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2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 160: 1-5, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25446633

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acanthus ilicifolius L. is an important medicinal mangrove plant. It is popularly used for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment with alcohol extract of Acanthus ilicifolius L. on duck hepatitis B. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-day-old Guangxi shelducks injected intraperitoneally with strong positive duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) serum were used to establish a duck hepatitis B animal model in the study. The ducks were respectively administered in different groups with low-, middle- and high-dose alcohol extracts of Acanthus ilicifolius L., the positive control drug acyclovir (ACV) and double-distilled water. The levels of serum DHBV DNA were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR). Duck hepatitis B surface antigen (DHBsAg) and duck hepatitis B e antigen (DHBeAg) OD values in the serum were measured by ELISA. The activity of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) in the serum was measured, and the livers were taken for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The levels of serum DHBV DNA and the values of DHBsAg and DHBeAg OD were not significant in any of the dose extract groups. However, the ALT activity was obviously lower in the middle- and high-dose extract groups. It was also found that a high dose of alcohol extract could reduce the activity of AST significantly and significantly improve hepatic pathological effects. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose alcohol extract of Acanthus ilicifolius L. has an obvious protective effect on the liver function and liver tissue. However, the present study finds that Acanthus ilicifolius L. cannot inhibit the replication of duck hepatitis B virus.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 174(3-4): 302-308, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457362

RESUMO

Avian hepadnaviruses are etiological agents of hepatitis B, that has been identified primarily in ducks, and more recently in various avian species. In this paper, 16 hepadnaviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the field samples from dead embryos of commercially reared domestic duck and goose. Based on the molecular analysis of the S-protein gene sequences and phylogenetic Neighbor-joining tree, identified viruses were clustered in the same genetic group, indicating no host-related diversity. Both duck and goose-origin hepadnaviruses were grouped within the cluster consisting of "Western-country" and "Chinese" duck hepatitis B (DHBV) isolates, showing more evolutionary distances with other known avian hepadnaviruses. Histopathologically, the lesions observed in the liver tissue from hepadnavirus positive duck and goose embryos varied from low to mild degree of perivascular mononuclear cells and mixed cell infiltrations, followed by mild vacuolar changes. Small focal necrotic changes in the liver parenchyma, and bile ductular proliferation were also found in examined liver samples. Generally, the microscopic findings resemble those described in experimentally infected ducks, while this was the first description of hepadnavirus associated lesions in domestic goose. Although hepadnaviruses are considered to have a very narrow host range, this study showed that domestic ducks and geese are susceptible to infection with genetically almost identical hepadnaviruses, that were likely to produce similar microscopic changes in the liver of both duck and goose embryos. The impact of naturally occurred hepadnavirus infection and possible synergistic interactions with other infectious or non-infectious agents on embryo viability needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/veterinária , Hepadnaviridae/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Patos/embriologia , Gansos/embriologia , Hepadnaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
4.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 126(3): 208-15, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409748

RESUMO

A novel codrug, α-DDB-FNCG, was synthesized through coupling of α-biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (α-DDB) and the nucleoside analogue FNCG, via an ester bond. The anti-HBV activity and hepatoprotective effects of this compound were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line, the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg as well as the levels of extracellular and intracellular viral DNA were determined by ELISA and real-time fluorescent quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (FQ-PCR), respectively. In DHBV-infected ducks, the viral DNA levels in serum and liver were determined by FQ-PCR. In addition, the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in both serum and liver were also examined. The improvement of ducks' livers was evaluated by histopathological analysis. It has been demonstrated that α-DDB-FNCG could suppress the levels of HBV antigens and viral DNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the HepG2.2.15 cell line. Furthermore, this codrug could also significantly inhibit the viral DNA replication and reduce the ALT and AST levels in both serum and liver of DHBV-infected ducks, with improved hepatocellular architecture in drug-treated ducks. In short, these results suggest that α-DDB-FNCG could be a promising candidate for further development of new anti-HBV agents with hepatoprotective effects.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Citidina/farmacologia , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/sangue , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Carga Viral
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 150(2): 568-75, 2013 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24051027

