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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 110, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) might have influenced sexual behaviour and STI-prevalence of HIV- MSM. We estimated STI-prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV- and HIV+ MSM in Germany to plan effective interventions. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional study between February and July 2018. Thirteen MSM-friendly STI-practices screened MSM for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and urine samples. APTIMA™ STI-assays (Hologic™ Inc., San Diego, USA) were used for diagnostics, and samples were not pooled. We collected information on socio-demographics, HIV-status, clinical symptoms, sexual behaviour within the last 6 months, and PrEP use. We combined HIV status and PrEP use for defining risk groups, and used directed acyclic graphs and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for STI. RESULTS: Two thousand three hundred three MSM were included: 50.5% HIV+, median age 39 [18-79] years. Median number of male sex partners within the last 6 months was five. Sex without condom was reported by 73.6%, use of party drugs by 44.6%. 80.3% had a STI history, 32.2% of STI+ MSM reported STI-related symptoms. 27.6% of HIV- MSM used PrEP. Overall STI-prevalence was 30.1, 25.0% in HIV-/PrEP- MSM (CT:7.2%; MG:14.2%; NG:7.4%; TV:0%), 40.3% in HIV-/PrEP+ MSM (CT:13.8%; MG:19.4%; NG:14.8%; TV:0.4%), and 30.8% in HIV+ MSM (CT:10.1%; MG:18.4%; NG:8.6%; TV:0.1%). Being HIV+ (OR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.3-2.2), using PrEP (OR 2.0, 95%-CI 1.5-2.7), having > 5 sex partners (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.01.9), having condomless sex (OR:2.11.9; 95%-CI:1.65-2.86), and using party drugs (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.0) were independent risk factors for being tested positive for at least one STI. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high STI-prevalence in MSM in Germany, especially in PrEP users, frequently being asymptomatic. As a relevant proportion of PrEP users will not use a condom, counselling and comprehensive STI screening is essential and should be low threshold and preferably free of cost. Counselling of PrEP users should also address use of party drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Preservativos , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923195

RESUMO

Hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a locally invasive and highly metastatic endothelial cell neoplasm, accounts for two-thirds of all cardiac and splenic neoplasms in dogs. Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with neoplastic and non-neoplastic vasoproliferative lesions in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in conjunction with two other hemotropic pathogens, Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., in tissues and blood samples from 110 dogs with histopathologically diagnosed HSA from throughout the United States. This was a retrospective, observational study using clinical specimens from 110 dogs with HSA banked by the biospecimen repository of the Canine Comparative Oncology and Genomics Consortium. Samples provided for this study from each dog included: fresh frozen HSA tumor tissue (available from n = 100 of the 110 dogs), fresh frozen non-tumor tissue (n = 104), and whole blood and serum samples (n = 108 and 107 respectively). Blood and tissues were tested by qPCR for Bartonella, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Babesia spp. DNA; serum was tested for Bartonella spp. antibodies. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified and sequenced from 73% of dogs with HSA (80/110). In contrast, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. DNA was amplified from a significantly smaller proportion (5%, p<0.0001) and Babesia spp. DNA was not amplified from any dog. Of the 100 HSA tumor samples submitted, 34% were Bartonella PCR positive (32% of splenic tumors, 57% of cardiac tumors, and 17% of other tumor locations). Of 104 non-tumor tissues, 63% were Bartonella PCR positive (56% of spleen samples, 93% of cardiac samples, and 63% of skin/subcutaneous samples). Of dogs with Bartonella positive HSA tumor, 76% were also positive in non-tumor tissue. Bartonella spp. DNA was not PCR amplified from whole blood. This study documented a high prevalence of Bartonella spp. DNA in dogs with HSA from geographically diverse regions of the United States. While 73% of all tissue samples from these dogs were PCR positive for Bartonella DNA, none of the blood samples were, indicating that whole blood samples do not reflect tissue presence of this pathogen. Future studies are needed to further investigate the role of Bartonella spp. in the development of HSA.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/microbiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793309

