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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 719-723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980937

RESUMO

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly believed to be responsible for several disorders of the bovine reproductive tract. The first characterization of BoHV-4 in Argentina was from samples from an aborted fetus. Argentinean isolates are highly diverse and are phylogenetically grouped in three genotypes. In this study, we describe the isolation of BoHV-4 from a bovine fetus with a gestational age of 8 months and without macroscopic lesions. Genetic analyses revealed that the isolated strain belongs to genotype 2. This is the first report on the presence of infectious BoHV-4 in tissues from an aborted bovine fetus.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/virologia , Aborto Animal/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 4/genética , Herpesvirus Bovino 4/isolamento & purificação , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 661-670, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938839

RESUMO

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, ILT outbreaks were reported on 30 farms located in eight Egyptian governorates between January 2018 and May 2019. Gross examination of diseased chickens revealed congestion and hemorrhage of laryngeal and tracheal mucosa with fibrinohemorrhagic casts and/or caseous material in the lumens. Histopathological examination showed epithelial sloughing, syncytium formation, heterophilic exudation, and development of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) antigen was detected in the tracheal epithelium, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and syncytial cells, using immunohistochemistry. PCR targeting a portion of the thymidine kinase gene was further utilized to confirm the presence of ILTV DNA. The complete coding sequences of three envelope glycoprotein genes, gG, gD, and gJ, and a partial sequence of the infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) gene from samples representing all of the farms and disease outbreaks were determined. Five prototype strains with unique sequences were chosen for detailed molecular characterization. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the partial ICP4 gene revealed that two strains were chicken embryo origin (CEO)-vaccine-like strains, and three were tissue culture origin (TCO)-vaccine-like strains. Analysis of the gJ gene sequence indicated that all of the strains were CEO vaccine-like strains. It was predicted that the latter three strains were recombinants of CEO- and TCO-vaccine-like strains. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry coupled with multi-genomic PCR sequencing proved to be efficient for identification and typing of ILTV strains during disease outbreaks. Both CEO-vaccine-like and recombinant virus strains were circulating in Egypt during the 2018 and 2019 outbreaks.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/classificação , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Embrião de Galinha , DNA Viral/genética , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Egito , Glicoproteínas/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 397-401, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784909

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection is a conservation threat to the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), causing fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile elephants throughout the world, including Thailand. This study revealed a subclinical EEHV1 infection rate of 5.5% in healthy captive Asian elephants in Thailand (n = 362). The virus was detected in all age classes above one year old, in both sexes, and across the country - even in facilities with no history of hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD). Subclinical EEHV infection in Thailand urgently requires proper health management.


Assuntos
Elefantes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tailândia
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 285-301, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845150

RESUMO

Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are two closely related alphaherpesviruses. BoHV-1 causes several syndromes in cattle, including respiratory disease and sporadic cases of encephalitis, whereas BoHV-5 is responsible for meningoencephalitis in calves. Although both viruses are neurotropic, they differ in their neuropathogenic potential. This review summarizes the findings on the specific mechanisms and pathways known to modulate the pathogenesis of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, particularly in relation to respiratory and neurological syndromes, which characterize BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/patogenicidade , Herpesvirus Bovino 5/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos
5.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 23-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394974

