Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37.411
Filtrar
1.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
3.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e688-e698, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioinformatically designed mosaic antigens increase the breadth of HIV vaccine-elicited immunity. This study compared the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a newly developed, tetravalent Ad26 vaccine with the previously tested trivalent formulation. METHODS: This randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2a study (TRAVERSE) was done at 11 centres in the USA and one centre in Rwanda. Eligible participants were adults aged 18 to 50 years, who were HIV-uninfected, healthy at screening based on their medical history and a physical examination including laboratory assessment and vital sign measurements, and at low risk of HIV infection in the opinion of study staff, who applied a uniform definition of low-risk guidelines that was aligned across sites. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to tetravalent and trivalent groups. Participants in tetravalent and trivalent groups were then further randomly assigned at a 5:1 ratio to adenovirus 26 (Ad26)-vectored vaccine and placebo subgroups. Randomisation was stratified by region (USA and Rwanda) and based on a computer-generated schedule using randomly permuted blocks prepared under the sponsor's supervision. We masked participants and investigators to treatment allocation throughout the study. On day 0, participants received a first injection of tetravalent vaccine (Ad26.Mos4.HIV or placebo) or trivalent vaccine (Ad26.Mos.HIV or placebo), and those injections were repeated 12 weeks later. At week 24, vaccine groups received a third dose of tetravalent or trivalent together with clade C gp140, and this was repeated at week 48, with placebos again administered to the placebo group. All study vaccines and placebo were administered by intramuscular injection in the deltoid muscle. We assessed adverse events in all participants who received at least one study injection (full analysis set) and Env-specific binding antibodies in all participants who received at least the first three vaccinations according to the protocol-specified vaccination schedule, had at least one measured post-dose blood sample collected, and were not diagnosed with HIV during the study (per-protocol set). This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02788045. FINDINGS: Of 201 participants who were enrolled and randomly assigned, 198 received the first vaccination: 110 were in the tetravalent group, 55 in the trivalent group, and 33 in the placebo group. Overall, 185 (93%) completed two scheduled vaccinations per protocol, 180 (91%) completed three, and 164 (83%) completed four. Solicited, self-limiting local, systemic reactogenicity and unsolicited adverse events were similar in vaccine groups and higher than in placebo groups. All participants in the per-protocol set developed clade C Env binding antibodies after the second vaccination, with higher total IgG titres after the tetravalent vaccine than after the trivalent vaccine (10 413 EU/mL, 95% CI 7284-14 886 in the tetravalent group compared with 5494 EU/mL, 3759-8029 in the trivalent group). Titres further increased after the third and fourth vaccinations, persisting at least through week 72. Other immune responses were also higher with the tetravalent vaccine, including the magnitude and breadth of binding antibodies against a cross-clade panel of Env antigens, and the magnitude of IFNγ ELISPOT responses (median 521 SFU/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] in the tetravalent group and median 282 SFU/106 PBMCs in the trivalent group after the fourth vaccination) and Env-specific CD4+ T-cell response rates after the third and fourth vaccinations. No interference by pre-existing Ad26 immunity was identified. INTERPRETATION: The tetravalent vaccine regimen was generally safe, well-tolerated, and found to elicit higher immune responses than the trivalent regimen. Regimens that use this tetravalent vaccine component are being advanced into field trials to assess efficacy against HIV-1 infection. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Henry M Jackson Foundation for Advancement of Military Medicine and the US Department of Defense, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, & Harvard, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Janssen Vaccines & Prevention.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a AIDS/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 556-560, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028465

RESUMO

People who use drugs (PWUD) face concurrent public health emergencies from overdoses, HIV, hepatitis C, and COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented syndemic. Responses to PWUD that go beyond treatment--such as decriminalization and providing a safe supply of pharmaceutical-grade drugs--could reduce impacts of this syndemic. Solutions already implemented for COVID-19, such as emergency safe-supply prescribing and providing housing to people experiencing homelessness, must be sustained once COVID-19 is contained. This pandemic is not only a public health crisis but also a chance to develop and maintain equitable and sustainable solutions to the harms associated with the criminalization of drug use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Criminosos , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prescrições , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Public Health Service
6.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4276, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012888