RESUMO

Infectious arthritis or tenosynovitis in broiler and breeder chickens results in major loss of productivity because of reduced growth and downgrading at processing plants. The most common causative agents of avian infectious arthritis are the bacterium Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reoviruses (ARVs) (family Reoviridae, genus Orthoreovirus). In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of these two pathogens in arthritis or tenosynovitis lesions of broilers and breeder flocks in southern Brazil using molecular detection. Tissue sections from tibiotarsal joints with visible lesions from 719 broilers and 505 breeders were analysed using pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In breeders, 41.2% (n = 296) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 26.4% (n = 190) were positive for ARV, while co-infection was present in 12.2% (n = 88) of the samples. In broilers, 20.8% (n = 105) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 11.9% (n = 60) for ARV and 7.7% (n = 39) of these cases were positive for both pathogens. Post-mortem examination revealed lesions with varying degrees of gross pathological severity. Histopathological examination showed intense, diffuse lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates with heterophil accumulation, primarily in the synovial capsule and digital flexor tendon, in all samples. Improved strategies for early detection and control of these major avian pathogens are highly desirable for preventing the spread of infection and reducing economic losses in the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Tenossinovite/veterinária , Animais , Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/microbiologia , Artrite/patologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Brasil , Galinhas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Orthoreovirus Aviário/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Tenossinovite/epidemiologia , Tenossinovite/microbiologia , Tenossinovite/patologia
6.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2019: 8639510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379424

RESUMO

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Genital self-sampling may facilitate the screening of STIs in hard-to-reach remote populations far from large health care centers and may increase screening rates. The cross-sectional GYNAUTO-STI study was carried out to assess the performance of a novel genital veil (V-Veil-Up Gyn Collection Device, V-Veil-Up Pharma, Ltd., Nicosia, Cyprus) as a genital self-sampling device to collect genital secretions to diagnose STIs by molecular biology as compared to reference clinician-collected genital specimens, in adult African women. Methods: Adult women living in N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad, were recruited from the community and referred to the clinic for women's sexual health "La Renaissance Plus". A clinician obtained an endocervical specimen using flocked swab. Genital secretions were also obtained by self-collection using veil. Both clinician- and self-collected specimens were tested for common curable STIs (including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and genital Mycoplasma spp. by multiplex real-time PCR (Allplex™ STI Essential Assay, Seegene, Seoul, South Korea). Test positivities for both collection methods were compared by assessing methods agreement, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: A total of 251 women (mean age, 35.1 years) were prospectively enrolled. Only seven (2.8%) women were found to be infected with at least one common STIs [C. trachomatis: 3 (1.2%), N. gonorrhoeae: 1 (0.4%), M. genitalium: 4 (1.6%) and T. vaginalis: 1 (0.4%)], while the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was much higher (54.2%) with a predominance of Ureaplasma parvum (42.6%). Self-collection by veil was non-inferior to clinician-based collection for genital microorganisms DNA molecular testing, with "almost perfect" agreement between both methods, high sensitivity (97.0%; 95%CI: 92.5-99.2%), and specificity (88.0%; 95%CI: 80.7-93.3%). Remarkably, the mean total number of genital microorganisms detected per woman was 1.14-fold higher in self-collected specimens compared to that in clinician-collected specimens. Conclusions: Veil-based self-collection of female genital secretions constitutes a convenient tool to collect in gentle way cervicovaginal secretions for accurate molecular detection of genital bacteria. Such sampling procedure could be easily implemented in STIs clinics in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2336-2342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma haemolamae (Mhl) and gastrointestinal nematodes can cause anemia in camelids. Control programs aim to suppress parasitism without promoting anthelminthic resistance, but few evidence-based guidelines define acceptable parasite loads in camelids. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In clinically healthy nonanemic camelids, compare erythrocyte variables to Mhl real-time PCR status and to fecal egg count (FEC). Determine the FEC threshold above which erythrocyte variables are consistently below reference interval medians. ANIMALS: One hundred fourteen client-owned adult alpacas and llamas. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, whole blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was assessed for packed cell volume (PCV) by centrifugation, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (HGB) using an ADVIA120 analyzer, and Mhl using real-time PCR. Trichostrongyle eggs per gram (epg) were counted by modified McMaster test on freshly collected feces. Significant differences in erythrocyte variables based on Mhl status and FEC thresholds were assessed by independent t test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. RESULTS: Packed cell volume, RBC, and HGB were not significantly different between Mhl-positive and Mhl-negative animals, but were significantly lower in animals with FEC >1000 epg compared to those with <500 epg. All animals with FEC >600 epg had RBC and HGB below the reference interval median. All animals with FEC >750 epg had PCV below the reference interval median. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In healthy nonanemic camelids, positive Mhl PCR is not associated with lower erythrocyte variables and such animals may not warrant treatment. Fecal egg count >600-750 epg has a negative effect on erythrocyte variables, and may be a guide for deworming protocols.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Feminino , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
8.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 32(4): 327-332, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-80