RESUMO

Aim: To estimate the frequency of infection with equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) among horses from the central North Island of New Zealand, including the frequency of detection of the D752 genotype.Methods: Samples of retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) and submandibular lymph nodes (SLN) were dissected from the heads of 63 horses that were humanely killed for various unrelated reasons between March and November 2015. DNA extracted from these tissues was subjected to enrichment for EHV-1 sequences by hybridisation with biotin-labelled EHV-1 specific probe, followed by recovery of EHV-1 sequences on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. Enriched samples were tested for the presence of EHV-1 using nested quantitative real-time PCR. The EHV-1 amplicons were sequenced to determine the genotype of the virus.Results: The median age of the horses was 6 (min 2, max 30) years, and 47/63 (75%) were Thoroughbreds. EHV-1 DNA was detected in RLN samples from 6/63 (10%) horses, and three of these horses were also positive for EHV-1 DNA in SLN. The remaining horses were negative for EHV-1 DNA in both RLN and SLN samples. The N752 genotype was detected in all positive samples and the D752 genotype was not detected in any of the samples.Conclusions: EHV-1 continues to circulate among horses in New Zealand. The frequency of latent EHV-1 infection among sampled horses may have been underestimated due to the sensitivity limit of the assay or because of the limited anatomical sites sampled in the study. Lack of detection of the D752 genotype suggests that infection with this genotype is not common in horses in New Zealand.Clinical Relevance: If live animals are tested for EHV-1 using SLN biopsy it should be kept in mind that negative results do not rule out the presence of latent EHV-1 infection at other sites inaccessible for testing. The RLN appear to be the preferred sample for detection of EHV-1 DNA in horses following recent euthanasia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Latência Viral
6.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 785-787, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867926

RESUMO

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish with a complicated life cycle. The long-term impact of anthropopressure, environmental pollution and diseases have led to a risk of extinction. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of Anguillid herpesvirus-1 infection on the innate immunity of European eel from natural conditions. Spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity and potential killing activity, as well as pronephros lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide were measured. The analyses of the results showed that all studied parameters were significantly higher (P⟨0.05) in AngHV-1-negative fish compared to the ones where the presence of viral DNA was confirmed.


Assuntos
Anguilla/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae , Imunossupressão/veterinária , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Explosão Respiratória
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108495, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767098

RESUMO

Bovine gammaherpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly related with reproductive disease in cattle, but its epidemiology is not fully understood. We monitored the serological response and shedding of BoHV-4 in a positive dairy cattle farm with metritis. First, we performed an ELISA to detect BoHV-4 antibodies in all the animals (n = 104). Afterwards, ten seronegative heifers introduced in the production lot and sera samples were monthly taken for four months and then 6-10 months after introduction to detect BoHV-4 antibodies by ELISA. Moreover, a vaginal swab was taken after calving to detect BoHV-4 by PCR. Concurrently, a weekly collection of vaginal and nasal swabs and milk was performed during the first month post-partum in multiparous cows with metritis (n = 14), heifers with metritis (n = 4), heifers without metritis but positive to BoHV-4 (ELISA or PCR) (n = 2) and multiparous cows without metritis (n = 3). Seropositivity was higher in older animals and in the production lot. Three heifers which shed BoHV-4 after parturition resulted seronegative at first but eventually seroconverted. In the same vein, most heifers seroconverted after 6-10 months in the production lot (8/10). Multiparous cows shed virus by various routes: 13/14 (93 %) in vaginal secretions, 7/14 (50 %) in nasal exudates and 7/14 (50 %) in milk. However, in the other groups, shedding was only detected in vaginal swabs from the first week post-partum. Our study describes BoHV-4 shedding in field conditions. Seronegative animals may become horizontally infected when moved to a contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 4/fisiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Período Pós-Parto , Soroconversão , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/sangue , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Vagina/virologia
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35266-35269, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728943

RESUMO

In combination, pollution and pathogens represent a serious threat to the health of European eels that has been increasingly recognized. Thus, the impact of contaminants, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium, on anguillid herpesvirus 1 infection in wild European eels has been evaluated. Despite the small sample size, results indicate that selenium and mercury concentrations may compromise the European eel immune system as herpesvirus infection was more prevalent in specimens with higher Hg and Se hepatic concentrations.


