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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(4): 374-387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709935

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) comprises two genotypes, namely HIV-1 (group M, N, O and P) and HIV-2 (group A to H), which differ in their envelope glycoproteins and other antigenic epitopes despite their morphological and biological resemblance.Group M of HIV-1 responsible for 95% of HIV infections worldwide is composed of nine subgroups. In addition to subgroups, group M contains also two recombinant forms, known as circulating recombinant form (CRF) and unique recombinant form (URF). The first case of HIV/acquired immun deficiency virus (AIDS) in Turkey was reported in 1985 and the current number of cases reached a total of 18.557 including 1736 with AIDS based upon the surveillance data of Ministry of Health between October 1985 and November 2018. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 strains isolated from HIV positive autopsy cases detected by HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine drug resistance. Twenty eight cases [17 males, 11 female: age ranged between 3 months and 66 years (median: 35 years)] found to be HIV positive among the autopsy cases sent for HIV1 PCR study and serological screening between 2011-2017 were recruited in the study. For identification of subtypes in HIV-1 isolates, most-preferred analysis tool was used [HIVdb Stanford University Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm (www.hivdb.stanford.edu)]. Phylogenetic tree was made according to direct sequencing of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (pol) region and phylogenetic analysis was evaluated in 23 cases. Los Alamos National Laboratory were trimmed from full-length genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 870 base pair of the pol gene region was performed using CLC Sequence Viewer v8.0 (Qiagen Aarhus A/S, www.qiagenbioinformatics.com) software. The phylogenetic tree was obtained according to the neighbor-joining method and the Jukes-Cantor nucleotide distance scale and bootstrap value was set at 1000. In our study, subtype B was found to be most frequent type (39.3%; 11/28). Subtype A (17.9%; 5/28), CRF02_AG (14.3%; 4/28), subtype C (10.7%; 3/28), B+CRF02_AG recombinant (3.6%; 1/28), CRF01_AE (3.6%; 1/28), subtype D (3.6%; 1/28), as well as subtype F (3.6%; 1/28) and subtype G (3.6%; 1/28) strains were also detected in the circulation. Analysis of our results showed that 32.1% (9/28) of the samples exhibited resistance mutations. Detected mutations were as follows: M41L, T215C, K65R, M184V, responsible for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance; K103N, Y181C, G190A, responsible for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance; D30N, M46I, responsible for protease inhibitor (PI) resistance. NRTI, NNRTI and PI mutation rates in the samples were found as 21.4%, 7.1% and 3.6%, respectively. Although number of samples analyzed in our study is low, we can propose that they resemble the strains circulating in Turkey. The results of our study; although the subtype B is still dominant in our country, it supports other studies reporting that there are non-B subtypes and an increase in CRF rates in recent years. Phylogenetic analysis is widely regarded as the gold standard technique to determine the subtypes of HIV-1. Molecular epidemiologic studies related to HIV may be important in monitoring HIV subtype patterns and spreading pathways in that country. As a result; the opportunity to collect postmortem HIV sequences in a database appears to have occurred, and as this database expands, its usability is available. Therefore, it is thought that HIV subtypes and mutation information may be useful.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/farmacologia , Autopsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiologia
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 222, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692792

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV-2, endemic in West Africa, has a natural resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) which makes it difficult to treat it in developing countries. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal, prospective study over the period November 2005-June 2017. Virologic failure has been defined as any viral load greater than 50 copies/ml after 6 months of ARV treatment administered twice. Assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations was performed in the protease-coding region and in the reverse transcriptase-coding region. Results: Data from a total of 110 patients were collected. The patients had a median age of 46 years (ranging from 18 to 67) with a sex-ratio F/M of 2.54. At inclusion, viral load could be assessed in 44% of cases with a median of 935cp/ml (ranging from 17 to 144038). Antiretroviral regimen consisted of a combination of 2 NRTIs and 1IP in 94% of cases. The median follow-up was 1200 days (ranging from 1 to 3840); 94 then 76 patients completed their 12-month and 24-month assessments respectively. At 24-month follow-up, 39 patients had virologic failure, reflecting a prevalence of 39% estimated at 33% at 12-month follow-up and at 11% at 24-month follow-up; NRTIs resistance was observed in 45% of patients, IP resistance in 41% of patients while multi-NRTIs resistance and multi-IP resistance in 30% of patients. Conclusion: Currently, there is an urgent need to make available the new therapeutic classes of ARV for second line ART for patients living with HIV-2 with therapeutic failure in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , HIV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3019-3026, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598843