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported greater success of fertilisation by ART in couples who were not infected by Ureaplasma. Increased semen quality and better results have also been observed in couples who were treated with antibiotics to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in urine samples from male partners enrolled in the Assisted Reproduction Program (ARP) in our healthcare area so that, positive cases can be treated prior to the use of ART in order to increase the quality of semen, improve the embryo implantation rates and minimize the risk of adverse effects during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included couples enrolled in the ARP during 2016. Mycoplasma detection was made using real-time PCR. In positive cases, both members of the couple were treated with antibiotics until eradication of the microorganism. The antibiotics used were: azithromycin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin. RESULTS: Of the 205 men studied, 33 were positive: Ureaplasma urealyticum 15.1%, Mycoplasma hominis 3.9%. Eradication treatment with azithromycin failed in 50% compared to 10.2% for doxycycline. Of the 5 cases treated with levofloxacin, only 2 achieved elimination of U. urealyticum. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that genital mycoplasma routine screening could be useful in order to increase the quality of semen which could simplify the in vitro fertilisation procedures and raise the success rate of embryo implantation and pregnancy, especially when fast, sensitive and specific technics as real time PCR are used


INTRODUCCIÓN: Se han publicado estudios que demuestran mayores tasas de éxito en las técnicas reproducción asistida (TRA) en parejas no infectadas por micoplasmas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de los micoplasmas genitales en muestras de orina del miembro masculino de las parejas incluidas en el Programa de Reproducción Asistida en nuestro Área Sanitaria realizando un tratamiento descolonizador con el fin de incrementar la calidad del semen, mejorar las tasas éxito de la embriotransferencia y minimizar los efectos adversos sobre la gestación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Participaron parejas incluidas en el Programa de Reproducción Asistida durante 2016. La detección de los micoplasmas se realizó por PCR en tiempo real. En los casos positivos, la pareja fue tratada con antibióticos hasta la erradicación del microorganismo. Los antibióticos usados fueron: azitromicina, doxiciclina, levofloxacino, moxifloxacino y clindamicina. RESULTADOS: De los 205 hombres estudiados, 33 fueron positivos: Ureaplasma urealyticum 15,1%, Mycoplasma hominis 3,9%. Azitromicina fracasó en el 50% de los casos y doxiciclina en el 10,2%. Con levofloxacino solo en 2 de 5 se consiguió la erradicación de U. urealyticum. CONCLUSIONES: El cribado de rutina de los micoplasmas genitales puede ser útil para mejorar la calidad del semen. Esto permitiría simplificar los procedimientos de fertilización in vitro e incrementar las tasas de éxito en la implantación de los embriones y en la gestación, especialmente con la aplicación de técnicas diagnósticas rápidas y específicas como la PCR en tiempo real