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (Apiaceae) have been used as a folk remedy for the treatment of fever, edema, detoxication, throat pain, psoriasis and hepatitis B virus infections in China. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify an anti-HBV compound from this herb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A compound (saponin) was isolated from the active ethanol extract using bioassay-guided screening. The structure of the saponin was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. The anti-HBV activity of the saponin was evaluated by detecting the levels of HBV antigens, extracellular HBV DNA, nuclear covalent closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and five HBV promoters in HepG2.2.15 cells. In addition, the levels of serum HBsAg/HBeAg, DHBV DNA, ALT/AST and hepatic pathological changes were analyzed in DHBV-infected ducks. RESULTS: The chemical analysis indicated that the saponin isolated from Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides is asiaticoside. The pharmacodynamics experimental studies showed that asiaticoside effectively suppressed the levels of HBsAg/HBeAg, extracellular HBV DNA and intracellular cccDNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, experiments demonstrated that asiaticoside markedly reduced viral DNA transcription and replication by inhibiting the activities of core, s1, s2, and X gene promoters. In addition, asiaticoside markedly reduced DHBV replication without any obvious signs of toxicity. The levels of serum DHBV DNA, HBsAg/HBeAg were increased 3 days after drug withdrawal, but the levels rebounded slightly in the asiaticoside treatment groups compared with the 3TC treatment group. Moreover, analysis of the serum ALT/AST levels and the liver pathological changes indicated that asiaticoside could alleviate liver damage. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that asiaticoside could efficiently inhibit HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo, and asiaticoside may be a major bioactive ingredient in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Centella , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Patos , Células Hep G2 , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Animal/sangue , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Virol ; 85(23): 12474-81, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21937643

RESUMO

Viruses commonly utilize the cellular trafficking machinery of polarized cells to effect viral export. Hepatocytes are polarized in vivo, but most in vitro hepatocyte models are either nonpolarized or have morphology unsuitable for the study of viral export. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of trafficking and export for the hepadnaviruses hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in polarized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and primary duck hepatocytes. DHBV export, but not replication, was dependent on the development of hepatocyte polarity, with export significantly abrogated over time as primary hepatocytes lost polarity. Using Transwell cultures of polarized N6 cells and adenovirus-based transduction, we observed that export of both HBV and DHBV was vectorially regulated and predominantly basolateral. Monitoring of polarized N6 cells and nonpolarized C11 cells during persistent, long-term DHBV infection demonstrated that newly synthesized sphingolipid and virus displayed significant colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, implying cotransportation from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Notably, 15% of virus was released apically from polarized cells, corresponding to secretion into the bile duct in vivo, also in association with sphingolipids. We conclude that DHBV and, probably, HBV are reliant upon hepatocyte polarity to be efficiently exported and this export is in association with sphingolipid structures, possibly lipid rafts. This study provides novel insights regarding the mechanisms of hepadnavirus trafficking in hepatocytes, with potential relevance to pathogenesis and immune tolerance.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatócitos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Animais , Southern Blotting , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/genética , Patos , Imunofluorescência , Vetores Genéticos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Transferrina/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
7.
Liver Int ; 30(3): 396-405, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19912529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, we documented that hepatocytes can eliminate contacted cells via the CD95 ligand (CD95L)-CD95 pathway and that they are also equipped in perforin and granzyme B and can eradicate other cells via the granule exocytosis mechanism. The aim of this study was to assess whether hepadnaviral infection modifies hepatocyte-mediated cell killing. METHODS: Primary hepatocytes from woodchucks with progressing or resolved hepadnaviral hepatitis and hepatocyte lines transfected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) genes were examined for cytotoxic effector activity against cell targets susceptible to CD95L and/or perforin-dependent killing. Hepatocytes from healthy animals served as controls. RESULTS: Actively progressing and resolved hepadnaviral hepatitis is associated with a significantly greater capacity of hepatocytes to kill contacted cells. Both hepatocyte CD95L- and perforin-dependent cytotoxicity were augmented. Hepatocytes transfected with WHV X gene, but not those with complete WHV genome or virus envelope or core gene, transcribed significantly more CD95L and perforin and killed cell targets more efficiently. Exposure to interferon-gamma profoundly enhanced hepatocyte cell killing. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatocyte cytotoxic potential is significantly augmented during and following resolution of active hepadnaviral hepatitis. Hepatocyte cytotoxic activity may contribute to both liver physiological functions and the pathogenesis and progression of liver disease, including viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Proteína Ligante Fas/imunologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B da Marmota , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Perforina/imunologia , Animais , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Granzimas/metabolismo , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Antígenos de Hepatite/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Marmota , Proteínas Recombinantes , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Receptor fas/imunologia
8.
J Virol ; 82(17): 8579-91, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18596101

