patient survival rates. RESULTS: In the current study, 5.91% of the 354 HIV/AIDS patients under ART follow-up were uncensored or died. Age (HR = 1.051) and lack of formal education (HR = 5.032) were associated with lower survival rate, whereas family size of one to two (HR = 0.167), three to four (HR = 0.120), no alcoholic consumption (HR = 0.294), no smoking and chat use (HR = 0.101), baseline weight (HR = 0.920), current weight (HR = 0.928), baseline CD4 cell count (HR = 0.990), baseline hemoglobin (HR = 0.800), and no TB diseases were associated with longer survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer deaths were reported in a study area due to high patient adherence, compared to previous similar studies. Age, educational status, family size, alcohol consumption, tobacco and chat usage, baseline and current weight, baseline CD4 cell count, baseline hemoglobin, and tuberculosis (TB) diseases were all significant predictors of survival of HIV/AIDS patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 409, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of HIV-infected children continue to die despite reported scale-up of paediatric HIV services. AIM: The trend in attrition among children enrolled in an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) programme was evaluated. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of children enrolled into NAUTH ART programme between 2003 and 2019. RESULTS: 1114 children < 15 years at enrolment were studied. The male: female ratio was 1:1 while median age at enrolment was 4.3 years. About two-thirds had WHO stage 3 or 4 disease at enrolment. The rate of loss to follow-up (LTFU) and death were 41.0 and 8.4%, respectively, with overall attrition incidence of 108/1000PY. Despite the downward trend, spikes occurred among those enrolled in 2008 to 2011 and in 2017. The trend in 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-months attrition varied similarly with overall rates being 20.4, 27.7, 34.3 and 37.3%, respectively. Among those on ART, > 50% of attrition was recorded within 6 months of care. Advanced WHO stage, young age, non-initiation on ART or period of enrolment (P <  0.001), and caregiver (p = 0.026) were associated with attrition in bivariate analysis. Apart from caregiver category, these factors remained significant in multivariate analysis. Most LTFU could not be reached on phone. Among those contacted, common reasons for being lost to follow-up were financial constraints, caregiver loss, claim to divine healing, family disharmony/child custody issues and relocation of family/child. CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION: Attrition rate was high and was mostly due to LTFU. Predictors of attrition were late presentation, young age, delay in ART initiation and financial constraints. Efforts should be intensified at early diagnosis, linkage to care and implementation of "test and treat" strategy. Innovative child centered approaches should be adopted to enable the HIV-infected children remain in care despite challenges which can truncate treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Lancet HIV ; 8(5): e266-e273, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few data on life expectancy gains among people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income settings where antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available. We aimed to analyse life expectancy trends from 2003 to 2017 among people with HIV beginning treatment with ART within the Caribbean, central America, and South America. METHODS: We did a multisite retrospective cohort study and included people with HIV who had started treatment with ART and were aged 16 years or older between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2017, from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru, who contributed person-time data from the age of 20 years until date of death, last contact, database closure, or Dec 31, 2017. We used the Chiang method of abridged life tables to estimate life expectancy at age 20 years for three eras (2003-08, 2009-12, and 2013-17) overall and by demographic and clinical characteristics at ART initiation. We used Poisson regression models to weight mortality rates to account for informative censoring. FINDINGS: 30 688 people with HIV were included in the study; 17 491 (57·0%) were from the Haiti site and 13 197 (43·0%) were from all other sites. There were 2637 deaths during the study period: 1470 in Haiti and 1167 in other sites. Crude and weighted mortality rates decreased among all age groups over calendar eras. From 2003-08 to 2013-17, overall life expectancy for people with HIV at age 20 years increased from 13·9 years (95% CI 12·5-15·2) to 61·2 years (59·0-63·4) in Haiti and from 31·0 years (29·3-32·8) to 69·5 years (67·2-71·8) in other sites. Life expectancies at the end of the study period were within 10 years of those of the general population (69·9 years in Haiti and 78·0 years in all other sites in 2018). Disparities in life expectancy among people with HIV by sex or HIV transmission risk factor, CD4 cell count, level of education, and history of tuberculosis at or before ART initiation persisted across calendar eras. INTERPRETATION: Life expectancy among people with HIV receiving ART has significantly improved in Latin America and the Caribbean. Persistent disparities in life expectancy among people with HIV by demographic and clinical factors at ART initiation highlight vulnerable populations in the region. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Lancet HIV ; 8(5): e284-e293, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring knowledge of HIV status among people living with HIV is essential for an effective national HIV response. This study estimates progress and gaps in reaching the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90% knowledge of status, and the efficiency of HIV testing services in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of all people living with HIV reside. METHODS: For this modelling study, we used data from 183 population-based surveys (including more than 2·7 million participants) and national HIV testing programme reports (315 country-years) from 40 countries in sub-Saharan Africa as inputs into a mathematical model to examine trends in knowledge of status among people living with HIV, median time from HIV infection to diagnosis, HIV testing positivity, and proportion of new diagnoses among all positive tests, adjusting for retesting. We included data from 2000 to 2019, and projected results to 2020. FINDINGS: Across sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of status steadily increased from 5·7% (95% credible interval [CrI] 4·6-7·0) in 2000 to 84% (82-86) in 2020. 12 countries and one region, southern Africa, reached the 90% target. In 2020, knowledge of status was lower among men (79%, 95% CrI 76-81) than women (87%, 85-89) across sub-Saharan Africa. People living with HIV aged 15-24 years were the least likely to know their status (65%, 62-69), but the largest gap in terms of absolute numbers was among men aged 35-49 years, with 701 000 (95% CrI 611 000-788 000) remaining undiagnosed. As knowledge of status increased from 2000 to 2020, the median time to diagnosis decreased from 9·6 years (9·1-10) to 2·6 years (1·8-3·5), HIV testing positivity declined from 9·0% (7·7-10) to 2·8% (2·1-3·9), and the proportion of first-time diagnoses among all positive tests dropped from 89% (77-96) to 42% (30-55). INTERPRETATION: On the path towards the next UNAIDS target of 95% diagnostic coverage by 2025, and in a context of declining positivity and yield of first-time diagnoses, disparities in knowledge of status must be addressed. Increasing knowledge of status and treatment coverage among older men could be crucial to reducing HIV incidence among women in sub-Saharan Africa, and by extension, reducing mother-to-child transmission. FUNDING: Steinberg Fund for Interdisciplinary Global Health Research (McGill University); Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Fonds the recherche du Québec-Santé; UNAIDS; UK Medical Research Council; MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis; UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(5): 105661, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke outcome data in Uganda is lacking. The objective of this study was to capture 30-day mortality outcomes in patients presenting with acute and subacute stroke to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in Uganda. METHODS: A prospective study enrolling consecutive adults presenting to MRRH with abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits suspicious for stroke, from August 2014 to March 2015. All patients had head computed tomography (CT) confirmation of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Data was collected on mortality, morbidity, risk factors, and imaging characteristics. RESULTS: Investigators screened 134 potential subjects and enrolled 108 patients. Sixty-two percent had ischemic and 38% hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of all patients was 62.5 (SD 17.4), and 52% were female. More patients had hypertension in the hemorrhagic stroke group than in the ischemic stroke group (53% vs. 32%, p = 0.0376). Thirty-day mortality was 38.1% (p = 0.0472), and significant risk factors were National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, female sex, anemia, and HIV infection. A one unit increase of the NIHSS on admission increased the risk of death at 30 days by 6%. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had statistically higher NIHSS scores (p = 0.0408) on admission compared to patients with ischemic stroke, and also had statistically higher Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge (p = 0.0063), and mRS score change from baseline (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights an overall 30-day stroke mortality of 38.1% in southwestern Uganda, and identifies NIHSS at admission, female sex, anemia, and HIV infection as predictors of mortality.