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Análise do Sêmen , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Implantação do Embrião , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/urina , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/urina , Mycoplasma hominis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma hominis/genética , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por Ureaplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ureaplasma/epidemiologia , Ureaplasma urealyticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genética
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 261, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asian countries, including Myanmar, poultry farming is a major industry. In order to manage and maintain stable productivity, it is important to establish policies for biosecurity. Infectious respiratory diseases are a major threat to poultry farming. Avian influenza and Newcastle disease have been reported in Myanmar, but no scientific information is available for other respiratory pathogens, such as mycoplasmas and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Identifying the genotypes and serotypes of IBVs is especially important to inform vaccination programs. In this study, we detected Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and IBV in several poultry farms in Myanmar. RESULTS: Samples were collected from 20 farms in three major poultry farming areas in Myanmar, and MG, MS, and IBV were detected on two, four, and eight farms, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the observed MG and MS isolates were not identical to vaccine strains. Three different genotypes of IBV were detected, but none was an unknown variant. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasmas and IBV were detected on poultry farms in Myanmar. Periodic surveillance is required to establish the distribution of each pathogen, and to institute better vaccine protocols.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 378, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two hemoplasma species, Mycoplasma suis and M. parvum, previously known as Eperythrozoon suis and E. parvum, respectively, have been identified in pigs. Swine hemoplasmosis is a global problem, and M. suis infection results in economic losses to pig producers worldwide. This study investigated the frequency and distribution of hemotropic mycoplasmas in pig farms of Korea. As hemoplasmas can be transmitted by ticks, we also analyzed the presence of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. METHODS: We screened 1867 samples from 464 pig farms located in four regions of Korea over the period from 2014 to 2018. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of pathogen-specific markers for species identification. RESULTS: Of the 1867 pigs evaluated in the study, three (0.2%), 51 (2.7%), and one (0.1%) were found to be infected with M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis, respectively; Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. The 16S rRNA sequences of M. suis, M. parvum, and the novel hemotropic M. haemosuis were highly similar (99.3-100%, 99.6-100%, and 99.6-100%, respectively) to those of Mycoplasma spp. isolated from other countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nationwide, large-scale study of the molecular detection of Mycoplasma spp. in domestic pigs in Korea. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Mycoplasma infections are widespread in Korean domestic pigs, and that continuous monitoring and control strategies are required to prevent the spread of hemoplasmas, which, in addition to causing economic losses in the pig industry, pose a potential threat to public health. As transmission routes of hemoplasmas remain unelucidated, additional epidemiological studies are recommended to identify reservoirs and vectors of Mycoplasma spp. in Korea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Borrelia/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendas , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
12.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32(4): 327-332, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported greater success of fertilisation by ART in couples who were not infected by Ureaplasma. Increased semen quality and better results have also been observed in couples who were treated with antibiotics to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in urine samples from male partners enrolled in the Assisted Reproduction Program (ARP) in our healthcare area so that, positive cases can be treated prior to the use of ART in order to increase the quality of semen, improve the embryo implantation rates and minimize the risk of adverse effects during pregnancy. METHODS: This study included couples enrolled in the ARP during 2016. Mycoplasma detection was made using real-time PCR. In positive cases, both members of the couple were treated with antibiotics until eradication of the microorganism. The antibiotics used were: azithromycin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin. RESULTS: Of the 205 men studied, 33 were positive: Ureaplasma urealyticum 15.1%, Mycoplasma hominis 3.9%. Eradication treatment with azithromycin failed in 50% compared to 10.2% for doxycycline. Of the 5 cases treated with levofloxacin, only 2 achieved elimination of U. urealyticum. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that genital mycoplasma routine screening could be useful in order to increase the quality of semen which could simplify the in vitro fertilisation procedures and raise the success rate of embryo implantation and pregnancy, especially when fast, sensitive and specific technics as real time PCR are used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/urina , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/urina , Mycoplasma hominis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma hominis/genética , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por Ureaplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ureaplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/urina , Ureaplasma urealyticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genética , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 766-769, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342882