RESUMO

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a chemical compound that used is as a carrier in gene therapy/delivery. Some studies have investigated the microbicidal potential and antiviral activity (prophylactic or therapeutic) of PEI and its derivatives. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Infected cells were treated with bPEI for 36 hours, and the concentration of the viral protein P24 (as a virus replication marker) was determined in cell culture supernatants. This study indicated that bPEI increased HIV replication and decreased the viability of infected cells through cytotoxicity. The toxicity of bPEI its association with and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis) have been reported in several studies. To investigate bPEI-induced cytotoxicity, we examined apoptosis and autophagy in cells treated with bPEI, and a significant increase in HIV viral load, the P24 antigen level, autophagy, and necrosis observed. Thus, treatment with bPEI leads to cytotoxicity and higher HIV virus yield.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoimina/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/genética , HIV/fisiologia , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/genética , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polietilenoimina/química , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 839, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household contact tracing of index TB cases has been advocated as a key part of TB control for many years, but has not been widely implemented in many low-resource setting because of the current dearth of high quality evidence for effectiveness. Innovative strategies for earlier, more effective treatment are particularly important in contexts with hyper-endemic levels of HIV, where levels of TB infection remain extremely high. METHODS: We present the design of a household cluster-randomised controlled trial of interventions aimed at improving TB-free survival and reducing childhood prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among household contacts of index TB cases diagnosed in two provinces of South Africa. Households of index TB cases will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either an intensified home screening and linkage for TB and HIV intervention, or enhanced standard of care. The primary outcome will compare between groups the TB-free survival of household contacts over 15 months. All participants, or their next-of-kin, will provide written informed consent to participate. DISCUSSION: Evidence from randomised trials is required to identify cost-effective approaches to TB case-finding that can be applied at scale in sub-Saharan Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16006202 (01/02/2017: retrospectively registered) and NHREC4399 (11/04/2016: prospectively registered). Protocol version: 4.0 (date: 18th January 2018).


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
5.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3081-3087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576459

RESUMO

Owing to consistent genetic mutation and recombination, various escape mutants and/or drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) are now emerging worldwide. Therefore, an understanding of the genetic characteristics of prevailing strains, particularly with regard to drug-resistance-associated substitutions, is essential for devising and implementing treatments and disease control interventions in endemic settings such as Pakistan. We processed a total of 130 plasma samples originating from HIV-treatment centers in selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The samples were first screened using an HIV-1 Ag/Ab Combo test followed by amplification of the pol gene (1084 bp) from samples that were positive either for the antigen or for both the antigen and antibodies simultaneously. Screening revealed that a total of 45 samples were positive (34.62%; 95% CI: 26.99-43.13) for either antigen or both antigen and antibodies (n = 18, 40%; 95% CI: 27.02-54.55) or for antibodies alone (n = 27, 60%; 95% CI: 45.45-72.98). A largest number of positive samples was from the district of Lahore (n = 19/43, 44.18%; 95% CI: 30.44-58.9) followed by Faisalabad (n= 12/36, 33.33%; 95% CI: 20.21-49.66), Gujranwala (n = 05/23, 21.7%; 95% CI: 9.66-41.9) and Sargodha (n = 09/28, 32.1%; 95% CI: 17.93-50.66). The probability of occurrence of HIV infection was significantly associated with individuals having a history of injecting drug use (68.08%; OR = 11.15; 95% CI: 53.84-79.61, p = 0.0001). Phylogenetic analysis based on the pol gene showed that the sequences from this study clustered into three distinct clades representing recombinant form 02_AG (n = 14, 77.0%; 95% CI: 54.79-91.00), and subtypes A (n = 2, 11.1%; 95% CI: 3.1-32.8) and G (n = 2, 11.1%; 95% CI: 3.1-32.8). Although we screened 18 samples for drug-resistance-associated mutations, except for an accessory mutation (M46K) in the protease (PR) region in one subject, we found a lack of drug-resistance-associated substitutions in the PR region. On the other hand, we found two subjects (2/18) carrying a resistance-associated mutation (V106I) conferring a low level of resistance against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The present study shows that multiple subtypes of HIV-1 are present in the affected population. Continuous disease surveillance coupled with evaluation of drug resistance at higher resolution should be done in future studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
6.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(10): 763-768, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607065