Assuntos
AVC Hemorrágico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , AVC Hemorrágico/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 301-309, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) reduces many of the harms associated with opioid dependence. We use mathematical modelling to comprehensively evaluate the overall health benefits of OAT in people who inject drugs in Perry County (KY, USA), Kyiv (Ukraine), and Tehran (Iran). METHODS: We developed a dynamic model of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, incarceration, and mortality through overdose, injury, suicide, disease-related and other causes. The model was calibrated to site-specific data using Bayesian methods. We evaluated preventable drug-related deaths (deaths due to HIV, HCV, overdose, suicide, or injury) averted over 2020-40 for four scenarios, added incrementally, compared with a scenario without OAT: existing OAT coverage (setting-dependent; community 4-11%; prison 0-40%); scaling up community OAT to 40% coverage; increasing average OAT duration from 4-14 months to 2 years; and scaling up prison-based OAT. OUTCOMES: Drug-related harms contributed differentially to mortality across settings: overdose contributed 27-47% (range of median projections) of preventable drug-related deaths over 2020-40, suicide 6-17%, injury 3-17%, HIV 0-59%, and HCV 2-18%. Existing OAT coverage in Tehran (31%) could have a substantial effect, averting 13% of preventable drug-related deaths, but will have negligible effect (averting <2% of preventable drug-related deaths) in Kyiv and Perry County due to low OAT coverage (<4%). Scaling up community OAT to 40% could avert 12-24% of preventable drug-related deaths, including 13-22% of overdose deaths, with greater effect in settings with significant HIV mortality (Tehran and Kyiv). Improving OAT retention and providing prison-based OAT would have a significant additional effect, averting 27-51% of preventable drug-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: OAT can substantially reduce drug-related harms, particularly in settings with HIV epidemics in people who inject drugs. Maximising these effects requires research and investment into achieving higher coverage and provision and longer retention of OAT in prisons and the community. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prisões/organização & administração , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/mortalidade , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6657112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628803

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the mortality and attrition rates within the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in rural Guangxi, China. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting. The core treatment indicators and data were collected with standard and essential procedures as per the Free ART Manual guidelines across all the rural health care centers of Guangxi. Participants. 58,115 PLHIV who were under ART were included in the study. Interventions. The data collected included sociodemographic characteristics that consist of age, sex, marital status, route of HIV transmission, CD4 cell count before ART, initial ART regimen, level of ART site, and year of ART initiation. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures. Mortality and attrition rate following ART initiation. Results: The average mortality rate was 5.94 deaths, and 17.52 attritions per 100 person-years within the first year of ART initiation among PLHIV. The mortality rate was higher among intravenous drug users (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.27, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.14-1.43), prefecture as a level of ART site (AHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and county as the level of ART site (AHR 2.12, 95% CI 1.90-2.37). Attrition was higher among intravenous drug users (AHR 1.87, 95% CI 1.75-2.00), the first-line ART containing AZT (AHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), and first-line ART containing LVP/r (AHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.46). Conclusion: The mortality and attrition rates were both at the highest level in the first year of post-ART; continued improvement in the quality of HIV treatment and care is needed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV , Adesão à Medicação , População Rural , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 150, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In people living with HIV (PLWH), statins may be disproportionately effective but remain underutilized. A large prospective trial in patients with low to moderate cardiovascular (ASCVD) risk will reveal whether they should be considered in all PLWH. But its effect size may not apply to real-world PLWH with higher ASCVD and mortality risk. Also, the clinical role of non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) and LLT adherence in this population is unknown. METHODS: Comparative multi-level marginal structural model for all-cause mortality examining four time-updated exposure levels to LLT, antihypertensives, and aspirin in a virtual cohort of older PLWH. Incident coronary, cerebrovascular, and overall ASCVD events, serious infections, and new cancer diagnoses served as explanatory outcomes. RESULTS: In 23,276 HIV-infected US-veterans who were followed for a median of 5.2 years after virologic suppression overall mortality was 33/1000 patient years: > 3 times higher than in the US population. Use of antihypertensives or aspirin was associated with increased mortality. Past LLT use (> 1 year ago) had no effect on mortality. LLT exposure in the past year was associated with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of death: 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.69, p < 0.0001 for statin containing LLT and 0.71 (CI: 0.54-0.93), p = 0.03 for statin-free LLT. For consistent LLT use (> 11/12 past months) the HR of death was 0.48 (CI: 0.35-0.66) for statin-only LLT, 0.34 (CI: 0.23-0.52) for combination LLT, and 0.27 (CI: 0.15-0.48) for statin-free LLT (p < 0.0001 for all). The ASCVD risk in these patients was reduced in similar fashion. Use of statin containing LLT was also associated with reduced infection and cancer risk. Multiple contrasting subgroup analyses yielded comparable results. Confounding is unlikely to be a major contributor to our findings. CONCLUSIONS: In PLWH, ongoing LLT use may lead to substantially lower mortality, but consistent long-term adherence may be required to reduce ASCVD risk. Consistent non-statin LLT may be highly effective and should be studied prospectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 251-264, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524120