RESUMO

Before a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 became available, several measures to control COVID-19 pandemic are necessary. Analogously, in the absence of an available vaccine, Combination HIV Prevention Programmes have consolidated a large experience of biomedical, behavioral and structural interventions suitable for several epidemiological settings. Adaptation of such experiences can organize mid-term and long-term responses to face COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008122, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881984

RESUMO

Spread of HIV typically involves uneven transmission patterns where some individuals spread to a large number of individuals while others to only a few or none. Such transmission heterogeneity can impact how fast and how much an epidemic spreads. Further, more efficient interventions may be achieved by taking such transmission heterogeneity into account. To address these issues, we developed two phylogenetic methods based on virus sequence data: 1) to generally detect if significant transmission heterogeneity is present, and 2) to pinpoint where in a phylogeny high-level spread is occurring. We derive inference procedures to estimate model parameters, including the amount of transmission heterogeneity, in a sampled epidemic. We show that it is possible to detect transmission heterogeneity under a wide range of simulated situations, including incomplete sampling, varying levels of heterogeneity, and including within-host genetic diversity. When evaluating real HIV-1 data from different epidemic scenarios, we found a lower level of transmission heterogeneity in slowly spreading situations and a higher level of heterogeneity in data that included a rapid outbreak, while R0 and Sackin's index (overall tree shape statistic) were similar in the two scenarios, suggesting that our new method is able to detect transmission heterogeneity in real data. We then show by simulations that targeted prevention, where we pinpoint high-level spread using a coalescence measurement, is efficient when sequence data are collected in an ongoing surveillance system. Such phylogeny-guided prevention is efficient under both single-step contact tracing as well as iterative contact tracing as compared to random intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 704, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Africa, considerable HIV-burden exists among women. Anti-retroviral (ARV) based prevention products could decrease this burden, and their uptake could be increased if they also protect against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI). METHODS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken in South Africa (2015) through a household survey of adult females (n = 158) and adolescent girls (n = 204) who self-reported HIV-negative status. The DCE was used to project the uptake (percentage using product) of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal rings, and injectable long-lasting ARV agents among these women, and how uptake could depend on whether these products protect against pregnancy or STI acquisition. Uptake estimates were used to model how each product could decrease a women's HIV acquisition risk. RESULTS: In adolescent women, there will be limited uptake (< 6% for any product) and impact (< 4% decrease in HIV acquisition risk) of new products unless they provide pregnancy protection, which could quadruple use and impact. Adult women have weaker preference for pregnancy protection, with moderate use (< 17% for each) and impact (< 14 percentage point decrease) if they only provide HIV protection. All women had highest preference for injectable ARVs, with oral PrEP having high preference if injectable ARVs are not available. Adult women will use the ring, but adolescent women will not. Importantly, even with three additional prevention products, all providing pregnancy and STI protection, > 14% of women will remain unprotected and > 31% of the baseline acquisition risk will remain. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating multiple prevention components into new ARV-based prevention products may increase their uptake and impact among women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Autorrelato , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1393, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seine-Saint-Denis is a deprived departement (French administrative unit) in the North-East of Paris, France, hosting the majority of South Asian migrants in France. In recent years, the number of migrants from Pakistan, which has a high prevalence of hepatitis C globally, increased. As a corollary, this study addressed the high proportion of Pakistani patients in the infectious diseases clinic of a local hospital, diagnosed with hepatitis C, but also hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It explored genealogies and beliefs about hepatitis and HIV transmission, including community, sexual and blood risk behaviours. The aim was to understand the ways these risk factors reduce or intensify both en route and once in France, in order to devise specific forms of community health intervention. METHODS: The study took place at Avicenne University-Hospital in Seine-Saint-Denis, and its environs, between July and September 2018. The design of the study was qualitative, combining semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and ethnographic observations. The sample of Pakistani participants was selected from those followed-up for chronic hepatitis C, B, and/or HIV at Avicenne, and who had arrived after 2010 in Seine-Saint-Denis. RESULTS: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, until saturation was reached. All participants were men from rural Punjab province. Most took the Eastern Mediterranean human smuggling route. Findings suggest that vulnerabilities to hepatitis and HIV transmission, originating in Pakistan, are intensified along the migration route and perpetuated in France. Taboo towards sexuality, promiscuity in cohabitation conditions, lack of knowledge about transmission were amongst the factors increasing vulnerabilities. Participants suggested a number of culturally-acceptable health promotion interventions in the community, such as outreach awareness and testing campaigns in workplaces, health promotion and education in mosques, as well as web-based sexual health promotion tools to preserve anonymity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to look at specific groups at risk, related to their countries of origin. In-depth understandings of such groups, using interdisciplinary approaches such as were employed here, can allow for culturally adapted, tailored interventions. However, French colour-blind policies do not easily permit such kinds of targeted approach and this limitation requires further debate.