RESUMO

The importance of effective immune responses in recovery from acute hepadnaviral hepatitis has been demonstrated. However, there is no conclusive delineation of virological and immunological events occurring in the liver immediately after hepadnavirus invasion and during the preacute phase of infection. These very early events might be of primary importance in determining the recovery or progression to chronic hepatitis and the intrinsic hepadnaviral propensity to persist. In this study, applying the woodchuck model of acute hepatitis B, the hepatic kinetics of hepadnavirus replication and activation of genes encoding cytokines, cytotoxicity effectors, and immune cell markers were quantified in sequential liver biopsies collected from 1 h postinoculation onward by sensitive real-time cDNA amplification assays. The results revealed that hepadnavirus replication is established in the liver as early as 1 hour after infection. In 3 to 6 h, significantly augmented intrahepatic transcription of gamma interferon and interleukin-12 were evident, suggesting activation of antigen-presenting cells. In 48 to 72 h, NK and NKT cells were activated and virus replication was transiently but significantly reduced, implying that this early innate response is at least partially successful in limiting virus propagation. Nonetheless, T cells were activated 4 to 5 weeks later when hepatitis became histologically evident. Collectively, our data demonstrate that virus replication is initiated and the innate response activated in the liver soon after exposure to a liver-pathogenic dose of hepadnavirus. Nevertheless, this response is unable to prompt a timely adaptive T-cell response, in contrast to infections caused by other viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B da Marmota/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , DNA Viral/análise , Progressão da Doença , Genes Virais , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Inata , Fígado/patologia , Marmota , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 28(10): 1652-8, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17883953

RESUMO

AIM: To study the efficacy of antiviral treatment with PNA for the duck model of HBV (DHBV)-infected ducks. PNA is a 2-amine-9-(2,3-dideoxy-2,3-dihydro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-6-methoxy-9H-purine. METHODS: The Sichuan Mallard ducklings in the hepatitis B virus model were treated with PNA, a new antiviral agent. DHBV DNA from the blood serum and liver tissues were measured at 0, 5, and 10 d during the treatment and at 3 d withdrawal by real-time PCR. The duck hepatitis B surface antigen (DHBsAg) in the liver cells was observed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pathological changes in the liver tissues were also observed. Control group I was administered with distilled water and control group II was administered with 3-thiacytidine. Treatment group I was administered with PNA at a dose of 40 mg/kg and treatment group II was administered perorally (po) with PNA at a dose of 80 mg/kg. Treatment group III was administered with PNA at a dose of 20 mg/kg and treatment group IV was intravenously administered with PNA at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Each group contained 15 ducklings. RESULTS: PNA can significantly lower the DHBV replication levels in serum and liver. Compared with control group II, there were no significant differences in inhibiting efficacy in treatment groups I and III (P>0.05) and there were significant differences in inhibiting efficacy in treatment groups II and IV (P<0.05). Interestingly, significant differences were observed at 3 d withdrawal. The DHBV replication levels in each group slightly increased at 3 d withdrawal, but rebounded slightly in the PNA treatment groups than in control group II (P<0.05). The DHBV replication levels in the treatment groups were lower than in control group I. The DHBV replication levels in sera had a positive relationship with that in the liver, but the DHBV replication levels in the liver was lower than that in sera. Pathological changes in the treatment groups were obviously improved and the changes were associated with liver viral DNA levels. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that PNA is a strong inhibitor of DHBV replication in the DHBV-infected duck model.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite Viral Animal/prevenção & controle , Nucleosídeos de Purina/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Nucleosídeos de Purina/administração & dosagem , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 22-38, 2007 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17206752