RESUMO

Objective: To screen the retinopathy in HIV/AIDS patients with both non-mydriatic ultra-wide-field (UWF) retinal imaging and mydriatic fundus examinations with the Superfield lens and a slit lamp biomicroscope, and to evaluate the consistency of two methods and provide reference for future clinical screening work and even technological innovation (such as telemedicine screening and artificial intelligence). Methods: Cross sectional study. One hundred and fifty-eight eyes of 80 HIV-positive patients from the Ophthalmology Department of Beijing Youan Hospital were enrolled in this prospective observational study. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examination. A single image was obtained from each eye using the UWF fundus imaging system (Daytona, Optos, Dunfermline, UK), and then a dilated fundal examination with the Superfield lens was conducted by another expert. The possible type and location of the lesion with these two methods was recorded respectively. The consistency was compared using the detection rate and Kappa value. Results: Fifty-two patients (65%) had fundus changes, and 28 patients (35%) were normal. Seventy-nine eyes (50%) were normal and 79 eyes (50%) had fundus lesions. Sixty-one eyes (77.2%) had HIV-related fundus lesions, while 18 eyes (22.8%) had non-HIV-related fundus lesions. Fifty-two eyes (65.8%) suffered posterior or posterior involving lesions, and 27 eyes (34.2%) suffered isolated peripheral lesions. The detection rate of UWF retinal imaging and slit lamp biomicroscopy with the Superfield lens was 17.7% (28/158) and 18.4% (29/158) (P=1.000>0.05) for HIV-related microvascular retinopathy, 8.2% and 8.2% (13/158) (χ(2)=158.00, P=1.000) for cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR), 36.1% and 36.1% (57/158) (χ(2)=71.066, P=1.000) for HIV-related fundus lesions, 41.8% (66/158) and 47.5% (75/158) (χ(2)=63.514, P=0.136) for fundus lesions, 33.5% (53/158) and 31.0% (49/158) (χ(2)=108.268, P=0.388) for posterior/posterior involving lesions, and 6.4% (10/158) and 16.5% (26/158) (χ(2)=42.001, P=0.000) for isolated peripheral lesions, respectively. In general, the consistency of these two methods was moderate in detecting fundus lesions (Kappa=0.630), HIV-related fundus lesions (Kappa=0.671), HIV-related microvascular retinopathy (Kappa=0.551), and isolated peripheral lesions (Kappa=0.450). According to the fundus location, the two methods showed high consistency in the detection of posterior/posterior involving lesions (Kappa=0.826>0.75) and perfect consistency for CMVR (Kappa=1.0). Conclusions: The UWF retinal imaging system and the Superfield lens showed reasonable consistency in fundus screening in HIV/AIDS patients, especially for CMVR, or lesions in the posterior pole. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55:763-768).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Fundo de Olho , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Oftalmoscópios , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Retina/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 982-987, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484265

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes and the status of drug resistance among people living with HIV who had prepared to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture (Dehong). Methods: A total of 170 adults with HIV were recruited in Dehong from January to June 2017, before initiating ART. HIV-1 pol genes were amplified and used to analyze the HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance. Results: A total of 147 samples were successfully sequenced. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, 12 HIV-1 genotypes were found among the subjects, including three predominant genotypes such as subtype C (29.9%, 44/147), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (27.2%, 40/147) and CRF01_AE (19.7%, 29/147). Circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) which were newly identified in this area in recent years were also found among these subjects, including CRF62_BC, CRF64_BC, CRF86_BC and CRF96_cpx. The distribution of HIV-1 genotypes between heterosexual transmission or intravenous drug use, showed statistical difference. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were found among 8.8% (13/147) of the subjects. Proportion of drug resistant strains among injecting drug users (25.0%, 8/32) was higher than that among those heterosexual transmitted individuals (4.6%, 5/109, χ(2)=10.166, P=0.002). Conclusions: Among people living with HIV-1 who had prepared to initiate ART, their HIV-1 genetics were highly complicated, with moderate prevalence rate of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Genes pol , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Filogenia
8.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1377-1384, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501601

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) have expressed concern about the life-long burden and stigma associated with taking pills daily and can experience medication fatigue that might lead to suboptimal treatment adherence and the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants, thereby limiting future treatment options1-3. As such, there is strong interest in long-acting antiretroviral (ARV) agents that can be administered less frequently4. Herein, we report GS-CA1, a new archetypal small-molecule HIV capsid inhibitor with exceptional potency against HIV-2 and all major HIV-1 types, including viral variants resistant to the ARVs currently in clinical use. Mechanism-of-action studies indicate that GS-CA1 binds directly to the HIV-1 capsid and interferes with capsid-mediated nuclear import of viral DNA, HIV particle production and ordered capsid assembly. GS-CA1 selects in vitro for unfit GS-CA1-resistant capsid variants that remain fully susceptible to other classes of ARVs. Its high metabolic stability and low solubility enabled sustained drug release in mice following a single subcutaneous dosing. GS-CA1 showed high antiviral efficacy as a long-acting injectable monotherapy in a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection, outperforming long-acting rilpivirine. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of ultrapotent capsid inhibitors as new long-acting agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Capsídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/patogenicidade , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Camundongos
9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 287-295, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520241