Assuntos
Anguilla/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Compostos Inorgânicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio , Enguias , Herpesviridae , Fígado , Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Selênio
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 238: 108426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648722

RESUMO

Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a novel gammaherpesvirus of domestic cats identified in 2014, has been detected in different countries demonstrating a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of FcaGHV1 in Italy using a molecular epidemiological approach. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected with virus-specific real-time PCR in ≃1% of 2659 feline blood samples tested. Analysis of risk factors showed that being male and coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) increase the likelihood of FcaGHV1 detection. One-third of FcaGHV1-positive cats also tested positive for FIV provirus, whereas coinfections with feline panleukopenia virus were not demonstrated. Further studies are necessary to confirm the risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection and the pathobiology of the virus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/complicações , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3095-3098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606853

RESUMO

Bovine alphaherpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) is the etiologic agent of bovine mammillitis (BM) and pseudo-lumpy skin disease. BM is also important because its clinical presentation can be confused with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), making it necessary to establish differential diagnoses and perform additional laboratory tests. The objective of this work was to use a validated real-time PCR assay to test for the presence of BoHV-2 in samples from cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil. The method could detect the virus at a concentration of 0.5 fg/µL and had 99.4% amplification efficiency, a repeatability error of only 4.1%, and good reproducibility with other reagents. No evidence of BoHV-2 causing vesicular disease in cattle and buffalo was found in this work. This study was able to validate a new methodology for detection of BoHV-2 and evaluate its usefulness for investigating outbreaks of vesicular disease Brazil. The importance of BoHV-2 in cases involving other clinical signs should still be studied using the qPCR developed in this work.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Búfalos/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/classificação , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética
11.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 279-283, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599554

RESUMO

A case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurred in a 4­month­old calf housed in a semi­intensive herd in central Italy is described. The herd was in strict cohabitation with a group of domestic sheep. The calf displayed clinical signs that resembled the acute form of MCF and, after a few days of antibiotic and anti inflammatory therapy, died in September 2016. The diagnosis was confirmed in vivo in blood by detection of ovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA through real­time PCR. At necropsy, the gross post­mortem findings were typical of MCF and the histological and molecular assays confirmed the presence of the virus. The sheep flock was suspected to be the source of the infection. In Italy, as well as in Europe, there is little data regarding the epidemiology and the recurrence of the disease in herds of cattle, due to the lack of an active surveillance plan and to a major consideration of MCF between differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Febre Catarral Maligna/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Itália , Febre Catarral Maligna/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 330, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-specific immunotherapeutics have been evaluated previously in dogs, primarily for cancer treatment. However, there remains a need for a more broadly targeted, general purpose immunotherapeutic capable of activating innate immune defenses for non-specific protection or early treatment of viral and bacterial infections. To address need, our group has developed a liposomal immune stimulant (liposome-TLR complexes, LTC) containing TLR 3 and 9 agonists specifically designed to activate mucosal immune defenses in sites such as nasal cavity and oropharynx, following topical delivery. In this study, we evaluated the local immune stimulatory properties of LTC in vitro and in healthy purpose-bred dogs, including activation of cellular recruitment and cytokine production. The ability of LTC treatment to elicit effective antiviral immunity was assessed in dogs following a canine herpesvirus outbreak, and the impact of LTC treatment on the local microbiome of the oropharynx was also investigated. RESULTS: These studies revealed that LTC potently activated innate immune responses in vitro and triggered significant recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and T cells into the nasal cavity and oropharynx of healthy dogs. Administration of LTC to dogs shortly after an outbreak of canine herpesvirus infection resulted in significant reduction in clinical signs of infection. Interestingly, administration of LTC to healthy dogs did not disrupt the microbiome in the oropharynx, suggesting resiliency of the microflora to transient immune activation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that LTC administration mucosally to dogs can trigger local innate immune activation and activation of antiviral immunity, without significantly disrupting the composition of the local microbiome. Thus, the LTC immune stimulant has potential for use as a non-specific immunotherapy for prevention or early treatment of viral and bacterial infections in dogs.