RESUMO

Hepadnaviridae is a family of hepatotropic DNA viruses that is divided into the genera orthohepadnavirus of mammals and avihepadnavirus of birds. All members of this family can cause acute and chronic hepatic infection, which in the case of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes a major global health problem. Although our knowledge about the molecular biology of these highly liver-specific viruses has profoundly increased in the last two decades, the mechanisms of attachment and productive entrance into the differentiated host hepatocytes are still enigmatic. The difficulties in studying hepadnaviral entry were primarily caused by the lack of easily accessible in vitro infection systems. Thus, for more than twenty years, differentiated primary hepatocytes from the respective species were the only in vitro models for both orthohepadnaviruses (e.g. HBV) and avihepadnaviruses (e.g. duck hepatitis B virus [DHBV]). Two important discoveries have been made recently regarding HBV: (1) primary hepatocytes from tree-shrews; i.e., Tupaia belangeri, can be substituted for primary human hepatocytes, and (2) a human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG) was established that gains susceptibility for HBV infection upon induction of differentiation in vitro. A number of potential HBV receptor candidates have been described in the past, but none of them have been confirmed to function as a receptor. For DHBV and probably all other avian hepadnaviruses, carboxypeptidase D (CPD) has been shown to be indispensable for infection, although the exact role of this molecule is still under debate. While still restricted to the use of primary duck hepatocytes (PDH), investigations performed with DHBV provided important general concepts on the first steps of hepadnaviral infection. However, with emerging data obtained from the new HBV infection systems, the hope that DHBV utilizes the same mechanism as HBV only partially held true. Nevertheless, both HBV and DHBV in vitro infection systems will help to: (1) functionally dissect the hepadnaviral entry pathways, (2) perform reverse genetics (e.g. test the fitness of escape mutants), (3) titrate and map neutralizing antibodies, (4) improve current vaccines to combat acute and chronic infections of hepatitis B, and (5) develop entry inhibitors for future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/etiologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Hepadnaviridae/patogenicidade , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Patos , Hepadnaviridae/genética , Hepadnaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/genética , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/fisiopatologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Precursores de Proteínas/fisiologia , Tupaia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/fisiologia , Vírion/genética , Vírion/patogenicidade , Vírion/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 91-103, 2007 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17206758

RESUMO

The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) share several fundamental features. Both viruses have a partially double-stranded DNA genome that is replicated via a RNA intermediate and the coding open reading frames (ORFs) overlap extensively. In addition, the genomic and structural organization, as well as replication and biological characteristics, are very similar in both viruses. Most of the key features of hepadnaviral infection were first discovered in the DHBV model system and subsequently confirmed for HBV. There are, however, several differences between human HBV and DHBV. This review will focus on the molecular and cellular biology, evolution, and host adaptation of the avian hepatitis B viruses with particular emphasis on DHBV as a model system.


Assuntos
Avihepadnavirus/genética , Avihepadnavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Avihepadnavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Avihepadnavirus/patogenicidade , DNA Viral/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Tropismo/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/análise , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
12.
Hepatology ; 44(3): 685-93, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16941679

RESUMO

Entry and intracellular transport of hepatitis B viruses have several unusual, largely unknown aspects. In this study, we explored the mode of virus entry using the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and the primary hepatocyte infection model. Upon internalization, viral particles were enriched in an endosomal compartment, as revealed by biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Virus-containing vesicles harbored early endosome markers. Kinetic analysis revealed time-dependent partial translocation of viral DNA from endosomes into the cytosol. This was strongly reduced by inhibition of vacuolar ATPase; (vATPase) activity with bafilomycin A1 and resulted in abortive infection and prevention of cccDNA formation. Inactivation of vATPase induced accumulation and stabilization of incoming viral particles in endosomes, presumably by blocking endosomal carrier vesicle-mediated cargo transport and sorting. Although neutralization of the endomembrane organelles alone led to stabilization of incoming viral particles, it did not inhibit virus infection. In line with this, a pH-dependent ectopic virus fusion at the plasma membrane could not be artificially induced. This provided further evidence for a pH-neutral translocation mechanism. Endosomal membrane potential was required for viral infection because cotreatment of cells with monensin partially overcame the inhibitory effect of bafilomycin A1. In conclusion, hepatitis B viral infection is mediated by a novel cellular entry mechanism with features different from that of all other known viruses.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Animais , Patos , Endossomos/ultraestrutura , Endossomos/virologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Potenciais da Membrana , Microscopia Eletrônica
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 100(20): 11652-9, 2003 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14500915