RESUMO

Conjunctivitis is an uncommon finding in commercial swine herds, and the etiology of the disease is rarely studied. We investigated cases of conjunctivitis in 3 wean-to-finish swine farms. Eye swabs and tissues were obtained from clinically affected pigs (8-22 wk of age), from unaffected pigs in contact with affected pen-mates, and from age-matched pigs from an unaffected herd. Real-time PCR (rtPCR) testing for Mycoplasma hyorhinis demonstrated consistent detection and high bacterial load in samples from affected herds (clinically affected animals and non-clinical pen-mates). Ct values in affected pigs were 18.9-25.3; values were 36.4-38.6 in unaffected pigs from unaffected herds. Additionally, M. hyorhinis was identified within inflamed palpebral conjunctivae by in situ hybridization. The association of rtPCR and in situ detection of M. hyorhinis, along with the lack of detection of other potential pathogens and noninfectious causes, suggests the involvement of M. hyorhinis in the etiology and pathogenesis of the reported swine conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/microbiologia , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 494, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking apps (Apps) to seek partners. However, the relationship of app use with HIV risk is unknown. Further, the risks of some sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including Mycoplasma genitalium, have seldom been studied among MSM. METHODS: MSM were enrolled at a community-based HIV testing site in Shenyang, China. After completing a questionnaire survey, we collected rectal swabs and venous blood specimens. We then simultaneously tested for ten STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Neisseria gonorrhea [NG], Ureaplasma urealyticum [Uu], Ureaplasma parvum species [Up1, Up3, Up6, Up14), Mycoplasma hominis [Mh], Mycoplasma genitalium [Mg], and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) using multiple PCR. We also performed blood tests for HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis C antibody (HCV-Ab), Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), and Hepatitis A-IgM (HAV-IgM), etc. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three MSM participated in this study, of which 51.4% reported seeking partners through apps in the past year. The prevalence of HIV was 19.7%, Syphilis 12.0%, HAV 1.1%, rectal Mg 15.3% and Mh 7.1%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that HIV infection was independently correlated with app-using behavior (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] = 2.6), Mg infection (aOR = 3.2), Mh infection (aOR = 4.1) and Syphilis infection (aOR = 3.1) (each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: App use, Mg, Mh and Syphilis infection were correlated with higher HIV Risk in MSM. Geosocial networking apps should be utilized for HIV interventions targeting MSM. There is a need for more expansive STIs screening, particularly for Mg, Mh and Syphilis in MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , HIV , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/classificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 110-118, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213266

RESUMO

Control of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) associated disease is currently hindered by limited knowledge of the epidemiology and ecology of this organism. A prospective longitudinal investigation was conducted to determine the dynamics of M. hyorhinis colonization in two swine production systems. In each system (A, B), 51 young sows (parities 1, 2) and 56 older sows (>parity 2) were selected at farrowing and tested by qPCR of nasal swabs and for antibodies by serum ELISA. From each sow, a piglet was randomly selected, and nasal and serum samples were collected at birth, weaning, and 10 days post-weaning. Two further samplings were performed in the nursery and finishing stages during the high-risk periods for M. hyorhinis-associated disease, and 12 pigs were euthanized and necropsied at these later sampling events. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis colonization in sows was low (<5%). No associations were found between sow parity or sow serum titer and piglet nasal colonization at either birth or weaning. In contrast to the low prevalence (0.95-2.70%) observed in piglets pre-weaning, most pigs became colonized during the first four weeks after weaning and remained positive throughout the nursery and finishing stages. The detection of M. hyorhinis in oral fluids followed similar patterns as those observed using nasal swabs. ELISA results showed decreased detection of maternal antibodies at around 3 weeks of age and a subsequent increase after natural exposure. The role of M. hyorhinis in polyserositis and arthritis was demonstrated in these two herds. Establishing the temporal dynamics of exposure and infection with M. hyorhinis in pigs will enable more strategic implementation of intervention strategies in affected herds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Nariz/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Desmame
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(7): 1297-1303, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211669

RESUMO

Mycoplasma genitalium infections of the urogenital tract are usually treated with azithromycin; however, for the past several years, rates of azithromycin treatment failure have increased. To document the occurrence and frequency of macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) in M. genitalium infections, we collected 894 M. genitalium-positive samples during April 2014-December 2017 and retrospectively tested them for MRMMs. We designated 67 samples collected within 6 weeks after a positive result as test-of-cure samples; of these, 60 were MRMM positive. Among the remaining 827 samples, the rate of MRMM positivity rose from 22.7% in 2014 and 22.3% in 2015 to 44.4% in 2016 but decreased to 39.7% in 2017. Because of these high rates of MRMMs in M. genitalium infections, we recommend that clinicians perform tests of cure after treatment and that researchers further explore the clinical consequences of this infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/história , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 360-366, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215606

RESUMO

Mycoplasma ovis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution and can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, and poor weight gain in animals. Although M. ovis has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in sheep in Brazil is unknown. The objective of the present study was to present the first report of hemotropic mycoplasma (HM) in sheep from Brazil. We evaluated factors associated with this infection, such age group, tick presence, and anemia. Blood samples were collected from 33 sheep from a farm in southern Brazil and screened for hemoplasmas using PCR. Out of 33 samples, 26 (78.8%) tested positive for M. ovis. The sequencing of positive samples showed 100% identity with multiple M. ovis 16S rDNA sequences. No association was observed between the presence of M. ovis and the FAMACHA© score (p = 0.620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45.4%) was the tick species found on the animals. No significant association between M. ovis infection and presence of ticks (p = 0.4134) and age group (p = 0.4221) was observed. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in sheep from Brazil and only the second report of this pathogen in sheep in Latin America.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 328-335, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is increasingly seen as an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen, and has been likened to Chlamydia trachomatis, but its natural history is poorly understood. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine M. genitalium incidence, persistence, concordance between sexual partners and the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, IndMed and African Index Medicus from 1 January 1981 until 17 March 2018. Two independent researchers screened studies for inclusion and extracted data. We examined results in forest plots, assessed heterogeneity and conducted meta-analysis where appropriate. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies. RESULTS: We screened 4634 records and included 18 studies; six (4201 women) reported on incidence, five (636 women) on persistence, 10 (1346 women and men) on concordance and three (5139 women) on PID. Incidence in women in two very highly developed countries was 1.07 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.61 to 1.53, I2 0%). Median persistence of M. genitalium was estimated from one to three months in four studies but 15 months in one study. In 10 studies measuring M. genitalium infection status in couples, 39%-50% of male or female sexual partners of infected participants also had M. genitalium detected. In prospective studies, PID incidence was higher in women with M. genitalium than those without (risk ratio 1.73, 95% CI 0.92 to 3.28, I2 0%, two studies). DISCUSSION: Incidence of M. genitalium in very highly developed countries is similar to that for C. trachomatis, but concordance might be lower. Taken together with other evidence about age distribution and antimicrobial resistance in the two infections, M. genitalium is not the new chlamydia. Synthesised data about prevalence, incidence and persistence of M. genitalium infection are inconsistent. These findings can be used for mathematical modelling to investigate the dynamics of M. genitalium. REGISTRATION NUMBERS: CRD42015020420, CRD42015020405.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/psicologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/classificação , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 104-111, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961804

RESUMO

Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors that infect red blood cells of several mammal species. This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in 68 howler monkeys kept in captivity in São Paulo, a southeastern state in Brazil. In addition, possible hematological, biochemical and electrophoretic changes of serum proteins associated with the occurrence of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in captive primates were also investigated. The cPCR results showed that all sampled howler monkeys were negative for Bartonella spp. based on the gltA gene. The cPCR results indicated that 18 (26.47%) non-human primates (NHP) were positive for hemoplasmas based on the 16S rRNA gene. Monocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in hemoplasma-positive howlers (P < 0.05). Platelet counts decreased in nonhuman primates (NHP) positive for hemoplasmas (P < 0.05). The results from the blood serum proteinogram and biochemistry analyses were not significantly different between NHPs positive and negative for hemotrophic mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) based on the 16S rRNA gene positioned the obtained sequences close to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma kahanei'. The analysis of sequence diversity of the 16S rRNA gene showed that 5 different genotypes are circulating in NHP in Brazil and in the world; besides, a clear separation between the sequences of hemoplasmas that infect NHP of the Sapajus and Alouatta genus in Brazil was found, probably corresponding to two different species. The pathogenic potential of this hemoplasma species in NHP should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Alouatta , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 148-153, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961812

RESUMO

Mycoplasma wenyonii, a hemoplasma infecting cattle, was never detected in France. In 2014, evocative inclusions were observed in erythrocytes from cattle presenting milk drops, anemia, and edema in Brittany (France). A survey was then initiated to investigate the epidemiological situation and correlate mycoplasma detection with clinical signs. For this purpose, a new PCR assay targeting polC gene was designed. Comparative results with published PCR assays place this new one as more specific, allowing a one-step diagnosis without further sequencing. A total of 181 cows were included in this study and 4.97% (n = 9) were positive, resulting in the first molecular identification of M. wenyonii in France. All positive animals presented anemia, edema and milk drop. When selecting animals presenting evocative clinical signs, the prevalence of M. wenyonii in Brittany was estimated to 25.6%. Further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of the infection, the implication of arthropods and the existence of asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , França/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência
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