Assuntos
Cães/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Canídeo 1 , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/imunologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 696-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477001

RESUMO

Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infections can have a major impact on the horse industry and equine welfare by causing abortion or respiratory or neurologic disease. A single nucleotide polymorphism (A2254→G2254) in open reading frame (ORF) 30, encoding the catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase, has been shown to be a strong predictive marker for neuropathogenicity. Given that a previously established real-time PCR (rtPCR) protocol yielded unsatisfactory results concerning determination of the EHV-1 genotype, we developed and evaluated a new conventional PCR protocol enabling identification of the genotype by sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis (REA). Thirty samples from horses with signs typical for EHV-1 infection were tested by rtPCR and our new conventional PCR. The results showed that compared to rtPCR, the conventional PCR protocol combined with sequencing and REA was more reliable concerning unambiguous determination of the EHV-1 genotype. Results of our new assay confirmed previous findings, according to which the non-neuropathogenic genotype A2254 is predominantly found in animals with fever, respiratory signs, and abortions or perinatal mortality, whereas the neuropathogenic genotype G2254 is primarily detected in animals suffering from neurologic disease. In some samples, results pointed towards coinfection with both genotypes. Further studies are required in order to elucidate the significance of infections with genotype A2254 and G2254 in neurologic and non-neurologic cases, respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/classificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/genética , Cavalos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Mapeamento por Restrição/veterinária
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2843-2848, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494777

RESUMO

The Cooper and Los Angeles (LA) strains were the two original respiratory strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1.1 (BoHV-1.1) isolated in the 1950s from cattle with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. We report the complete genome sequence for the BoHV-1.1 LA strain and compare it to the prototype Cooper strain and six wild-type BoHV-1.1 isolates. A nucleotide sequence divergence of 0.74% was noted across the two complete genomes, caused by 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involving 12 genes and insertions/deletions that primarily affected the number of repeats within reiterated repeat regions of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cooper and LA strains are genetically the most ancient strains from which all of the more-recently isolated field strains of BoHV-1.1 evolved.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Genótipo , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108393, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500729

RESUMO

Monitoring of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genome using poultry dust can be useful to monitor on-farm vaccination protocols but there are no set guidelines for collection of this sample type. This study assessed different dust collection methods for MDV and ILTV detection in a vaccinated layer flock (n = 1700) from day-old to 50 weeks of age. Birds were vaccinated against MDV at day-old, and ILTV by drinking water at week 6 and eye drop at week 12. Dust samples were collected weekly by settle plates (1-3 plates/15 m2) or by scraping surfaces in the poultry shed and tested for ILTV and MDV genomic copies (GC) by PCR. ILTV GC were detected 4 weeks post water vaccination, peaked at weeks 12-14 and became mostly undetectable after week 18. MDV was detected in dust on week 1, peaked at weeks 3-6, declined 3 logs by week 26 and remained detectable at this level until week 50. There was no difference in the detection rates of ILTV and MDV collected from settle plates in different locations of the shed (P > 0.10). There was no difference between settle plate and scraped samples in ILTV GC load but higher MDV GC were found in scraped samples. The settle plate method appears to reflect the current level of vaccine virus in the flock while the scrape method likely represents a cumulative record of shedding. Assessment of viral GC in dust samples is a good candidate for a practical method of estimating successful vaccine administration.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Galináceo 3/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Marek/prevenção & controle , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Poeira , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Abrigo para Animais , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 531-541, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369858

RESUMO

Aquaculture is one of the world's most important and fastest growing food production sectors, with an average annual growth of 5.8% during the period 2001-2016. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the main aquatic species produced for human consumption and is the world's third most produced finfish. Koi carp, on the other hand, are grown as a popular ornamental fish. In the late 1990s, both of these sectors were threatened by the emergence of a deadly disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3; initially called koi herpesvirus or KHV). Since then, several research groups have focused their work on developing methods to fight this disease. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathobiology of this virus, there are currently no efficient and cost-effective therapeutic methods available to fight this disease. Facing the lack of efficient treatments, safe and efficacious prophylactic methods such as the use of vaccines represent the most promising approach to the control of this virus. The common carp production sector is not a heavily industrialized production sector and the fish produced have low individual value. Therefore, development of vaccine methods adapted to mass vaccination are more suitable. Multiple vaccine candidates against CyHV-3 have been developed and studied, including DNA, bacterial vector, inactivated, conventional attenuated and recombinant attenuated vaccines. However, there is currently only one vaccine commercially available in limited regions. The present review aims to summarize and evaluate the knowledge acquired from the study of these vaccines against CyHV-3 and provide discussion on future prospects.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
18.
J Comp Pathol ; 170: 46-52, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375158