RESUMO

Test and Rapid Response Treatment (TRRT) linkage programs have demonstrated improved HIV suppression rates. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Miami TRRT initiative and its clinical impact. Assisted by a dedicated care navigator, patients receiving a reactive HIV rapid test at the Florida Department of Health STD Clinic were offered same-day HIV care at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center Adult HIV Outpatient Clinic. Patient retention and labs were tracked for 12 months. Of the 2337 individuals tested, 46 had a reactive HIV test; 41 (89%) consented to participate. For the 36 patients in continued care for a year, 33 (91.7%) achieved virological suppression (< 200 copies/mL) within 70 days of their reactive HIV rapid test; at 12 months, 35 (97.2%) remained suppressed, and mean CD4 T cell counts increased from 452 ± 266 to 597 ± 322 cells/mm3. The Miami TRRT initiative demonstrated that immediate linkage to care is feasible and improves retention and suppression in a public/academic medical center in the U.S. South.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Navegação de Pacientes , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Florida , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6111-6118, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367804

RESUMO

Application of a protease inhibitor, 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), during the cell culture process was demonstrated to effectively reduce proteolytic activity at a specific amino acid site during the production of an HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb). However, the addition of AEBSF could potentially introduce some modifications to the bNAb protein. Experimental design from sample preparation to LC-MS characterization was performed using middle-up and bottom-up approaches to identify AEBSF-modified species for the bNAb using an AEBSF supplementation in the cell culture media. Modified species along with the unmodified control sample were also subjected to binding activity assessment. The results showed that two amino acids (Tyr177 and Lys250) were susceptible to AEBSF modification in the bNAb test articles but at a negligible level and not in the CDR regions, which therefore did not reduce the in vitro binding activity of the bNAb.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteases/imunologia , Sulfonas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Sulfonas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1143, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of subclinical disease as well as its associated risk factors in sub-Saharan African population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among virologically suppressed HIV-infected participants in Kwara State, Nigeria. METHODS: This study was conducted between July 2018 and December 2018. A total of 150 HIV-infected participants aged between 20 and 55 years and 50 HIV non-infected age-matched controls were randomly recruited in the study. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was measured, PAD was defined as ABI of < 0.9. Cryopreserved serum was used to evaluate lipid profile parameters. Student's t-test and Chi-square were used to compare continuous and categorical variables. Associations of CVD risk factors and clinical data, and lipid profile with low ABI were assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The study participants had a mean age of 43.73 ± 8.74, majority were females (72.7%) with a mean duration on ART of 7.73 ± 3.52 years. Hypertension was present in 15.9%, diabetes 4%, family history of CVD 8.6% and metabolic syndrome 17.3% in the study group. The study participants recorded significantly lower mean values for ABI, HDL-C and significantly higher mean values of TG (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The prevalence of low ABI (14.6%) was higher in the study group compared to the control group (2%). A significantly negative correlation between ABI and duration on ART (r = - 0.163, P = 0.041) and a positive correlation between viral load and TG were observed in the study group. TC (OR 1.784, P = 0.011), LDL-C (OR 1.824, P = 0.010) and CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3 (OR 2.635, P = 0.364) were associated with low ABI in the participants. CONCLUSION: Viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy and long term treatment is associated with dyslipidaemia, with increased risk of PAD. Prevalence of PAD in virologically-suppressed individuals does not differ from the controls in the population studied.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Doença Arterial Periférica/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 740, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have high rates of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections and cervical cancer. We aimed to assess the distribution of hrHPV genotypes, risk factors of type-specific hrHPV persistence, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (≥HSIL) in WLWH in Denmark. METHODS: From the prospective Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) we identified WLWH with a positive hrHPV test during the study period; 2011-2014. HIV demographics were retrieved from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and pathology results from the The Danish Pathology Data Bank. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with persistent hrHPV infection (positivity of the same hrHPV type in two samples one-two years after the first hrHPV positive date) and ≥ HSIL. RESULTS: Of 71 WLWH, 31 (43.7%) had persistent hrHPV infection. Predominant hrHPV genotypes were HPV58, 52, 51, and 35 and most frequently observed persistent genotypes were HPV52, 33 and 31. CD4 < 350 cells/µL predicted genotype-specific hrHPV persistence (adjusted OR 4.36 (95%CI: 1.18-16.04)) and ≥ HSIL was predicted by prior AIDS (adjusted OR 8.55 (95% CI 1.21-60.28)). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective cohort study of well-treated WLWH in Denmark found a high rate of persistent hrHPV infections with predominantly non-16/18 hrHPV genotypes. CD4 count < 350 cells/µL predicted hrHPV persistence, while prior AIDS predicted ≥HSIL.