RESUMO

Mortality assessment in cohorts with high numbers of persons lost to follow-up (LTFU) is challenging in settings with limited civil registration systems. We aimed to assess mortality in a clinical cohort (the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO)) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in rural Tanzania, accounting for unseen deaths among participants LTFU. We included adults enrolled in 2005-2015 and traced a nonrandom sample of those LTFU. We estimated mortality using Kaplan-Meier methods 1) with routinely captured data (method A), 2) crudely incorporating tracing data (method B), 3) weighting using tracing data to crudely correct for unobserved deaths among participants LTFU (method C), and 4) weighting using tracing data accounting for participant characteristics (method D). We investigated associated factors using proportional hazards models. Among 7,460 adults, 646 (9%) died, 883 (12%) transferred to other clinics, and 2,911 (39%) were LTFU. Of 2,010 (69%) traced participants, 325 (16%) were found: 131 (40%) had died and 130 (40%) had transferred. Five-year mortality estimates derived using the 4 methods were 13.1% (A), 16.2% (B), 36.8% (C), and 35.1% (D), respectively. Higher mortality was associated with male sex, referral as a hospital inpatient, living close to the index clinic, lower body mass index, more advanced World Health Organization HIV clinical stage, lower CD4 cell count, and less time since initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Adjusting for unseen deaths among participants LTFU approximately doubled the 5-year mortality estimates. Our approach is applicable to other cohort studies adopting targeted tracing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Perda de Seguimento , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Lancet HIV ; 8(4): e206-e215, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA have reported similar or fewer sexual partners and reduced HIV testing and care access compared with before the pandemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use has also declined. We aimed to quantify the potential effect of COVID-19 on HIV incidence and HIV-related mortality among US MSM. METHODS: We used a calibrated, deterministic, compartmental HIV transmission model for MSM in Baltimore (MD, USA) and available data on COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV services to predict effects of reductions in sexual partners (0%, 25%, 50%), condom use (5%), HIV testing (20%), viral suppression (10%), PrEP initiations (72%), PrEP adherence (9%), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations (50%). In our main analysis, we modelled disruptions due to COVID-19 starting Jan 1, 2020, and lasting 6 months. We estimated the median change in cumulative new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths among MSM over 1 and 5 years, compared with a base case scenario without COVID-19-related disruptions. FINDINGS: A 25% reduction in sexual partners for 6 months among MSM in Baltimore, without HIV service changes, could reduce new HIV infections by median 12·2% (95% credible interval 11·7 to 12·8) over 1 year and median 3·0% (2·6 to 3·4) over 5 years. In the absence of changes in sexual behaviour, the 6-month estimated reductions in condom use, HIV testing, viral suppression, PrEP initiations, PrEP adherence, and ART initiations combined are predicted to increase new HIV infections by median 10·5% (5·8 to 16·5) over 1 year, and by median 3·5% (2·1 to 5·4) over 5 years. Disruptions to ART initiations and viral suppression are estimated to substantially increase HIV-related deaths (ART initiations by median 1·7% [0·8 to 3·2], viral suppression by median 9·5% [5·2 to 15·9]) over 1 year, with smaller proportional increases over 5 years. The other individual disruptions (to HIV testing, PrEP and condom use, PrEP initiation, and partner numbers) were estimated to have little effect on HIV-related deaths (<1% change over 1 or 5 years). A 25% reduction in sexual partnerships is estimated to offset the effect of the combined service disruptions on new HIV infections (change over 1 year: median -3·9% [-7·4 to 1·0]; over 5 years: median 0·0% [-0·9 to 1·4]), but not on HIV deaths (change over 1 year: 11·0% [6·2 to 17·7]; over 5 years: 2·6% [1·5 to 4·3]). INTERPRETATION: Maintaining access to ART and adherence support is of the utmost importance to maintain viral suppression and minimise excess HIV-related mortality due to COVID-19 restrictions in the USA, even if disruptions to services are accompanied by reductions in sexual partnerships. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(1): 663-670, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest lower risk of breast cancer in women with HIV versus without HIV. These estimates may be biased by lower life expectancy and younger age distribution of women with HIV. Our analysis evaluated this bias and characterized secular trends in breast cancer among women with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy. We hypothesized breast cancer risk would increase over time as mortality decreased. SETTING: Women with HIV prescribed antiretroviral therapy in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) from 1997 through 2016. METHODS: We estimated breast cancer hazard (cause-specific hazard ratios) and cumulative incidence accounting for competing risks (subdistribution hazard ratios) to assess changes in breast cancer risk over time. This was assessed overall (1997-2016) and within/across calendar periods. Analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity and inverse probability weighted for cohort. Cumulative incidence was graphically assessed by calendar period and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: We observed 11,587 women during 1997-2016, contributing 63 incident breast cancer diagnoses and 1,353 deaths [73,445 person-years (median follow-up = 4.5 years)]. Breast cancer cumulative incidence was 3.2% for 1997-2016. We observed no secular trends in breast cancer hazard or cumulative incidence. There were annual declines in the hazard and cumulative incidence of death (cause-specific hazard ratios and subdistribution hazard ratios: 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 0.91) which remained within and across calendar periods. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contradict the hypothesis of increasing breast cancer risk with declining mortality over time among women with HIV, suggesting limited impact of changing mortality on breast cancer risk. Additional inquiry is merited as survival improves among women with HIV.