RESUMO

Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) is a recently described form of interstitial pneumonia associated with equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5). This disease has been reported in North and South America, Europe and Oceania but not, to our knowledge, in horses in Japan. We diagnosed EMPF in two Thoroughbred horses in Japan on the basis of gross and histopathological findings. In both cases, significant gross lesions, restricted to the lungs, consisted of numerous firm and coalescing nodules widely distributed throughout the lung. The nodules were <3 cm in diameter and pale white to tan in colour. Microscopically, they showed severe interstitial fibrosis and infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and a few eosinophils. The residual alveoli were lined by cuboidal epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) and filled with many macrophages, which rarely displayed oval eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses identified the glycoprotein H gene of EHV-5, and in-situ hybridization detected EHV-5 in the alveolar macrophages in the lesions. In one case, electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus-like particles and EHV-5 was isolated from pulmonary lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Gammaherpesvirinae , Cavalos , Japão
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 879-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421239

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is the causative pathogen of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis disease, which has caused huge economic losses to aquaculture industry in China. In this study, nine truncated CyHV-2 membrane glycoproteins (ORF25, ORF25C, ORF25D, ORF30, ORF124, ORF131, ORF136, ORF142A, ORF146) and a GFP reporter protein were respectively expressed using baculovirus surface displaying system. Western blot showed that the proteins were successfully packaged in the recombinant virus particles. In baculovirus transduced gibel carp kidney cells, the target proteins were expressed and displayed on the fish cell surface. Healthy gibel carp were immunized by immersion with the recombinant baculoviruses and the fish treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were served as mock group. The expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), interferon α (IFNα) and a complement component gene C3 were significantly up-regulated in most experimental groups, and interferon γ (IFNγ) expression in some groups were also induced after immunization. Subsequently, the immunized gibel carp were challenged by intraperitoneal injection of CyHV-2 virus. All the immunized groups exhibited reduced mortality after CyHV-2 challenge. In the groups immunized with baculoviruses displaying and expressing ORF25, ORF25C and ORF146, the relative percentage survival values reached 83.3%, 87.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Our data suggested that baculovirus-displayed ORF25, ORF25C and ORF146 could be potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of CyHV-2 infection in gibel carp.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Carpa Dourada/imunologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunização/veterinária , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Baculoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imersão , Imunização/métodos , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 499-503, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365717

RESUMO

A juvenile subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) found dead in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, presented with disseminated verminous pneumonia due to Parafilaroides sp. A concomitant infection with two different gammaherpesviruses was identified by PCR in different tissues; one of them possibly a novel species (tentatively named Otariid herpesvirus 7). Sarcocystis sp. DNA was identified molecularly in skeletal muscle samples with intrasarcoplasmic bradyzoites and no apparent tissue response. All analyzed samples (mandibular, laryngeal, tracheal, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and lung) were PCR-negative for Brucella spp. The most likely cause of death was severe pulmonary parafilaroidiasis. The pathogenic role of the gammaherpesviruses in several of the tissues was not evident. This study describes the pathogenicity of Parafilaroides sp. in a subantarctic fur seal, widens the host range of herpesvirus in pinnipeds, and reports the first molecular identification of Sarcocystis sp. in this species.


Assuntos
Otárias/parasitologia , Otárias/virologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Coinfecção , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Masculino , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico
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