RESUMO

We estimated the amount of hepatocyte turnover in the livers of three woodchucks undergoing clearance of a transient woodchuck hepatitis infection by determining the fate of integrated viral DNA as a genetic marker of the infected cell population. Integrated viral DNA was found to persist in liver tissue from recovered animals at essentially undiminished levels of 1 viral genome per 1,000-3,000 liver cells, suggesting that the hepatocytes in the recovered liver were derived primarily from the infected cell population. We determined the single and multicopy distribution of distinct viral cell junctions isolated from small pieces of liver after clearance of the infection to determine the cumulative amount of hepatocyte proliferation that had occurred during recovery. We estimated that proliferation was equivalent to a minimum of 0.7-1 complete random turnovers of the hepatocyte population of the liver. Our results indicated that during resolution of the transient infections a large fraction of the infected hepatocyte population was killed and replaced by hepatocyte cell division.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Divisão Celular , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Hepatócitos/citologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , DNA Viral/análise , Hepadnaviridae/genética , Hepadnaviridae/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Marmota , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(3): 304-10, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10764033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated bile duct epithelial cells (BDEC) as a reservoir of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that may be particularly important in the development of post-liver transplant recurrence of hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antiviral therapy on duck HBV (DHBV) expression in hepatocytes and BDEC and to determine if this was affected by biliary hyperplasia. METHODS: Ducklings congenitally infected with DHBV received penciclovir (10 mg/kg per day) treatment from 9 days of age. In order to mimic the biliary hyperplasia that often accompanies severe post-liver transplant HBV recurrence, half the animals underwent bile duct ligation. Duck HBV-DNA in serum was measured at day 1, and serum and liver DHBV-DNA were determined when the animals were killed on day 17. Intrahepatic expression of viral preS1 antigen and DHBV-DNA was measured by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. RESULTS: Viraemia became undetectable in the penciclovir-treated animals at day 17, following 8 days of therapy. Examination of liver tissue revealed that all hepatocytes and the majority of BDEC contained DHBV preS1 antigen and DHBV-DNA. Penciclovir greatly reduced the intrahepatic viral burden, but there was no antiviral effect on viral markers within BDEC. Despite the increased number of BDEC after bile duct ligation, the same proportion of BDEC was seen to be infected, and this was unaffected by antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the duck model with and without biliary hyperplasia, penciclovir controls DHBV replication and reduces viral burden in hepatocytes, but not in BDEC. The BDEC appear to be an important reservoir of virus that is relatively unaffected by antiviral treatment, and may play an important role in disease persistence and relapse following cessation of therapy.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ductos Biliares/virologia , Patos/virologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Fígado/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/imunologia , Hiperplasia , Hibridização In Situ , Fígado/patologia , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 44(1): 111-22, 2000 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10602731