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Assunção de Riscos , Migrantes , Adulto , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , População Suburbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 655, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs including people who inject drugs (PWUD/ID), sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and viral hepatitis infection. Limited epidemiological data on the infections exists in key populations (KPs) in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV and selected risk factors among these KPs to inform effective responses. METHODS: We used convenience sampling to recruit a targeted 3500 KPs accessing HIV-related health services across Cape Town (SWs, MSM, PWUD/ID), Durban (SWs, PWUD/ID), Pietermaritzburg (SWs), Mthatha (SWs), Port Elizabeth (SWs), Johannesburg (MSM) and Pretoria (MSM and PWUD/ID) into a cross-sectional survey. An interviewer questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and sexual risk practices, was administered. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); HCV antibody, viral load and genotype, and HIV antibody, was tested. RESULTS: Among the 3439 people included in the study (1528 SWs, 746 MSM, 1165 PWUD/ID) the median age was 29 years, most participants were black African (60%), and 24% reported homelessness. 82% reported substance use in the last month, including alcohol (46%) and heroin (33%). 75% were sexually active in the previous month, with condom use at last sex at 74%. HIV prevalence was 37% (highest among SWs at 47%), HBsAg prevalence 4% (similar across KPs) and HCV prevalence was 16% (highest among PWUD/ID at 46%). CONCLUSIONS: HBV, HCV and HIV pose a health burden for KPs in South Africa. While HIV is key for all included KPs, HCV is of particular importance to PWUD/ID. For KPs, HBV vaccination and behavioural change interventions that support consistent condom and lubricant access and use are needed. Coverage of opioid substitution therapy and needle and syringe services, and access to HCV treatment for PWUD/ID need to be expanded.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/etiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sante Publique ; 32(1): 103-111, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outreach HIV testing strategies have significantly contributed to the increase in the number of people knowing their HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. This article analyzes the articulation of donor and field constraints on the implementation of outreach HIV testing strategies in Côte d’Ivoire. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted in three health districts (Man, Cocody-Bingerville and Aboisso) in Côte d’Ivoire in 2015-2016, through in-depth interviews with community providers, local leaders and people tested and through observation of outreach HIV testing activities. RESULTS: Implementing organizations feel “under pressure” to meet donors’ objectives that are deemed unattainable, as well as the lack of training and funding. As a result, providers do not observe systematically the rules of the “three Cs” (counselling, informed consent, confidentiality), and propose testing to individuals who are “off-target” (in terms of locations and populations). DISCUSSION: Implementing NGOs experience two types of constraints those resulting from the functioning of international aid (inadequate funding compared to actual costs, objectives too high, the important chain of intermediaries) and those related to the local context (spaces not adapted to guarantee confidentiality and the professional activity of target populations). CONCLUSION: The pressure that is exerted at different levels on implementing NGOs is detrimental to the quality of HIV testing. It is now essential to develop a more qualitative approach in defining strategies and evaluation criteria.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Costa do Marfim , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(9): e25622, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted global health service delivery, including provision of HIV services. Countries with high HIV burden are balancing the need to minimize interactions with health facilities to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission, while delivering uninterrupted essential HIV prevention, testing and treatment services. Many of these adaptations in resource-constrained settings have not adequately accounted for the needs of pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents. We propose whole-family, tailored programme adaptations along the HIV clinical continuum to protect the programmatic gains made in services. DISCUSSION: Essential HIV case-finding services for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be maintained and include maternal testing, diagnostic testing for infants exposed to HIV, index testing for children whose biological parents or siblings are living with HIV, as well as for children/adolescents presenting with symptoms concerning for HIV and comorbidities. HIV self-testing for children two years of age and older should be supported with caregiver and provider education. Adaptations include bundling services in the same visit and providing testing outside of facilities to the extent possible to reduce exposure risk to COVID-19. Virtual platforms can be used to identify vulnerable children at risk of HIV infection, abuse, harm or violence, and link them to necessary clinical and psychosocial support services. HIV treatment service adaptations for families should focus on family based differentiated service delivery models, including community-based ART initiation and multi-month ART dispensing. Viral load monitoring should not be a barrier to transitioning children and adolescents experiencing treatment failure to more effective ART regimens, and viral load monitoring for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be prioritized and bundled with other essential services. CONCLUSIONS: Protecting pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents from acquiring SARS-CoV-2 while sustaining essential HIV services is an immense global health challenge. Tailored, family friendly programme adaptations for case-finding, ART delivery and viral load monitoring for these populations have the potential to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission while ensuring the continuity of life-saving HIV case identification and treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
14.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1761-1763, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889851