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Colo do Útero/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/complicações , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/epidemiologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 741, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) pattern. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the prevalence of HIV TDR following the implementation of a fixed regimen of HIV treatment in Taiwan in 2012. METHODS: TDR was measured in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals who participated in voluntary counseling and testing between 2007 and 2015 in southern Taiwan. Antiretroviral resistance mutations were interpreted using the HIVdb program from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. RESULTS: Sequences were obtained from 377 consecutive individuals between 2007 and 2015. The overall prevalence rates of TDR HIV among the study population from 2007 to 2011 and 2012-2015 were 10.6 and 7.9%, respectively. Among the detected mutations, K103 N and V179D + K103R were more frequently observed after 2012. Four HIV-infected patients with K103 N variants were detected after 2012, and 4 of the 5 patients with V179D + K103R variants were found after 2012. No significant differences were observed in the TDRs among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, multiple drug resistance, and any drug resistance between period 1 (2007-2011) and period 2 (2012-2015). CONCLUSIONS: A fixed treatment regimen with zidovudine/lamivudine + efavirenz or nevirapine as first-line therapy for treatment-naïve patients infected with HIV did not significantly increase the TDR during the 4-year follow-up period. Due to the increase in NNRTI resistance associated with mutations after 2012, a longer follow-up period and larger sample size are needed in future studies.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 410, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs are a very effective therapy against HIV infection. However, the high mutation rate of HIV permits the emergence of variants that can be resistant to the drug treatment. Predicting drug resistance to previously unobserved variants is therefore very important for an optimum medical treatment. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted categorical kernel functions to predict drug resistance from virus sequence data. These kernel functions are very simple to implement and are able to take into account HIV data particularities, such as allele mixtures, and to weigh the different importance of each protein residue, as it is known that not all positions contribute equally to the resistance. RESULTS: We analyzed 21 drugs of four classes: protease inhibitors (PI), integrase inhibitors (INI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). We compared two categorical kernel functions, Overlap and Jaccard, against two well-known noncategorical kernel functions (Linear and RBF) and Random Forest (RF). Weighted versions of these kernels were also considered, where the weights were obtained from the RF decrease in node impurity. The Jaccard kernel was the best method, either in its weighted or unweighted form, for 20 out of the 21 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that kernels that take into account both the categorical nature of the data and the presence of mixtures consistently result in the best prediction model. The advantage of including weights depended on the protein targeted by the drug. In the case of reverse transcriptase, weights based in the relative importance of each position clearly increased the prediction performance, while the improvement in the protease was much smaller. This seems to be related to the distribution of weights, as measured by the Gini index. All methods described, together with documentation and examples, are freely available at https://bitbucket.org/elies_ramon/catkern.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , HIV-1/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 674, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence club (AC) differentiated service delivery model, where clinically stable ART patients receive their ART refills and psychosocial support in groups has supported clinically stable patients' retention and viral suppression. Patients and health systems could benefit further by reducing visit frequency and increasing ART refills. We designed a cluster-randomized control trial comparing standard of care (SoC) ACs and six-month ART refill (Intervention) ACs in a large primary care facility in Khayelitsha, South Africa. METHODS: Existing ACs were randomized to either the control (SOC ACs) or intervention (Intervention ACs) arm. SoC ACs meet five times annually, receiving two-month ART refills with a four-month ART refill over year-end. Blood is drawn at the AC visit ahead of the clinical assessment visit. Intervention ACs meet twice annually receiving six-month ART refills, with a third individual visit for routine blood collection anytime two-four weeks before the annual clinical assessment AC visit. Primary outcomes will be retention in care, annual viral load assessment completion and viral load suppression. (<400copies/mL) after 2 years. Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Cape Town (HREC 652/2016) and the Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Ethics Review Board (#1639). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made widely available through presentations and briefing documents. DISCUSSION: Evaluation of an extended ART refill interval in adherence clubs will provide evidence towards novel model adaptions that can be made to further improve convenience for patients and leverage health system efficiencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR201810631281009. Registered 11 September 2018.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16524, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348267