RESUMO

A novel L-nucleoside analog of deoxycytidine, 2',3'-dideoxy-2', 3'-didehydro-beta-L-5-fluorocytidine (beta-L-Fd4C), was recently shown to strongly inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the 2.2.15 cell line. Therefore, its antiviral activity was evaluated in the duck HBV (DHBV) infection model. Using a cell-free system for the expression of the DHBV polymerase, beta-L-Fd4C-TP exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of dCTP incorporation into viral minus-strand DNA with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM which was lower than that of other tested deoxycytidine analogs, i.e. , lamivudine-TP, ddC-TP, and beta-L-FddC-TP. Further analysis showed that beta-L-Fd4C-TP is likely to be a competitive inhibitor of dCTP incorporation and to cause premature DNA chain termination. In primary duck hepatocyte cultures infected in vitro, beta-L-Fd4C administration exhibited a long-lasting inhibitory effect on viral DNA synthesis but could not clear viral covalently closed circular DNA (CCC DNA). Results of short-term antiviral treatment in experimentally infected ducklings showed that beta-L-Fd4C exhibited the most potent antiviral effect, followed by beta-L-FddC, lamivudine, and ddC. Longer administration of beta-L-Fd4C induced a sustained suppression of viremia (>95% of controls) and of viral DNA synthesis within the liver. However, the persistence of trace amounts of viral CCC DNA detected only by PCR was associated with a recurrence of viral replication after drug withdrawal. In parallel, beta-L-Fd4C treatment suppressed viral antigen expression within the liver and decreased intrahepatic inflammation and was not associated with any sign of toxicity. Our data, therefore, demonstrate that in the duck model of HBV infection, beta-L-Fd4C is a potent inhibitor of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity in vitro and suppresses viral replication in the liver in vivo.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato , Zalcitabina/análogos & derivados , Animais , DNA Circular/biossíntese , DNA Viral/biossíntese , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zalcitabina/metabolismo , Zalcitabina/uso terapêutico
16.
J Virol ; 73(12): 9710-7, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10559280

RESUMO

DNA of the avian hepadnavirus, duck hepatitis B virus, was found to be integrated at low abundance into the cellular DNA extracted from the livers of infected ducklings. The frequency of integration was estimated to be at least one viral genome per 10(3) to 10(4) cells by 6 days postinfection. The structures of virus-cell junctions determined by sequencing were compared with those of virus-virus junctions formed by nonhomologous recombination between the ends of linear viral DNA forms. This comparison allowed us to conclude that linear viral DNA was the preferential form used as an integration substrate. Potential factors promoting viral DNA integration during chronic infection are discussed.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Fígado/virologia , Integração Viral/fisiologia , Animais , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recombinação Genética
17.
J Med Virol ; 58(1): 19-25, 1999 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10223541

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) has been a useful model for hepadnavirus infection. There have been few studies on immunity to DHBV and none describing the cell-mediated immune response by acute and chronically infected ducks. A duck hepatitis B antigen-specific blastogenesis assay was used to measure DHBV antigen-specific responses of duck peripheral blood (PBMC) and splenic mononuclear cells (SMCs) from uninfected control ducks, ducks acutely or chronically infected with DHBV, and ducks immune to DHBV. A comparison of the group mean responses by PBMC to DHBV surface antigen (DHBsAg) found that the immune group was significantly different to the other three groups (controls or unexposed, P < 0.0001; acutely infected, P< 0.01; chronically infected, P < 0.01). The responses to DHBsAg by PBMC of the acute group (P< 0.01) were significantly different also to that of the unexposed group. For DHBV core antigen (DHBcAg), significant differences in the responses were found between immune ducks and unexposed (P < 0.0005) and acutely infected (P < 0.05) groups. The SMC showed a significant difference between unexposed ducks and immune ducks (P< 0.05) in the group mean responses to DHBsAg. The responses to DHBcAg were significantly different between the immune group and the acute (P < 0.01) and unexposed (P < 0.01) groups. The group mean of unexposed ducks was also significantly different to that of acutely infected ducks (P < 0.01). This study indicates that the cellular immune response in immune animals differs from acutely and chronically infected ducks. Further studies of these differences may provide some explanations for the differing outcomes of DHBV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Doença Crônica , Patos , Feminino , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Imunidade Celular , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Baço/citologia
18.
Hepatology ; 29(2): 563-71, 1999 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9918936