RESUMO

: As coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) restrictions upend the community bonds that have enabled African communities to thrive in the face of numerous challenges, it is vital that the gains made in community-based healthcare are preserved by adapting our approaches. Instead of reversing the many gains made through locally driven development partnerships with international funding agencies for other viral diseases like HIV, we must use this opportunity to adapt the many lessons learned to address the burden of Covid-19. Programs like the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare are currently leveraging widely available technologies in Africa to prevent patients from experiencing significant interruptions in care as the healthcare system adjusts to the challenges presented by Covid-19. These approaches are designed to preserve social contact while incorporating physical distancing. The gains and successes made through approaches like group-based medical care must not only continue but can help expand upon the extraordinary success of programs like President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , África , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
15.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1765-1770, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) emerged in China during late 2019 and resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which peaked in France in March-April 2020. Immunodeficiency, precariousness and promiscuity could increase the risk of COVID-19 in HIV-infected patients and in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users. No epidemiological data are available in these two populations. We report COVID-19 attack rate in HIV-infected patients and in PrEP users in the Rhône department, France, and compared it with the general population. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a laboratory database. METHODS: COVID-19 testing strategy in France was centered on symptomatic infections, hospitalized patients and symptomatic healthcare workers while most asymptomatic cases were not confirmed. SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate on PCR assays and COVID-19 attack rate were determined in HIV-infected patients and in PrEP users. COVID-19 attack rate in the general population was estimated from health authorities' database and demographic data. A corrected attack rate taking into account the laboratory representativeness was calculated. RESULTS: From March to April 2020, 24 860 samples from 19 113 patients (HIV-infected 77, PrEP users 27, others 19 009) were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 PCR assay. The positivity rate appeared similar in HIV-infected patients (15.6%), in PrEP users (14.8%) and in other patients (19.1%). The crude/corrected COVID-19 attack rate appeared similar in HIV-infected patients (0.31/0.38%) and in PrEP users (0.38/0.42%), and of the same order as the estimated attack rate in the general population (0.24%). CONCLUSION: The risk of symptomatic COVID-19 in France appeared similar in HIV-infected patients and in PrEP users compared with the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e501-e511, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since October, 2017 (and until October, 2020), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has only been available in England, UK, through the PrEP Impact Trial, by purchasing it from some genitourinary medicine clinics, or via online sources. Here we report changes from 2013 to 2018 in PrEP and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) awareness and use among HIV-negative gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and assess predictors of PrEP initiation. METHODS: In the prospective cohort study Attitudes to, and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV 2 (AURAH2), MSM were recruited from three sexual health clinics in England: two in London and one in Brighton, UK. Men were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older and HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status. Participants self-completed a baseline paper questionnaire at one of the three clinics between July 30, 2013, and April 30, 2016, and were subsequently able to complete 4-monthly and annual online questionnaires, which were available between March 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018, and collected information on sociodemographics, health and wellbeing, HIV status, and sexual behaviours. PrEP and PEP use in the previous 12 months was obtained at baseline and in annual questionnaires. We assessed trends over calendar time in 3-month periods from first enrolment to the end of the study period (July-December, 2013, was counted as one period) in use of PrEP and PEP using generalised estimating equation logistic models. We used age-adjusted Poisson models to assess factors associated with PrEP initiation among participants who reported never having used PrEP at baseline. FINDINGS: 1162 men completed a baseline questionnaire, among whom the mean age was 34 years (SD 10·4), and of those with available data, 942 (82%) of 1150 were white, 1076 (94%) of 1150 were gay, and 857 (74%) of 1159 were university educated. 622 (54%) of 1162 men completed at least one follow-up online questionnaire, of whom 483 (78%) completed at least one annual questionnaire. Overall, PrEP use in the past year increased from 0% (none of 28 respondents) in July to December, 2013, to 43% (23 of 53) in January to March, 2018. The corresponding increase in PrEP use among men who reported condomless sex with two or more partners was from 0% (none of 13 respondents) to 78% (21 of 27). PEP use peaked in April to June, 2016, at 28% (41 of 147 respondents), but decreased thereafter to 8% (four of 53) in January to March, 2018. Among 460 men who had never used PrEP at baseline, predictors of initiating PrEP included age 40-44 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 4·25, 95% CI 1·14-15·79) and 45 years and older (3·59, 1·08-11·97) versus younger than 25 years; and after adjustment for age, recent HIV test (5·17, 1·89-14·08), condomless sex (5·01, 2·16-11·63), condomless sex with two or more partners (5·43, 2·99-9·86), group sex (1·69, 1·01-2·84), and non-injection chemsex-related drugs use (2·86, 1·67-4·91) in the past 3 months, PEP use (4·69, 2·83-7·79) in the past 12 months, and calendar year (Jan 1, 2017, to March 31, 2018 vs July 30, 2013, to Dec 31, 2015: 21·19, 9·48-47·35). Non-employment (0·35, 0·14-0·91) and unstable or no housing (vs homeowner 0·13, 0·02-0·95) were associated with reduced rates of PrEP initiation after adjustment for age. About half of PrEP was obtained via the internet, even after the PrEP Impact trial had started (11 [48%] of 23 respondents in January to March, 2018). INTERPRETATION: PrEP awareness and use increased substantially from 2013 to 2018 among a cohort of MSM in England. Improving access to PrEP by routine commissioning by National Health Service England could increase PrEP use among all eligible MSM, but should include public health strategies to target socioeconomic and demographic disparities in knowledge and use of PrEP. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Inglaterra , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e231, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981567