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 4, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a public health priority in Latin America. While the burden of HIV is historically concentrated in urban areas and high-risk groups, subnational estimates that cover multiple countries and years are missing. This paucity is partially due to incomplete vital registration (VR) systems and statistical challenges related to estimating mortality rates in areas with low numbers of HIV deaths. In this analysis, we address this gap and provide novel estimates of the HIV mortality rate and the number of HIV deaths by age group, sex, and municipality in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico. METHODS: We performed an ecological study using VR data ranging from 2000 to 2017, dependent on individual country data availability. We modeled HIV mortality using a Bayesian spatially explicit mixed-effects regression model that incorporates prior information on VR completeness. We calibrated our results to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. RESULTS: All countries displayed over a 40-fold difference in HIV mortality between municipalities with the highest and lowest age-standardized HIV mortality rate in the last year of study for men, and over a 20-fold difference for women. Despite decreases in national HIV mortality in all countries-apart from Ecuador-across the period of study, we found broad variation in relative changes in HIV mortality at the municipality level and increasing relative inequality over time in all countries. In all six countries included in this analysis, 50% or more HIV deaths were concentrated in fewer than 10% of municipalities in the latest year of study. In addition, national age patterns reflected shifts in mortality to older age groups-the median age group among decedents ranged from 30 to 45 years of age at the municipality level in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Our subnational estimates of HIV mortality revealed significant spatial variation and diverging local trends in HIV mortality over time and by age. This analysis provides a framework for incorporating data and uncertainty from incomplete VR systems and can help guide more geographically precise public health intervention to support HIV-related care and reduce HIV-related deaths.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Estatísticas Vitais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is one of the most common problems among people living with HIV, contributing to premature death and the development of comorbidities within this population. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the impacts of these often inter-related conditions appear in a series of fragmented and inconclusive studies. Thus, this review examines the pooled effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidities among adults living with HIV in SSA. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. All observational studies reporting the effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV in SSA were included. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's and Begg's tests at a 5% significance level. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the overall adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Of 4309 identified studies, 53 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of these, 40 studies were available for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of 23 cohort studies indicated that undernutrition significantly (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4) increased the risk of mortality among adults living with HIV, while severely undernourished adults living with HIV were at higher risk of death (AHR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) as compared to mildly undernourished adults living with HIV. Furthermore, the pooled estimates of ten cohort studies revealed that undernutrition significantly increased the risk of developing tuberculosis (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) among adults living with HIV. CONCLUSION: This review found that undernutrition has significant effects on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV. As the degree of undernutrition became more severe, mortality rate also increased. Therefore, findings from this review may be used to update the nutritional guidelines used for the management of PLHIV by different stakeholders, especially in limited-resource settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Morbidade , Prevalência , Tuberculose/etiologia
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 224-230, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist about clinical outcomes and levels of inflammatory and immune markers among people hospitalized with COVID-19 by HIV serostatus and by HIV viral suppression. SETTING: Large tertiary care health system in the Bronx, NY, USA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 4613 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients admitted between March 10, 2020, and May 11, 2020. We examined in-hospital intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), hospitalization length, and in-hospital mortality by HIV serostatus, and by HIV-viral suppression and CD4 counts among people living with HIV (PLWH) using adjusted competing risks regression. We also compared immune and inflammatory marker levels by HIV serostatus and viral suppression. RESULTS: Most patients were either non-Hispanic Black (36%) or Hispanic (37%); 100/4613 (2.2%) were PLWH, among whom 15 had detectable HIV viral load. PLWH compared to patients without HIV had increased intubation rates (adjusted hazard ratio 1.73 [95% CI: 1.12 to 2.67], P = 0.01). Both groups had similar rates of AKI, length of hospitalization, and death. No (0%) virally unsuppressed PLWH were intubated or died, versus 21/81 (26%, P = 0.04) and 22/81 (27%, P = 0.02) of virally suppressed PLWH, respectively. Among PLWH, higher CD4 T-cell counts were associated with increased intubation rates. C-reactive protein, IL-6, neutrophil counts, and ferritin levels were similar between virally suppressed PLWH and patients without HIV, but significantly lower for unsuppressed PLWH (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PLWH had increased risk of intubation but similarly frequent rates of AKI and in-hospital death as those without HIV. Findings of no intubations or deaths among PLWH with unsuppressed HIV viral load warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Carga Viral
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