RESUMO

A variant avian hepadnavirus that has been shown to destroy hepatocytes in vitro was found to be cytopathic in vivo. A single amino acid change of glycine to glutamic acid at position 133 (G133E) in the preS protein of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) caused an increase in the intranuclear pool of viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), resulting in a transient elevation of viral replication and eventual hepatocyte destruction. In vivo viral infection with the G133E virus was compared with infection with wild-type virus over a 72-day period. Birds were inoculated with virus at day 2 post-hatch to ensure a high percentage of infected hepatocytes and potential persistence of virus. Birds infected with the G133E virus had increased periportal cellular proliferation and numerous lysed apoptotic hepatocytes following 100% infection of hepatocytes. The liver damage within G133E virus-infected birds subsided over time, resulting in mild chronic hepatitis that was similar to that observed within wild-type virus-infected birds. The subsidence of liver damage in G133E virus-infected birds coincided with a reduction of viral cccDNA to wild-type virus levels in the liver. Our study indicates that maintenance of wild-type levels of viral cccDNA promotes persistence of virus infection by establishing a noncytopathic infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Animais , Apoptose , Galinhas , DNA Circular/análise , DNA Circular/metabolismo , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Patos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Precursores de Proteínas/análise , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/análise , Viremia , Replicação Viral , Ganho de Peso
19.
Virology ; 251(1): 85-95, 1998 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9813205

RESUMO

Several examples of human hepatitis B virus strains with enhanced replication in vitro have been described. To understand whether this characteristic could be a cause of liver disease, we have studied a variant of the closely related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) that had enhanced levels of cccDNA accumulation, previously shown to be cytopathic in vitro, as a model for the pathogenesis of analogous viruses in humans. In vivo liver damage caused by this variant (G133E) occurred only during the first 2 weeks p.i., after which time cccDNA levels and liver histology returned to near normal despite continued virus replication. To determine whether recovery was due to the emergence of noncytopathic revertant, we tested whether wild-type virus would have a selective advantage in competition with the cytopathic mutant in a fully infected liver. In a mixed infection of ducklings with G133E and a small amount of wild-type virus, the wild-type virus was detected as the predominant genotype after recovery of normal liver histology. Two candidate revertant viral genomes were cloned directly from the serum virus of G133E-infected birds after recovery and tested for (i) control of cccDNA levels in primary hepatocyte cultures and (ii) their ability to compete with wild-type virus in a mixed infection. At least one noncytopathic revertant was identified by these two criteria. The results support the conclusion that the recovery from liver damage in G133E-infected ducklings was due to the emergence of spontaneous noncytopathic revertants rather than to host suppression of virus cytotoxicity. The results indicate that acute liver injury may result from infection with a cytopathic hepadnavirus but that such viruses may be rapidly replaced by noncytopathic variants during persistent infection.


Assuntos
Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/genética , Patos/virologia , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/genética , Fígado/patologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , DNA Viral/sangue , Genótipo , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Viremia
20.
Hepatology ; 28(2): 347-59, 1998 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9695996

RESUMO

Hepatocytes of normal adult liver express cytokeratins (CKs) 8/18, but bile duct cells additionally contain CK7/19. We have previously demonstrated the frequent occurrence of foci of altered hepatocytes in association with hepatic tumors in humans and provided evidence for a preneoplastic nature of the focal lesions. In this study, we investigated the CK expression in both the preneoplastic lesions and extrafocal parenchyma. Sixty-seven explanted livers with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis harboring preneoplastic focal lesions, with or without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as well as 9 livers with HBV-associated fulminant hepatitis, were studied for the expression of CK7/8/14/18/19. Five livers from woodchucks infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were also investigated. Glycogenotic clear hepatocytes were negative or weakly positive for CK8/18, while amphophilic hepatocytes were strongly positive for these CKs, the changes being associated with marked reduction and increase, respectively, of highly organized membranous components in their cytoplasm. This allows the distinct recognition of the clear-cell and clear-cell-dominant preneoplastic lesions in the human and woodchuck livers. In ground-glass hepatocytes expressing viral antigens, an unusual accumulation of CK8/18 was observed, but there was no evidence of preferential necrosis of ground-glass hepatocytes. Many CK7- and CK19-positive ductular (oval) cells were found in extrafocal liver tissue, but only rarely were they present within focal lesions.


Assuntos
Glicogênio/biossíntese , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/patologia , Queratinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Marmota/virologia , Adulto , Animais , Doença Crônica , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Marmota/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia
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