RESUMO

Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV co-positive patients with hemophilia A presents numerous problems in terms of safety and effectiveness. The emergence of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens has led to tremendous changes in the management of HIV/HCV co-infection over the past few years, but the application of DAA in patients with hemophilia complicated with HIV/HCV co-infection has rarely been reported.We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course and outcome of hemophilia A patients with HIV/HCV co-infection receiving DAA with a focus on the virological response, changes in cluster of differentiation 4 lymphocyte (CD4) count, side effects, and impact on bleeding before and after DAA therapy.A total of 12 hemophilia A patients with HIV/HCV co-infection were included, 9 of which were severe. All the patients were in stable states with CD4 counts >200/mm and plasma HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) suppressed (<40 IU/mL) while taking the antiretroviral regimen. Majority of the patients (n = 9, 75.0%) were infected with HCV genotype (GT) 1b, while 2 and 1 was infected with HCV GT 2i and HCV GT 3, respectively.After 12 weeks of DAA treatment, 11 patients (91.7%) obtained sustained virologic response within 24 weeks of discontinuation of treatment (SVR24), except 1 patient who was treated with sofosbuvir (SOF) + pegylated interferon + ribavirin (PR), which was then switched to daclatasvir (DCV) + asunaprevir (ASV) for 12 weeks; this patient then achieved SVR24. During DAA treatment, HIV RNA in all the patients was constantly suppressed, while CD4 counts showed no obvious change.The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were weakness and loss of appetite (generally mild). There was no evidence of an increased tendency of bleeding, and changes in response to replacement.DAA therapy offered a safe and well-tolerated management strategy for HIV/HCV co-infected patients with hemophilia A. An awareness of the potential drug-drug interactions (DDI) between DAA and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by clinicians is important for optimal management of co-infected patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1 , Hemofilia A/imunologia , Hemofilia A/virologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16376, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335686

RESUMO

The HIV subtype B is the most frequent in Brazil. The HIV subtype B' codes the amino acids glicine-tryptophan-glicine (GWG) instead of glicine-proline-glicine on the tip of gp120 V3 loop. This variant was associated to a slower HIV progression in mono-infected patients; however, there is no information in coinfected patients. This study evaluated the infection progression of HIV variant B' on the hepatitis C virus presence. RNA isolated from plasma of the 601 infected patients were used to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtyping and to classify the virus according their syncytium-inducing ability. The HIV infection progression was evaluated by clinical and laboratorial data. The results showed a significant association between HIV B' variant and CD4 count and time of AIDS in HIV mono-infected patients. Notwithstanding the fact that we did not find a direct association between GWG variant and AIDS and in HIV coinfected patients no mitigating effect due to GWG presence was found. We did observe that the association between GWG variant and CD4 counts is lost in coinfected patients. This is first work showing influence of the HIV GWG variant in coinfected patients. Nevertheless, the presence of the GWG variant can indicate a better prognostic in the mono-infected patients.


Assuntos
Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/genética , Hepatite C , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , RNA Viral/análise
20.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2326-2336, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324996

RESUMO

While poverty is an established barrier to achieving success at each step of the HIV care continuum, less is known about specific aspects of poverty and how they overlap with behavior in exceptionally low-income individuals who live in well-resourced areas. We considered unsuppressed viral load over 3 years among women living with HIV in San Francisco who used homeless shelters, low-income hotels and free meal programs. One-hundred twenty study participants were followed; 60% had > 1 unsuppressed viral load and 19% were unsuppressed at every visit. Across six-month intervals, the odds of unsuppressed viral load were 11% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping on the street [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20]; 16% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping in a shelter (AOR/10 nights 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27); 4% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping in a single-room occupancy hotel (AOR/10 nights 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07); and over threefold higher among women who experienced any recent incarceration (AOR 3.56, 95% CI 1.84-6.86). Violence and recent use of outpatient health care did not significantly predict viral suppression in adjusted analysis. While strategies to promote retention in care are important for vulnerable persons living with HIV, they are insufficient to ensure sustained viral suppression in low-income women experiencing homelessness and incarceration. Results presented here in combination with prior research linking incarceration to homelessness among women indicate that tailored interventions, which not only consider but prioritize affordable housing, are critical to achieving sustained viral suppression in low-income women living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
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