RESUMO

It has been speculated that some drugs can be used against SARS-CoV-2. As for antiretrovirals, the follow-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may help to understand the potential protective effect of PrEP against SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to identify associations between oral PrEP use and COVID-19-related symptoms self-reporting. Phone call interviews or digital investigation (through WhatsApp® or e-mail) about oral PrEP regular use, social distancing, exposure to suspected or confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related symptoms. Among 108 individuals, the majority were cisgender, white and gay men. Although most of the individuals engaged in social distancing (68.52%), they kept on taking PrEP (75.93%). Few people have had contact with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 (12.04%), but some had COVID-19-related symptoms the month before the interview (27.78%) including rhinorrheoa (56.67%), cough (53.33%), asthaenia (50.00%) and headache (43.33%). Also, oral PrEP was associated with lower self-reporting COVID-19-symptoms (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.96, P = 0.04; h = 0.92) even after controlling confounders as social distancing, age, body-mass index and morbidities . In our sample, the regular use of oral PrEP was associated with lower self-reporting of COVID-19-related symptoms during the outbreak in São Paulo, Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008764, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881968

RESUMO

To augment HIV-1 pox-protein vaccine immunogenicity using a next generation adjuvant, a prime-boost strategy of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara and multimeric Env gp145 was evaluated in macaques with either aluminum (alum) or a novel liposomal monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) formulation adsorbed to alum, ALFA. Binding antibody responses were robust and comparable between arms, while antibody-dependent neutrophil and monocyte phagocytotic responses were greatly enhanced by ALFA. Per-exposure vaccine efficacy against heterologous tier 2 SHIV mucosal challenge was 90% in ALFA-adjuvanted males (P = 0.002), while alum conferred no protection. Half of the ALFA-adjuvanted males remained uninfected after the full challenge series, which spanned seven months after the last vaccination. Antibody-dependent monocyte and neutrophil phagocytic responses both strongly correlated with protection. Significant sex differences in infection risk were observed, with much lower infection rates in females than males. In humans, MPLA-liposome-alum adjuvanted gp120 also increased HIV-1-specific phagocytic responses relative to alum. Thus, next-generation liposome-based adjuvants can drive vaccine elicited antibody effector activity towards potent phagocytic responses in both macaques and humans and these responses correlate with protection. Future protein vaccination strategies aiming to improve functional humoral responses may benefit from such adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA